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 man : emacs Command: man perldoc info search(apropos)   File: emacs, Node: Top, Next: Distrib, Prev: (dir), Up: (dir) The Emacs Editor **************** Emacs is the extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time display editor. This Info file describes how to edit with Emacs and some of how to customize it; it corresponds to GNU Emacs version 22.3. To learn more about the Info documentation system, type h', and Emacs will take you to a programmed instruction sequence for the Info commands. For information on extending Emacs, see *note Emacs Lisp: (elisp)Top. * Menu: * Distrib:: How to get the latest Emacs distribution. * Copying:: The GNU General Public License gives you permission to redistribute GNU Emacs on certain terms; it also explains that there is no warranty. * GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation. * Intro:: An introduction to Emacs concepts. * Glossary:: Terms used in this manual. * Antinews:: Information about Emacs version 21. * Mac OS:: Using Emacs in the Mac. * Microsoft Windows:: Using Emacs on Microsoft Windows and MS-DOS. * Manifesto:: What's GNU? Gnu's Not Unix! * Acknowledgments:: Major contributors to GNU Emacs. Indexes (each index contains a large menu) * Key Index:: An item for each standard Emacs key sequence. * Option Index:: An item for every command-line option. * Command Index:: An item for each command name. * Variable Index:: An item for each documented variable. * Concept Index:: An item for each concept. Important General Concepts * Screen:: How to interpret what you see on the screen. * User Input:: Kinds of input events (characters, buttons, function keys). * Keys:: Key sequences: what you type to request one editing action. * Commands:: Named functions run by key sequences to do editing. * Text Characters:: Character set for text (the contents of buffers and strings). * Entering Emacs:: Starting Emacs from the shell. * Exiting:: Stopping or killing Emacs. * Emacs Invocation:: Hairy startup options. Fundamental Editing Commands * Basic:: The most basic editing commands. * Minibuffer:: Entering arguments that are prompted for. * M-x:: Invoking commands by their names. * Help:: Commands for asking Emacs about its commands. Important Text-Changing Commands * Mark:: The mark: how to delimit a region'' of text. * Killing:: Killing (cutting) text. * Yanking:: Recovering killed text. Moving text. (Pasting.) * Accumulating Text:: Other ways of copying text. * Rectangles:: Operating on the text inside a rectangle on the screen. * Registers:: Saving a text string or a location in the buffer. * Display:: Controlling what text is displayed. * Search:: Finding or replacing occurrences of a string. * Fixit:: Commands especially useful for fixing typos. * Keyboard Macros:: A keyboard macro records a sequence of keystrokes to be replayed with a single command. Major Structures of Emacs * Files:: All about handling files. * Buffers:: Multiple buffers; editing several files at once. * Windows:: Viewing two pieces of text at once. * Frames:: Running the same Emacs session in multiple X windows. * International:: Using non-ASCII character sets (the MULE features). Advanced Features * Major Modes:: Text mode vs. Lisp mode vs. C mode ... * Indentation:: Editing the white space at the beginnings of lines. * Text:: Commands and modes for editing English. * Programs:: Commands and modes for editing programs. * Building:: Compiling, running and debugging programs. * Maintaining:: Features for maintaining large programs. * Abbrevs:: How to define text abbreviations to reduce the number of characters you must type. * Picture Mode:: Editing pictures made up of characters using the quarter-plane screen model. * Sending Mail:: Sending mail in Emacs. * Rmail:: Reading mail in Emacs. * Dired:: You can edit'' a directory to manage files in it. * Calendar/Diary:: The calendar and diary facilities. * Gnus:: How to read netnews with Emacs. * Shell:: Executing shell commands from Emacs. * Emacs Server:: Using Emacs as an editing server for mail', etc. * Printing:: Printing hardcopies of buffers or regions. * Sorting:: Sorting lines, paragraphs or pages within Emacs. * Narrowing:: Restricting display and editing to a portion of the buffer. * Two-Column:: Splitting apart columns to edit them in side-by-side windows. * Editing Binary Files::Using Hexl mode to edit binary files. * Saving Emacs Sessions:: Saving Emacs state from one session to the next. * Recursive Edit:: A command can allow you to do editing "within the command". This is called a "recursive editing level". * Emulation:: Emulating some other editors with Emacs. * Hyperlinking:: Following links in buffers. * Dissociated Press:: Dissociating text for fun. * Amusements:: Various games and hacks. * Customization:: Modifying the behavior of Emacs. * X Resources:: X resources for customizing Emacs. Recovery from Problems * Quitting:: Quitting and aborting. * Lossage:: What to do if Emacs is hung or malfunctioning. * Bugs:: How and when to report a bug. * Contributing:: How to contribute improvements to Emacs. * Service:: How to get help for your own Emacs needs. --- The Detailed Node Listing --- --------------------------------- Here are some other nodes which are really inferiors of the ones already listed, mentioned here so you can get to them in one step: The Organization of the Screen * Point:: The place in the text where editing commands operate. * Echo Area:: Short messages appear at the bottom of the screen. * Mode Line:: Interpreting the mode line. * Menu Bar:: How to use the menu bar. Basic Editing Commands * Inserting Text:: Inserting text by simply typing it. * Moving Point:: How to move the cursor to the place where you want to change something. * Erasing:: Deleting and killing text. * Basic Undo:: Undoing recent changes in the text. * Basic Files:: Visiting, creating, and saving files. * Basic Help:: Asking what a character does. * Blank Lines:: Commands to make or delete blank lines. * Continuation Lines:: Lines too wide for the screen. * Position Info:: What page, line, row, or column is point on? * Arguments:: Numeric arguments for repeating a command. * Repeating:: A short-cut for repeating the previous command. The Minibuffer * Minibuffer File:: Entering file names with the minibuffer. * Minibuffer Edit:: How to edit in the minibuffer. * Completion:: An abbreviation facility for minibuffer input. * Minibuffer History:: Reusing recent minibuffer arguments. * Repetition:: Re-executing commands that used the minibuffer. Completion * Example: Completion Example. Examples of using completion. * Commands: Completion Commands. A list of completion commands. * Strict Completion:: Different types of completion. * Options: Completion Options. Options for completion. Help * Help Summary:: Brief list of all Help commands. * Key Help:: Asking what a key does in Emacs. * Name Help:: Asking about a command, variable or function name. * Apropos:: Asking what pertains to a given topic. * Help Mode:: Special features of Help mode and Help buffers. * Library Keywords:: Finding Lisp libraries by keywords (topics). * Language Help:: Help relating to international language support. * Misc Help:: Other help commands. * Help Files:: Commands to display pre-written help files. * Help Echo:: Help on active text and tooltips (balloon help') The Mark and the Region * Setting Mark:: Commands to set the mark. * Transient Mark:: How to make Emacs highlight the region-- when there is one. * Momentary Mark:: Enabling Transient Mark mode momentarily. * Using Region:: Summary of ways to operate on contents of the region. * Marking Objects:: Commands to put region around textual units. * Mark Ring:: Previous mark positions saved so you can go back there. * Global Mark Ring:: Previous mark positions in various buffers. Killing and Moving Text * Deletion:: Commands for deleting small amounts of text and blank areas. * Killing by Lines:: How to kill entire lines of text at one time. * Other Kill Commands:: Commands to kill large regions of text and syntactic units such as words and sentences. * CUA Bindings:: Using C-x, C-c, C-v for copy and paste, with enhanced rectangle support. Yanking * Kill Ring:: Where killed text is stored. Basic yanking. * Appending Kills:: Several kills in a row all yank together. * Earlier Kills:: Yanking something killed some time ago. Registers * RegPos:: Saving positions in registers. * RegText:: Saving text in registers. * RegRect:: Saving rectangles in registers. * RegConfig:: Saving window configurations in registers. * RegNumbers:: Numbers in registers. * RegFiles:: File names in registers. * Bookmarks:: Bookmarks are like registers, but persistent. Controlling the Display * Scrolling:: Moving text up and down in a window. * Auto Scrolling:: Redisplay scrolls text automatically when needed. * Horizontal Scrolling:: Moving text left and right in a window. * Follow Mode:: Follow mode lets two windows scroll as one. * Faces:: How to change the display style using faces. * Standard Faces:: Emacs' predefined faces. * Font Lock:: Minor mode for syntactic highlighting using faces. * Highlight Interactively:: Tell Emacs what text to highlight. * Fringes:: Enabling or disabling window fringes. * Displaying