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LS(1)                                     User Commands                                     LS(1)



NAME
       ls - list directory contents

SYNOPSIS
       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION
       List  information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).  Sort entries alpha‐
       betically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort is specified.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -a, --all
              do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

       --author
              with -l, print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
              print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

       --block-size=SIZE
              scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g., '--block-size=M'  prints  sizes  in
              units of 1,048,576 bytes; see SIZE format below

       -B, --ignore-backups
              do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status infor‐
              mation); with -l: show ctime and sort by name; otherwise:  sort  by  ctime,  newest
              first

       -C     list entries by columns

       --color[=WHEN]
              colorize  the  output; WHEN can be 'never', 'auto', or 'always' (the default); more
              info below

       -d, --directory
              list directories themselves, not their contents

       -D, --dired
              generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

       -F, --classify
              append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

       --file-type
              likewise, except do not append '*'

       --format=WORD
              across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l,  verti‐
              cal -C

       --full-time
              like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

       --group-directories-first
              group directories before files;

              can  be  augmented  with  a --sort option, but any use of --sort=none (-U) disables
              grouping

       -G, --no-group
              in a long listing, don't print group names

       -h, --human-readable
              with -l and/or -s, print human readable sizes (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
              follow symbolic links listed on the command line

       --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
              follow each command line symbolic link

              that points to a directory

       --hide=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)

       --indicator-style=WORD
              append indicator with style WORD  to  entry  names:  none  (default),  slash  (-p),
              file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
              print the index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k, --kibibytes
              default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
              when  showing  file  information for a symbolic link, show information for the file
              the link references rather than for the link itself

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
              print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters specially)

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
              append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
              print ? instead of nongraphic characters

       --show-control-chars
              show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is 'ls' and output is
              a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
              enclose entry names in double quotes

       --quoting-style=WORD
              use  quoting  style  WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c,
              escape

       -r, --reverse
              reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
              list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
              print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size

       --sort=WORD
              sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S), time (-t), version (-v), exten‐
              sion (-X)

       --time=WORD
              with -l, show time as WORD instead of default modification time: atime or access or
              use (-u) ctime or status (-c); also use specified time as sort key if --sort=time

       --time-style=STYLE
              with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, or +FORMAT;
              FORMAT  is  interpreted  like in 'date'; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, then
              FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE  is  pre‐
              fixed with 'posix-', STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

       -t     sort by modification time, newest first

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with  -lt:  sort  by,  and show, access time; with -l: show access time and sort by
              name; otherwise: sort by access time

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

       -w, --width=COLS
              assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -Z, --context
              print any security context of each file

       -1     list one file per line

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is  10*1024).   Units  are
       K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y (powers of 1024) or KB,MB,... (powers of 1000).

       Using  color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with --color=never.
       With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when standard output is connected to a termi‐
       nal.   The LS_COLORS environment variable can change the settings.  Use the dircolors com‐
       mand to set it.

   Exit status:
       0      if OK,

       1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

AUTHOR
       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS
       GNU coreutils online help: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
       Report ls translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright © 2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+:  GNU  GPL  version  3  or
       later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This  is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There is NO WARRANTY,
       to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO
       Full documentation at: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/ls>
       or available locally via: info '(coreutils) ls invocation'



GNU coreutils 8.23                          March 2015                                      LS(1)


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