Boundaries:: Displaying top and bottom of the buffer. * Useless Whitespace:: Showing possibly-spurious trailing whitespace. * Selective Display:: Hiding lines with lots of indentation. * Optional Mode Line:: Optional mode line display features. * Text Display:: How text characters are normally displayed. * Cursor Display:: Features for displaying the cursor. * Line Truncation:: Truncating lines to fit the screen width instead of continuing them to multiple screen lines. * Display Custom:: Information on variables for customizing display. Searching and Replacement * Incremental Search:: Search happens as you type the string. * Nonincremental Search:: Specify entire string and then search. * Word Search:: Search for sequence of words. * Regexp Search:: Search for match for a regexp. * Regexps:: Syntax of regular expressions. * Regexp Backslash:: Regular expression constructs starting with \'. * Regexp Example:: A complex regular expression explained. * Search Case:: To ignore case while searching, or not. * Replace:: Search, and replace some or all matches. * Other Repeating Search:: Operating on all matches for some regexp. Incremental Search * Basic Isearch:: Basic incremental search commands. * Repeat Isearch:: Searching for the same string again. * Error in Isearch:: When your string is not found. * Special Isearch:: Special input in incremental search. * Non-ASCII Isearch:: How to search for non-ASCII characters. * Isearch Yank:: Commands that grab text into the search string or else edit the search string. * Highlight Isearch:: Isearch highlights the other possible matches. * Isearch Scroll:: Scrolling during an incremental search. * Slow Isearch:: Incremental search features for slow terminals. Replacement Commands * Unconditional Replace:: Replacing all matches for a string. * Regexp Replace:: Replacing all matches for a regexp. * Replacement and Case:: How replacements preserve case of letters. * Query Replace:: How to use querying. Commands for Fixing Typos * Undo:: Full details of Emacs undo commands. * Kill Errors:: Commands to kill a batch of recently entered text. * Transpose:: Exchanging two characters, words, lines, lists... * Fixing Case:: Correcting case of last word entered. * Spelling:: Apply spelling checker to a word or a whole buffer. Keyboard Macros * Basic Keyboard Macro:: Defining and running keyboard macros. * Keyboard Macro Ring:: Where previous keyboard macros are saved. * Keyboard Macro Counter:: Inserting incrementing numbers in macros. * Keyboard Macro Query:: Making keyboard macros do different things each time. * Save Keyboard Macro:: Giving keyboard macros names; saving them in files. * Edit Keyboard Macro:: Editing keyboard macros. * Keyboard Macro Step-Edit:: Interactively executing and editing a keyboard macro. File Handling * File Names:: How to type and edit file-name arguments. * Visiting:: Visiting a file prepares Emacs to edit the file. * Saving:: Saving makes your changes permanent. * Reverting:: Reverting cancels all the changes not saved. * Autorevert:: Auto Reverting non-file buffers. * Auto Save:: Auto Save periodically protects against loss of data. * File Aliases:: Handling multiple names for one file. * Version Control:: Version control systems (RCS, CVS and SCCS). * Directories:: Creating, deleting, and listing file directories. * Comparing Files:: Finding where two files differ. * Diff Mode:: Editing diff output. * Misc File Ops:: Other things you can do on files. * Compressed Files:: Accessing compressed files. * File Archives:: Operating on tar, zip, jar etc. archive files. * Remote Files:: Accessing files on other sites. * Quoted File Names:: Quoting special characters in file names. * File Name Cache:: Completion against a list of files you often use. * File Conveniences:: Convenience Features for Finding Files. * Filesets:: Handling sets of files. Saving Files * Save Commands:: Commands for saving files. * Backup:: How Emacs saves the old version of your file. * Customize Save:: Customizing the saving of files. * Interlocking:: How Emacs protects against simultaneous editing of one file by two users. * File Shadowing:: Copying files to "shadows" automatically. * Time Stamps:: Emacs can update time stamps on saved files. Backup Files * One or Many: Numbered Backups. Whether to make one backup file or many. * Names: Backup Names. How backup files are named. * Deletion: Backup Deletion. Emacs deletes excess numbered backups. * Copying: Backup Copying. Backups can be made by copying or renaming. Auto-Saving: Protection Against Disasters * Files: Auto Save Files. The file where auto-saved changes are actually made until you save the file. * Control: Auto Save Control. Controlling when and how often to auto-save. * Recover:: Recovering text from auto-save files. Version Control * Introduction to VC:: How version control works in general. * VC Mode Line:: How the mode line shows version control status. * Basic VC Editing:: How to edit a file under version control. * Old Versions:: Examining and comparing old versions. * Secondary VC Commands:: The commands used a little less frequently. * Branches:: Multiple lines of development. * Remote Repositories:: Efficient access to remote CVS servers. * Snapshots:: Sets of file versions treated as a unit. * Miscellaneous VC:: Various other commands and features of VC. * Customizing VC:: Variables that change VC's behavior. Using Multiple Buffers * Select Buffer:: Creating a new buffer or reselecting an old one. * List Buffers:: Getting a list of buffers that exist. * Misc Buffer:: Renaming; changing read-onliness; copying text. * Kill Buffer:: Killing buffers you no longer need. * Several Buffers:: How to go through the list of all buffers and operate variously on several of them. * Indirect Buffers:: An indirect buffer shares the text of another buffer. * Buffer Convenience:: Convenience and customization features for buffer handling. Multiple Windows * Basic Window:: Introduction to Emacs windows. * Split Window:: New windows are made by splitting existing windows. * Other Window:: Moving to another window or doing something to it. * Pop Up Window:: Finding a file or buffer in another window. * Force Same Window:: Forcing certain buffers to appear in the selected window rather than in another window. * Change Window:: Deleting windows and changing their sizes. * Window Convenience:: Convenience functions for window handling. Frames and Graphical Displays * Cut and Paste:: Mouse commands for cut and paste. * Mouse References:: Using the mouse to select an item from a list. * Menu Mouse Clicks:: Mouse clicks that bring up menus. * Mode Line Mouse:: Mouse clicks on the mode line. * Creating Frames:: Creating additional Emacs frames with various contents. * Frame Commands:: Iconifying, deleting, and switching frames. * Speedbar:: How to make and use a speedbar frame. * Multiple Displays:: How one Emacs job can talk to several displays. * Special Buffer Frames:: You can make certain buffers have their own frames. * Frame Parameters:: Changing the colors and other modes of frames. * Scroll Bars:: How to enable and disable scroll bars; how to use them. * Wheeled Mice:: Using mouse wheels for scrolling. * Drag and Drop:: Using drag and drop to open files and insert text. * Menu Bars:: Enabling and disabling the menu bar. * Tool Bars:: Enabling and disabling the tool bar. * Dialog Boxes:: Controlling use of dialog boxes. * Tooltips:: Showing "tooltips", AKA "balloon help" for active text. * Mouse Avoidance:: Moving the mouse pointer out of the way. * Non-Window Terminals:: Multiple frames on terminals that show only one. * Text-Only Mouse:: Using the mouse in text-only terminals. International Character Set Support * International Chars:: Basic concepts of multibyte characters. * Enabling Multibyte:: Controlling whether to use multibyte characters. * Language Environments:: Setting things up for the language you use. * Input Methods:: Entering text characters not on your keyboard. * Select Input Method:: Specifying your choice of input methods. * Multibyte Conversion:: How single-byte characters convert to multibyte. * Coding Systems:: Character set conversion when you read and write files, and so on. * Recognize Coding:: How Emacs figures out which conversion to use. * Specify Coding:: Specifying a file's coding system explicitly. * Output Coding:: Choosing coding systems for output. * Text Coding:: Choosing conversion to use for file text. * Communication Coding:: Coding systems for interprocess communication. * File Name Coding:: Coding systems for file _names_. * Terminal Coding:: Specifying coding systems for converting terminal input and output. * Fontsets:: Fontsets are collections of fonts that cover the whole spectrum of characters. * Defining Fontsets:: Defining a new fontset. * Undisplayable Characters::When characters don't display. * Unibyte Mode:: You can pick one European character set to use without multibyte characters. * Charsets:: How Emacs groups its internal character codes. Major Modes * Choosing Modes:: How major modes are specified or chosen. Indentation * Indentation Commands:: Various commands and techniques for indentation. * Tab Stops:: You can set arbitrary "tab stops" and then indent to the next tab stop when you want to. * Just Spaces:: You can request indentation using just spaces. Commands for Human Languages * Words:: Moving over and killing words. * Sentences:: Moving over and killing sentences. * Paragraphs:: Moving over paragraphs. * Pages:: Moving over pages. * Filling:: Filling or justifying text. * Case:: Changing the case of text. * Text Mode:: The major modes for editing text files. * Outline Mode:: Editing outlines. * TeX Mode:: Editing input to the formatter TeX. * HTML Mode:: Editing HTML, SGML, and XML files. * Nroff Mode:: Editing input to the formatter nroff. * Formatted Text:: Editing formatted text directly in WYSIWYG fashion. * Text Based Tables:: Editing text-based tables in WYSIWYG fashion. Filling Text * Auto Fill:: Auto Fill mode breaks long lines automatically. * Refill:: Keeping paragraphs filled. * Fill Commands:: Commands to refill paragraphs and center lines. * Fill Prefix:: Filling paragraphs that are indented or in a comment, etc. * Adaptive Fill:: How Emacs can determine the fill prefix automatically. * Longlines:: Editing text with very long lines. Outline Mode * Format: Outline Format. What the text of an outline looks like. * Motion: Outline Motion. Special commands for moving through outlines. * Visibility: Outline Visibility. Commands to control what is visible. * Views: Outline Views. Outlines and multiple views. * Foldout:: Folding means zooming in on outlines. TeX Mode * Editing: TeX Editing. Special commands for editing in TeX mode. * LaTeX: LaTeX Editing. Additional commands for LaTeX input files. * Printing: TeX Print. Commands for printing part of a file with TeX. * Misc: TeX Misc. Customization of TeX mode, and related features. Editing Formatted Text * Requesting Formatted Text:: Entering and exiting Enriched mode. * Hard and Soft Newlines:: There are two different kinds of newlines. * Editing Format Info:: How to edit text properties. * Faces: Format Faces. Bold, italic, underline, etc. * Color: Format Colors. Changing the color of text. * Indent: Format Indentation. Changing the left and right margins. * Justification: Format Justification. Centering, setting text flush with the left or right margin, etc. * Other: Format Properties. The "special" text properties submenu. * Forcing Enriched Mode:: How to force use of Enriched mode. Editing Text-based Tables * Table Definition:: What is a text based table. * Table Creation:: How to create a table. * Table Recognition:: How to activate and deactivate tables. * Cell Commands:: Cell-oriented commands in a table. * Cell Justification:: Justifying cell contents. * Row Commands:: Manipulating rows of table cell. * Column Commands:: Manipulating columns of table cell. * Fixed Width Mode:: Fixing cell width. * Table Conversion:: Converting between plain text and tables. * Measuring Tables:: Analyzing table dimension. * Table Misc:: Table miscellany. Editing Programs * Program Modes:: Major modes for editing programs. * Defuns:: Commands to operate on major top-level parts of a program. * Program Indent:: Adjusting indentation to show the nesting. * Parentheses:: Commands that operate on parentheses. * Comments:: Inserting, killing, and aligning comments. * Documentation:: Getting documentation of functions you plan to call. * Hideshow:: Displaying blocks selectively. * Symbol Completion:: Completion on symbol names of your program or language. * Glasses:: Making identifiersLikeThis more readable. * Misc for Programs:: Other Emacs features useful for editing programs. * C Modes:: Special commands of C, C++, Objective-C, Java, and Pike modes. * Asm Mode:: Asm mode and its special features. * Fortran:: Fortran mode and its special features. Top-Level Definitions, or Defuns * Left Margin Paren:: An open-paren or similar opening delimiter starts a defun if it is at the left margin. * Moving by Defuns:: Commands to move over or mark a major definition. * Imenu:: Making buffer indexes as menus. * Which Function:: Which Function mode shows which function you are in. Indentation for Programs * Basic Indent:: Indenting a single line. * Multi-line Indent:: Commands to reindent many lines at once. * Lisp Indent:: Specifying how each Lisp function should be indented. * C Indent:: Extra features for indenting C and related modes. * Custom C Indent:: Controlling indentation style for C and related modes. Commands for Editing with Parentheses * Expressions:: Expressions with balanced parentheses. * Moving by Parens:: Commands for moving up, down and across in the structure of parentheses. * Matching:: Insertion of a close-delimiter flashes matching open. Manipulating Comments * Comment Commands:: Inserting, killing, and aligning comments. * Multi-Line Comments:: Commands for adding and editing multi-line comments. * Options for Comments::Customizing the comment features. Documentation Lookup * Info Lookup:: Looking up library functions and commands in Info files. * Man Page:: Looking up man pages of library functions and commands. * Lisp Doc:: Looking up Emacs Lisp functions, etc. C and Related Modes * Motion in C:: Commands to move by C statements, etc. * Electric C:: Colon and other chars can automatically reindent. * Hungry Delete:: A more powerful DEL command. * Other C Commands:: Filling comments, viewing expansion of macros, and other neat features. Compiling and Testing Programs * Compilation:: Compiling programs in languages other than Lisp (C, Pascal, etc.). * Compilation Mode:: The mode for visiting compiler errors. * Compilation Shell:: Customizing your shell properly for use in the compilation buffer. * Grep Searching:: Searching with grep. * Flymake:: Finding syntax errors on the fly. * Debuggers:: Running symbolic debuggers for non-Lisp programs. * Executing Lisp:: Various modes for editing Lisp programs, with different facilities for running the Lisp programs. * Lisp Libraries:: Creating Lisp programs to run in Emacs. * Lisp Eval:: Executing a single Lisp expression in Emacs. * Lisp Interaction:: Executing Lisp in an Emacs buffer. * External Lisp:: Communicating through Emacs with a separate Lisp. Running Debuggers Under Emacs * Starting GUD:: How to start a debugger subprocess. * Debugger Operation:: Connection between the debugger and source buffers. * Commands of GUD:: Key bindings for common commands. * GUD Customization:: Defining your own commands for GUD. * GDB Graphical Interface:: An enhanced mode that uses GDB features to implement a graphical debugging environment through Emacs. Maintaining Large Programs * Change Log:: Maintaining a change history for your program. * Format of ChangeLog:: What the change log file looks like. * Tags:: Go directly to any function in your program in one command. Tags remembers which file it is in. * Emerge:: A convenient way of merging two versions of a program. Tags Tables * Tag Syntax:: Tag syntax for various types of code and text files. * Create Tags Table:: Creating a tags table with etags'. * Etags Regexps:: Create arbitrary tags using regular expressions. * Select Tags Table:: How to visit a tags table. * Find Tag:: Commands to find the definition of a specific tag. * Tags Search:: Using a tags table for searching and replacing. * List Tags:: Listing and finding tags defined in a file. Abbrevs * Abbrev Concepts:: Fundamentals of defined abbrevs. * Defining Abbrevs:: Defining an abbrev, so it will expand when typed. * Expanding Abbrevs:: Controlling expansion: prefixes, canceling expansion. * Editing Abbrevs:: Viewing or editing the entire list of defined abbrevs. * Saving Abbrevs:: Saving the entire list of abbrevs for another session. * Dynamic Abbrevs:: Abbreviations for words already in the buffer. * Dabbrev Customization:: What is a word, for dynamic abbrevs. Case handling. Editing Pictures * Basic Picture:: Basic concepts and simple commands of Picture Mode. * Insert in Picture:: Controlling direction of cursor motion after "self-inserting" characters. * Tabs in Picture:: Various features for tab stops and indentation. * Rectangles in Picture:: Clearing and superimposing rectangles. Sending Mail * Mail Format:: Format of the mail being composed. * Mail Headers:: Details of permitted mail header fields. * Mail Aliases:: Abbreviating and grouping mail addresses. * Mail Mode:: Special commands for editing mail being composed. * Mail Amusements:: Distract the NSA's attention; add a fortune to a msg. * Mail Methods:: Using alternative mail-composition methods. Reading Mail with Rmail * Rmail Basics:: Basic concepts of Rmail, and simple use. * Rmail Scrolling:: Scrolling through a message. * Rmail Motion:: Moving to another message. * Rmail Deletion:: Deleting and expunging messages. * Rmail Inbox:: How mail gets into the Rmail file. * Rmail Files:: Using multiple Rmail files. * Rmail Output:: Copying message out to files. * Rmail Labels:: Classifying messages by labeling them. * Rmail Attributes:: Certain standard labels, called attributes. * Rmail Reply:: Sending replies to messages you are viewing. * Rmail Summary:: Summaries show brief info on many messages. * Rmail Sorting:: Sorting messages in Rmail. * Rmail Display:: How Rmail displays a message; customization. * Rmail Coding:: How Rmail handles decoding character sets. * Rmail Editing:: Editing message text and headers in Rmail. * Rmail Digest:: Extracting the messages from a digest message. * Out of Rmail:: Converting an Rmail file to mailbox format. * Rmail Rot13:: Reading messages encoded in the rot13 code. * Movemail:: More details of fetching new mail. * Remote Mailboxes:: Retrieving Mail from Remote Mailboxes. * Other Mailbox Formats:: Retrieving Mail from Local Mailboxes in Various Formats Dired, the Directory Editor * Dired Enter:: How to invoke Dired. * Dired Navigation:: How to move in the Dired buffer. * Dired Deletion:: Deleting files with Dired. * Flagging Many Files:: Flagging files based on their names. * Dired Visiting:: Other file operations through Dired. * Marks vs Flags:: Flagging for deletion vs marking. * Operating on Files:: How to copy, rename, print, compress, etc. either one file or several files. * Shell Commands in Dired:: Running a shell command on the marked files. * Transforming File Names:: Using patterns to rename multiple files. * Comparison in Dired:: Running diff' by way of Dired. * Subdirectories in Dired:: Adding subdirectories to the Dired buffer. * Subdir Switches:: Subdirectory switches in Dired. * Subdirectory Motion:: Moving across subdirectories, and up and down. * Hiding Subdirectories:: Making subdirectories visible or invisible. * Dired Updating:: Discarding lines for files of no interest. * Dired and Find:: Using find' to choose the files for Dired. * Wdired:: Operating on files by editing the Dired buffer. * Image-Dired:: Viewing image thumbnails in Dired * Misc Dired Features:: Various other features. The Calendar and the Diary * Calendar Motion:: Moving through the calendar; selecting a date. * Scroll Calendar:: Bringing earlier or later months onto the screen. * Counting Days:: How many days are there between two dates? * General Calendar:: Exiting or recomputing the calendar. * Writing Calendar Files:: Writing calendars to files of various formats. * Holidays:: Displaying dates of holidays. * Sunrise/Sunset:: Displaying local times of sunrise and sunset. * Lunar Phases:: Displaying phases of the moon. * Other Calendars:: Converting dates to other calendar systems. * Diary:: Displaying events from your diary. * Appointments:: Reminders when it's time to do something. * Importing Diary:: Converting diary events to/from other formats. * Daylight Saving:: How to specify when daylight saving time is active. * Time Intervals:: Keeping track of time intervals. * Advanced Calendar/Diary Usage:: Advanced Calendar/Diary customization. Movement in the Calendar * Calendar Unit Motion:: Moving by days, weeks, months, and years. * Move to Beginning or End:: Moving to start/end of weeks, months, and years. * Specified Dates:: Moving to the current date or another specific date. Conversion To and From Other Calendars * Calendar Systems:: The calendars Emacs understands (aside from Gregorian). * To Other Calendar:: Converting the selected date to various calendars. * From Other Calendar:: Moving to a date specified in another calendar. * Mayan Calendar:: Moving to a date specified in a Mayan calendar. The Diary * Displaying the Diary:: Viewing diary entries and associated calendar dates. * Format of Diary File:: Entering events in your diary. * Date Formats:: Various ways you can specify dates. * Adding to Diary:: Commands to create diary entries. * Special Diary Entries:: Anniversaries, blocks of dates, cyclic entries, etc. Gnus * Buffers of Gnus:: The group, summary, and article buffers. * Gnus Startup:: What you should know about starting Gnus. * Summary of Gnus:: A short description of the basic Gnus commands. Running Shell Commands from Emacs * Single Shell:: How to run one shell command and return. * Interactive Shell:: Permanent shell taking input via Emacs. * Shell Mode:: Special Emacs commands used with permanent shell. * Shell Prompts:: Two ways to recognize shell prompts. * Shell History:: Repeating previous commands in a shell buffer. * Directory Tracking:: Keeping track when the subshell changes directory. * Shell Options:: Options for customizing Shell mode. * Terminal emulator:: An Emacs window as a terminal emulator. * Term Mode:: Special Emacs commands used in Term mode. * Paging in Term:: Paging in the terminal emulator. * Remote Host:: Connecting to another computer. Using Emacs as a Server * Invoking emacsclient:: Emacs client startup options. Printing Hard Copies * PostScript:: Printing buffers or regions as PostScript. * PostScript Variables:: Customizing the PostScript printing commands. * Printing Package:: An optional advanced printing interface. Hyperlinking and Navigation Features * Browse-URL:: Following URLs. * Goto-address:: Activating URLs. * FFAP:: Finding files etc. at point. Customization * Minor Modes:: Each minor mode is one feature you can turn on independently of any others. * Easy Customization:: Convenient way to browse and change user options. * Variables:: Many Emacs commands examine Emacs variables to decide what to do; by setting variables, you can control their functioning. * Key Bindings:: The keymaps say what command each key runs. By changing them, you can "redefine keys". * Syntax:: The syntax table controls how words and expressions are parsed. * Init File:: How to write common customizations in the .emacs' file. Variables * Examining:: Examining or setting one variable's value. * Hooks:: Hook variables let you specify programs for parts of Emacs to run on particular occasions. * Locals:: Per-buffer values of variables. * File Variables:: How files can specify variable values. Customizing Key Bindings * Keymaps:: Generalities. The global keymap. * Prefix Keymaps:: Keymaps for prefix keys. * Local Keymaps:: Major and minor modes have their own keymaps. * Minibuffer Maps:: The minibuffer uses its own local keymaps. * Rebinding:: How to redefine one key's meaning conveniently. * Init Rebinding:: Rebinding keys with your init file, .emacs'. * Function Keys:: Rebinding terminal function keys. * Named ASCII Chars:: Distinguishing from C-i, and so on. * Mouse Buttons:: Rebinding mouse buttons in Emacs. * Disabling:: Disabling a command means confirmation is required before it can be executed. This is done to protect beginners from surprises. The Init File, ~/.emacs' * Init Syntax:: Syntax of constants in Emacs Lisp. * Init Examples:: How to do some things with an init file. * Terminal Init:: Each terminal type can have an init file. * Find Init:: How Emacs finds the init file. * Init Non-ASCII:: Using non-ASCII characters in an init file. Dealing with Emacs Trouble * DEL Does Not Delete:: What to do if doesn't delete. * Stuck Recursive:: [...]' in mode line around the parentheses. * Screen Garbled:: Garbage on the screen. * Text Garbled:: Garbage in the text. * Memory Full:: How to cope when you run out of memory. * After a Crash:: Recovering editing in an Emacs session that crashed. * Emergency Escape:: Emergency escape--- What to do if Emacs stops responding. * Total Frustration:: When you are at your wits' end. Reporting Bugs * Bug Criteria:: Have you really found a bug? * Understanding Bug Reporting:: How to report a bug effectively. * Checklist:: Steps to follow for a good bug report. * Sending Patches:: How to send a patch for GNU Emacs. Command Line Arguments for Emacs Invocation * Action Arguments:: Arguments to visit files, load libraries, and call functions. * Initial Options:: Arguments that take effect while starting Emacs. * Command Example:: Examples of using command line arguments. * Resume Arguments:: Specifying arguments when you resume a running Emacs. * Environment:: Environment variables that Emacs uses. * Display X:: Changing the default display and using remote login. * Font X:: Choosing a font for text, under X. * Colors:: Choosing display colors. * Window Size X:: Start-up window size, under X. * Borders X:: Internal and external borders, under X. * Title X:: Specifying the initial frame's title. * Icons X:: Choosing what sort of icon to use, under X. * Misc X:: Other display options. Environment Variables * General Variables:: Environment variables that all versions of Emacs use. * Misc Variables:: Certain system specific variables. * MS-Windows Registry:: An alternative to the environment on MS-Windows. X Options and Resources * Resources:: Using X resources with Emacs (in general). * Table of Resources:: Table of specific X resources that affect Emacs. * Face Resources:: X resources for customizing faces. * Lucid Resources:: X resources for Lucid menus. * LessTif Resources:: X resources for LessTif and Motif menus. * GTK resources:: Resources for GTK widgets. Emacs and Mac OS * Mac Input:: Keyboard and mouse input on Mac. * Mac International:: International character sets on Mac. * Mac Environment Variables:: Setting environment variables for Emacs. * Mac Directories:: Volumes and directories on Mac. * Mac Font Specs:: Specifying fonts on Mac. * Mac Functions:: Mac-specific Lisp functions. Emacs and Microsoft Windows/MS-DOS * Text and Binary:: Text files use CRLF to terminate lines. * Windows Files:: File-name conventions on Windows. * ls in Lisp:: Emulation of ls' for Dired. * Windows HOME:: Where Emacs looks for your .emacs'. * Windows Keyboard:: Windows-specific keyboard features. * Windows Mouse:: Windows-specific mouse features. * Windows Processes:: Running subprocesses on Windows. * Windows Printing:: How to specify the printer on MS-Windows. * Windows Misc:: Miscellaneous Windows features. * MS-DOS:: Using Emacs on MS-DOS (otherwise known as "MS-DOG"). File: emacs, Node: Distrib, Next: Intro, Prev: Top, Up: Top Distribution ************ GNU Emacs is "free software"; this means that everyone is free to use it and free to redistribute it on certain conditions. GNU Emacs is not in the public domain; it is copyrighted and there are restrictions on its distribution, but these restrictions are designed to permit everything that a good cooperating citizen would want to do. What is not allowed is to try to prevent others from further sharing any version of GNU Emacs that they might get from you. The precise conditions are found in the GNU General Public License that comes with Emacs and also appears in this manual(1). *Note Copying::. One way to get a copy of GNU Emacs is from someone else who has it. You need not ask for our permission to do so, or tell any one else; just copy it. If you have access to the Internet, you can get the latest distribution version of GNU Emacs by anonymous FTP; see http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs' on our website for more information. You may also receive GNU Emacs when you buy a computer. Computer manufacturers are free to distribute copies on the same terms that apply to everyone else. These terms require them to give you the full sources, including whatever changes they may have made, and to permit you to redistribute the GNU Emacs received from them under the usual terms of the General Public License. In other words, the program must be free for you when you get it, not just free for the manufacturer. You can also order copies of GNU Emacs from the Free Software Foundation. This is a convenient and reliable way to get a copy; it is also a good way to help fund our work. We also sell hardcopy versions of this manual and An Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp', by Robert J. Chassell. You can find an order form on our web site at http://www.gnu.org/order/order.html'. For further information, write to Free Software Foundation 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA The income from distribution fees goes to support the foundation's purpose: the development of new free software, and improvements to our existing programs including GNU Emacs. If you find GNU Emacs useful, please *send a donation* to the Free Software Foundation to support our work. Donations to the Free Software Foundation are tax deductible in the US. If you use GNU Emacs at your workplace, please suggest that the company make a donation. If company policy is unsympathetic to the idea of donating to charity, you might instead suggest ordering a CD-ROM from the Foundation occasionally, or subscribing to periodic updates. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) This manual is itself covered by the GNU Free Documentation License. This license is similar in spirit to the General Public License, but is more suitable for documentation. *Note GNU Free Documentation License::. File: emacs, Node: Copying, Next: GNU Free Documentation License, Prev: Service, Up: Top Appendix A GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE ************************************* Version 3, 29 June 2007 Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/' Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. Preamble ======== The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works. The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to any other work released this way by its authors. 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IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. 17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16. If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS =========================== How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs ============================================= If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found. ONE LINE TO GIVE THE PROGRAM'S NAME AND A BRIEF IDEA OF WHAT IT DOES. Copyright (C) YEAR NAME OF AUTHOR This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/'. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: PROGRAM Copyright (C) YEAR NAME OF AUTHOR This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type show w'. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type show c' for details. The hypothetical commands show w' and show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program's commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an "about box". You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/'. The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html'. File: emacs, Node: GNU Free Documentation License, Next: Emacs Invocation, Prev: Copying, Up: Top Appendix B GNU Free Documentation License ***************************************** Version 1.2, November 2002 Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. 0. PREAMBLE The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others. This License is a kind of "copyleft," which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software. We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference. 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document," below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you." You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law. A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language. A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them. The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none. The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words. A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque." 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For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text. A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements," "Dedications," "Endorsements," or "History.") To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition. The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License. 2. VERBATIM COPYING You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3. You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies. 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects. If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages. If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public. It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document. 4. MODIFICATIONS You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version: A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission. B. 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To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles. You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements," provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties-for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard. You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. 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The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work. In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements," and any sections Entitled "Dedications." You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements." 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects. You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document. 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate. 8. TRANSLATION Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail. If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements," "Dedications," or "History," the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title. 9. TERMINATION You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/. Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents ==================================================== To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page: Copyright (C) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License.'' If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this: with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation. If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software. File: emacs, Node: Intro, Next: Glossary, Prev: Distrib, Up: Top Introduction ************ You are reading about GNU Emacs, the GNU incarnation of the advanced, self-documenting, customizable, extensible editor Emacs. (The G' in GNU' is not silent.) We call Emacs advanced because it provides much more than simple insertion and deletion. It can control subprocesses, indent programs automatically, show two or more files at once, and edit formatted text. Emacs editing commands operate in terms of characters, words, lines, sentences, paragraphs, and pages, as well as expressions and comments in various programming languages. "Self-documenting" means that at any time you can type a special character, Control-h', to find out what your options are. You can also use it to find out what any command does, or to find all the commands that pertain to a topic. *Note Help::. "Customizable" means that you can alter Emacs commands' behavior in simple ways. For example, if you use a programming language in which comments start with <**' and end with **>', you can tell the Emacs comment manipulation commands to use those strings (*note Comments::). Another sort of customization is rearrangement of the command set. For example, you can rebind the basic cursor motion commands (up, down, left and right) to any keys on the keyboard that you find comfortable. *Note Customization::. "Extensible" means that you can go beyond simple customization and write entirely new commands--programs in the Lisp language to be run by Emacs's own Lisp interpreter. Emacs is an "on-line extensible" system, which means that it is divided into many functions that call each other, any of which can be redefined in the middle of an editing session. Almost any part of Emacs can be replaced without making a separate copy of all of Emacs. Most of the editing commands of Emacs are written in Lisp; the few exceptions could have been written in Lisp but use C instead for efficiency. Writing an extension is programming, but non-programmers can use it afterwards. *Note Emacs Lisp Intro: (eintr)Top, if you want to learn Emacs Lisp programming. When running on a graphical display, Emacs provides its own menus and convenient handling of mouse buttons. In addition, Emacs provides many of the benefits of a graphical display even on a text-only terminal. For instance, it can highlight parts of a file, display and edit several files at once, move text between files, and edit files while running shell commands. File: emacs, Node: Glossary, Next: Key Index, Prev: Intro, Up: Top Glossary ******** Abbrev An abbrev is a text string which expands into a different text string when present in the buffer. For example, you might define a few letters as an abbrev for a long phrase that you want to insert frequently. *Note Abbrevs::. Aborting Aborting means getting out of a recursive edit (q.v.). The commands C-]' and M-x top-level' are used for this. *Note Quitting::. Alt Alt is the name of a modifier bit which a keyboard input character may have. To make a character Alt, type it while holding down the key. Such characters are given names that start with Alt-' (usually written A-' for short). (Note that many terminals have a key labeled which is really a key.) *Note Alt: User Input. Argument See numeric argument.' ASCII character An ASCII character is either an ASCII control character or an ASCII printing character. *Note User Input::. ASCII control character An ASCII control character is the Control version of an upper-case letter, or the Control version of one of the characters @[\]^_?'. ASCII printing character ASCII printing characters include letters, digits, space, and these punctuation characters: !@#%^& *()_-+=|\~ {}[]:;"' <>,.?/'. Auto Fill Mode Auto Fill mode is a minor mode in which text that you insert is automatically broken into lines of a given maximum width. *Note Filling::. Auto Saving Auto saving is the practice of saving the contents of an Emacs buffer in a specially-named file, so that the information will not be lost if the buffer is lost due to a system error or user error. *Note Auto Save::. Autoloading Emacs automatically loads Lisp libraries when a Lisp program requests a function or a variable from those libraries. This is called autoloading'. *Note Lisp Libraries::. Backtrace A backtrace is a trace of a series of function calls showing how a program arrived to a certain point. It is used mainly for finding and correcting bugs (q.v.). Emacs can display a backtrace when it signals an error or when you type C-g' (see quitting'). *Note Checklist::. Backup File A backup file records the contents that a file had before the current editing session. Emacs makes backup files automatically to help you track down or cancel changes you later regret making. *Note Backup::. Balancing Parentheses Emacs can balance parentheses (or other matching delimiters) either manually or automatically. You do manual balancing with the commands to move over parenthetical groupings (*note Moving by Parens::). Automatic balancing works by blinking or highlighting the delimiter that matches the one you just inserted (*note Matching Parens: Matching.). Balanced Expressions A balanced expression is a syntactically recognizable expression, such as a symbol, number, string constant, block, or parenthesized expression in C. *Note Balanced Expressions: Expressions. Balloon Help See tooltips.' Base Buffer A base buffer is a buffer whose text is shared by an indirect buffer (q.v.). Bind To bind a key sequence means to give it a binding (q.v.). *Note Rebinding::. Binding A key sequence gets its meaning in Emacs by having a binding, which is a command (q.v.), a Lisp function that is run when the user types that sequence. *Note Binding: Commands. Customization often involves rebinding a character to a different command function. The bindings of all key sequences are recorded in the keymaps (q.v.). *Note Keymaps::. Blank Lines Blank lines are lines that contain only whitespace. Emacs has several commands for operating on the blank lines in the buffer. Bookmark Bookmarks are akin to registers (q.v.) in that they record positions in buffers to which you can return later. Unlike registers, bookmarks persist between Emacs sessions. Border A border is a thin space along the edge of the frame, used just for spacing, not for displaying anything. An Emacs frame has an ordinary external border, outside of everything including the menu bar, plus an internal border that surrounds the text windows and their scroll bars and separates them from the menu bar and tool bar. You can customize both borders with options and resources (*note Borders X::). Borders are not the same as fringes (q.v.). Buffer The buffer is the basic editing unit; one buffer corresponds to one text being edited. You can have several buffers, but at any time you are editing only one, the current buffer,' though several can be visible when you are using multiple windows (q.v.). Most buffers are visiting (q.v.) some file. *Note Buffers::. Buffer Selection History Emacs keeps a buffer selection history which records how recently each Emacs buffer has been selected. This is used for choosing a buffer to select. *Note Buffers::. Bug A bug is an incorrect or unreasonable behavior of a program, or inaccurate or confusing documentation. Emacs developers treat bug reports, both in Emacs code and its documentation, very seriously and ask you to report any bugs you find. *Note Bugs::. Button Down Event A button down event is the kind of input event generated right away when you press down on a mouse button. *Note Mouse Buttons::. By Default See default.' Byte Compilation See compilation.' C-' C-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for Control. *Note C-: User Input. C-M-' C-M-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for Control-Meta. *Note C-M-: User Input. Case Conversion Case conversion means changing text from upper case to lower case or vice versa. *Note Case::, for the commands for case conversion. Character Characters form the contents of an Emacs buffer; see *note Text Characters::. Also, key sequences (q.v.) are usually made up of characters (though they may include other input events as well). *Note User Input::. Character Set Emacs supports a number of character sets, each of which represents a particular alphabet or script. *Note International::. Character Terminal See text-only terminal.' Click Event A click event is the kind of input event generated when you press a mouse button and release it without moving the mouse. *Note Mouse Buttons::. Clipboard A clipboard is a buffer provided by the window system for transferring text between applications. On the X Window system, the clipboard is provided in addition to the primary selection (q.v.); on MS-Windows and Mac, the clipboard is used _instead_ of the primary selection. *Note Clipboard::. Coding System A coding system is an encoding for representing text characters in a file or in a stream of information. Emacs has the ability to convert text to or from a variety of coding systems when reading or writing it. *Note Coding Systems::. Command A command is a Lisp function specially defined to be able to serve as a key binding in Emacs. When you type a key sequence (q.v.), its binding (q.v.) is looked up in the relevant keymaps (q.v.) to find the command to run. *Note Commands::. Command History See minibuffer history.' Command Name A command name is the name of a Lisp symbol which is a command (*note Commands::). You can invoke any command by its name using M-x' (*note M-x: M-x.). Comment A comment is text in a program which is intended only for humans reading the program, and which is marked specially so that it will be ignored when the program is loaded or compiled. Emacs offers special commands for creating, aligning and killing comments. *Note Comments::. Common Lisp Common Lisp is a dialect of Lisp (q.v.) much larger and more powerful than Emacs Lisp. Emacs provides a subset of Common Lisp in the CL package. *Note Common Lisp: (cl)Top. Compilation Compilation is the process of creating an executable program from source code. Emacs has commands for compiling files of Emacs Lisp code (*note Byte Compilation: (elisp)Byte Compilation.) and programs in C and other languages (*note Compilation::). Complete Key A complete key is a key sequence which fully specifies one action to be performed by Emacs. For example, X' and C-f' and C-x m' are complete keys. Complete keys derive their meanings from being bound (q.v.) to commands (q.v.). Thus, X' is conventionally bound to a command to insert X' in the buffer; C-x m' is conventionally bound to a command to begin composing a mail message. *Note Keys::. Completion Completion is what Emacs does when it automatically fills out an abbreviation for a name into the entire name. Completion is done for minibuffer (q.v.) arguments when the set of possible valid inputs is known; for example, on command names, buffer names, and file names. Completion occurs when , or is typed. *Note Completion::. Continuation Line When a line of text is longer than the width of the window, it takes up more than one screen line when displayed. We say that the text line is continued, and all screen lines used for it after the first are called continuation lines. *Note Continuation Lines::. A related Emacs feature is filling' (q.v.). Control Character A control character is a character that you type by holding down the key. Some control characters also have their own keys, so that you can type them without using . For example, , , and are all control characters. *Note User Input::. Copyleft A copyleft is a notice giving the public legal permission to redistribute and modify a program or other work of art, but requiring modified versions to carry similar permission. Copyright is normally used to keep users divided and helpless; with copyleft we turn that around to empower users and encourage them to cooperate. The particular form of copyleft used by the GNU project is called the GNU General Public License. *Note Copying::. The or "control" key is what you hold down in order to enter a control character (q.v.). Current Buffer The current buffer in Emacs is the Emacs buffer on which most editing commands operate. You can select any Emacs buffer as the current one. *Note Buffers::. Current Line The current line is the line that point is on (*note Point::). Current Paragraph The current paragraph is the paragraph that point is in. If point is between two paragraphs, the current paragraph is the one that follows point. *Note Paragraphs::. Current Defun The current defun is the defun (q.v.) that point is in. If point is between defuns, the current defun is the one that follows point. *Note Defuns::. Cursor The cursor is the rectangle on the screen which indicates the position called point (q.v.) at which insertion and deletion takes place. The cursor is on or under the character that follows point. Often people speak of the cursor' when, strictly speaking, they mean point.' *Note Cursor: Point. Customization Customization is making minor changes in the way Emacs works. It is often done by setting variables (*note Variables::) or faces (*note Face Customization::), or by rebinding key sequences (*note Keymaps::). Cut and Paste See killing' and yanking.' Default Argument The default for an argument is the value that will be assumed if you do not specify one. When the minibuffer is used to read an argument, the default argument is used if you just type . *Note Minibuffer::. Default A default is the value that is used for a certain purpose if and when you do not specify a value to use. Default Directory When you specify a file name that does not start with /' or ~', it is interpreted relative to the current buffer's default directory. (On MS-Windows and MS-DOS, file names which start with a drive letter X:' are treated as absolute, not relative.) *Note Default Directory: Minibuffer File. Defun A defun is a major definition at the top level in a program. The name defun' comes from Lisp, where most such definitions use the construct defun'. *Note Defuns::. is a character that runs the command to delete one character of text before the cursor. It is typically either the key or the key, whichever one is easy to type. *Note DEL: Erasing. Deletion Deletion means erasing text without copying it into the kill ring (q.v.). The alternative is killing (q.v.). *Note Deletion: Killing. Deletion of Files Deleting a file means erasing it from the file system. *Note Misc File Ops: Misc File Ops. Deletion of Messages Deleting a message means flagging it to be eliminated from your mail file. Until you expunge (q.v.) the Rmail file, you can still undelete the messages you have deleted. *Note Rmail Deletion::. Deletion of Windows Deleting a window means eliminating it from the screen. Other windows expand to use up the space. The deleted window can never come back, but no actual text is thereby lost. *Note Windows::. Directory File directories are named collections in the file system, within which you can place individual files or subdirectories. *Note Directories::. Dired Dired is the Emacs facility that displays the contents of a file directory and allows you to "edit the directory," performing operations on the files in the directory. *Note Dired::. Disabled Command A disabled command is one that you may not run without special confirmation. The usual reason for disabling a command is that it is confusing for beginning users. *Note Disabling::. Down Event Short for button down event' (q.v.). Drag Event A drag event is the kind of input event generated when you press a mouse button, move the mouse, and then release the button. *Note Mouse Buttons::. Dribble File A dribble file is a file into which Emacs writes all the characters that you type on the keyboard. Dribble files are used to make a record for debugging Emacs bugs. Emacs does not make a dribble file unless you tell it to. *Note Bugs::. Echo Area The echo area is the bottom line of the screen, used for echoing the arguments to commands, for asking questions, and showing brief messages (including error messages). The messages are stored in the buffer *Messages*' so you can review them later. *Note Echo Area::. Echoing Echoing is acknowledging the receipt of input events by displaying them (in the echo area). Emacs never echoes single-character key sequences; longer key sequences echo only if you pause while typing them. Electric We say that a character is electric if it is normally self-inserting (q.v.), but the current major mode (q.v.) redefines it to do something else as well. For example, some programming language major modes define particular delimiter characters to reindent the line or insert one or more newlines in addition to self-insertion. End Of Line End of line is a character or a sequence of characters that indicate the end of a text line. On GNU and Unix systems, this is a newline (q.v.), but other systems have other conventions. *Note end-of-line: Coding Systems. Emacs can recognize several end-of-line conventions in files and convert between them. Environment Variable An environment variable is one of a collection of variables stored by the operating system, each one having a name and a value. Emacs can access environment variables set by its parent shell, and it can set variables in the environment it passes to programs it invokes. *Note Environment::. EOL See end of line.' Error An error occurs when an Emacs command cannot execute in the current circumstances. When an error occurs, execution of the command stops (unless the command has been programmed to do otherwise) and Emacs reports the error by displaying an error message (q.v.). Type-ahead is discarded. Then Emacs is ready to read another editing command. Error Message An error message is a single line of output displayed by Emacs when the user asks for something impossible to do (such as, killing text forward when point is at the end of the buffer). They appear in the echo area, accompanied by a beep. is a character used as a prefix for typing Meta characters on keyboards lacking a key. Unlike the key (which, like the key, is held down while another character is typed), you press the key as you would press a letter key, and it applies to the next character you type. Expression See balanced expression.' Expunging Expunging an Rmail file or Dired buffer or a Gnus newsgroup buffer is an operation that truly discards the messages or files you have previously flagged for deletion. Face A face is a style of displaying characters. It specifies attributes such as font family and size, foreground and background colors, underline and strike-through, background stipple, etc. Emacs provides features to associate specific faces with portions of buffer text, in order to display that text as specified by the face attributes. *Note Faces::. File Locking Emacs uses file locking to notice when two different users start to edit one file at the same time. *Note Interlocking::. File Name A file name is a name that refers to a file. File names may be relative or absolute; the meaning of a relative file name depends on the current directory, but an absolute file name refers to the same file regardless of which directory is current. On GNU and Unix systems, an absolute file name starts with a slash (the root directory) or with ~/' or ~USER/' (a home directory). On MS-Windows/MS-DOS, an absolute file name can also start with a drive letter and a colon D:'. Some people use the term "pathname" for file names, but we do not; we use the word "path" only in the term "search path" (q.v.). File-Name Component A file-name component names a file directly within a particular directory. On GNU and Unix systems, a file name is a sequence of file-name components, separated by slashes. For example, foo/bar' is a file name containing two components, foo' and bar'; it refers to the file named bar' in the directory named foo' in the current directory. MS-DOS/MS-Windows file names can also use backslashes to separate components, as in foo\bar'. Fill Prefix The fill prefix is a string that should be expected at the beginning of each line when filling is done. It is not regarded as part of the text to be filled. *Note Filling::. Filling Filling text means shifting text between consecutive lines so that all the lines are approximately the same length. *Note Filling::. Some other editors call this feature line wrapping.' Font Lock Font Lock is a mode that highlights parts of buffer text according to its syntax. *Note Font Lock::. Fontset A fontset is a named collection of fonts. A fontset specification lists character sets and which font to use to display each of them. Fontsets make it easy to change several fonts at once by specifying the name of a fontset, rather than changing each font separately. *Note Fontsets::. Formatted Text Formatted text is text that displays with formatting information while you edit. Formatting information includes fonts, colors, and specified margins. *Note Formatted Text::. Formfeed Character See page.' Frame A frame is a rectangular cluster of Emacs windows. Emacs starts out with one frame, but you can create more. You can subdivide each frame into Emacs windows (q.v.). When you are using a window system (q.v.), all the frames can be visible at the same time. *Note Frames::. Some other editors use the term "window" for this, but in Emacs a window means something else. Fringe On a graphical display (q.v.), there's a narrow portion of the frame (q.v.) between the text area and the window's border. Emacs displays the fringe using a special face (q.v.) called fringe'. *Note fringe: Faces. FTP FTP is an acronym for File Transfer Protocol. Emacs uses an FTP client program to provide access to remote files (q.v.). Function Key A function key is a key on the keyboard that sends input but does not correspond to any character. *Note Function Keys::. Global Global means "independent of the current environment; in effect throughout Emacs." It is the opposite of local (q.v.). Particular examples of the use of global' appear below. Global Abbrev A global definition of an abbrev (q.v.) is effective in all major modes that do not have local (q.v.) definitions for the same abbrev. *Note Abbrevs::. Global Keymap The global keymap (q.v.) contains key bindings that are in effect except when overridden by local key bindings in a major mode's local keymap (q.v.). *Note Keymaps::. Global Mark Ring The global mark ring records the series of buffers you have recently set a mark (q.v.) in. In many cases you can use this to backtrack through buffers you have been editing in, or in which you have found tags (see tags table'). *Note Global Mark Ring::. Global Substitution Global substitution means replacing each occurrence of one string by another string throughout a large amount of text. *Note Replace::. Global Variable The global value of a variable (q.v.) takes effect in all buffers that do not have their own local (q.v.) values for the variable. *Note Variables::. Graphic Character Graphic characters are those assigned pictorial images rather than just names. All the non-Meta (q.v.) characters except for the Control (q.v.) characters are graphic characters. These include letters, digits, punctuation, and spaces; they do not include or . In Emacs, typing a graphic character inserts that character (in ordinary editing modes). *Note Inserting Text::. Graphical Display A graphical display is one that can display images and multiple fonts. Usually it also has a window system (q.v.). Highlighting Highlighting text means displaying it with a different foreground and/or background color to make it stand out from the rest of the text in the buffer. Emacs uses highlighting in several ways. When you mark a region with the mouse, the region is always highlighted. Optionally Emacs can also highlight the region whenever it is active (*note Transient Mark::). Incremental search also highlights matches (*note Incremental Search::). See also font lock'. Hardcopy Hardcopy means printed output. Emacs has commands for making printed listings of text in Emacs buffers. *Note Printing::. is the Emacs name for C-h' or . You can type at any time to ask what options you have, or to ask what any command does. *Note Help::. Help Echo Help echo is a short message displayed in the echo area when the mouse pointer is located on portions of display that require some explanations. Emacs displays help echo for menu items, parts of the mode line, tool-bar buttons, etc. On graphics displays, the messages can be displayed as tooltips (q.v.). *Note Tooltips::. Hook A hook is a list of functions to be called on specific occasions, such as saving a buffer in a file, major mode activation, etc. By customizing the various hooks, you can modify Emacs's behavior without changing any of its code. *Note Hooks::. Hyper Hyper is the name of a modifier bit which a keyboard input character may have. To make a character Hyper, type it while holding down the key. Such characters are given names that start with Hyper-' (usually written H-' for short). *Note Hyper: User Input. Iff "Iff" means "if and only if." This terminology comes from mathematics. Try to avoid using this term in documentation, since many are unfamiliar with it and mistake it for a typo. Inbox An inbox is a file in which mail is delivered by the operating system. Rmail transfers mail from inboxes to Rmail files (q.v.) in which the mail is then stored permanently or until explicitly deleted. *Note Rmail Inbox::. Incremental Search Emacs provides an incremental search facility, whereby Emacs searches for the string as you type it. *Note Incremental Search::. Indentation Indentation means blank space at the beginning of a line. Most programming languages have conventions for using indentation to illuminate the structure of the program, and Emacs has special commands to adjust indentation. *Note Indentation::. Indirect Buffer An indirect buffer is a buffer that shares the text of another buffer, called its base buffer (q.v.). *Note Indirect Buffers::. Info Info is the hypertext format used by the GNU project for writing documentation. Input Event An input event represents, within Emacs, one action taken by the user on the terminal. Input events include typing characters, typing function keys, pressing or releasing mouse buttons, and switching between Emacs frames. *Note User Input::. Input Method An input method is a system for entering non-ASCII text characters by typing sequences of ASCII characters (q.v.). *Note Input Methods::. Insertion Insertion means copying text into the buffer, either from the keyboard or from some other place in Emacs. Interlocking Interlocking is a feature for warning when you start to alter a file that someone else is already editing. *Note Interlocking: Interlocking. Isearch See incremental search.' Justification Justification means adding extra spaces within lines of text to make them extend exactly to a specified width. *Note Format Justification::. Key Binding See binding.' Keyboard Macro Keyboard macros are a way of defining new Emacs commands from sequences of existing ones, with no need to write a Lisp program. *Note Keyboard Macros::. Keyboard Shortcut A keyboard shortcut is a key sequence (q.v.) which invokes a command. What some programs call "assigning a keyboard shortcut," Emacs calls "binding a key sequence." See binding.' Key Sequence A key sequence (key, for short) is a sequence of input events (q.v.) that are meaningful as a single unit. If the key sequence is enough to specify one action, it is a complete key (q.v.); if it is not enough, it is a prefix key (q.v.). *Note Keys::. Keymap The keymap is the data structure that records the bindings (q.v.) of key sequences to the commands that they run. For example, the global keymap binds the character C-n' to the command function next-line'. *Note Keymaps::. Keyboard Translation Table The keyboard translation table is an array that translates the character codes that come from the terminal into the character codes that make up key sequences. Kill Ring The kill ring is where all text you have killed recently is saved. You can reinsert any of the killed text still in the ring; this is called yanking (q.v.). *Note Yanking::. Killing Killing means erasing text and saving it on the kill ring so it can be yanked (q.v.) later. Some other systems call this "cutting." Most Emacs commands that erase text perform killing, as opposed to deletion (q.v.). *Note Killing::. Killing a Job Killing a job (such as, an invocation of Emacs) means making it cease to exist. Any data within it, if not saved in a file, is lost. *Note Exiting::. Language Environment Your choice of language environment specifies defaults for the input method (q.v.) and coding system (q.v.). *Note Language Environments::. These defaults are relevant if you edit non-ASCII text (*note International::). Line Wrapping See filling.' Lisp Lisp is a programming language. Most of Emacs is written in a dialect of Lisp, called Emacs Lisp, that is extended with special features which make it especially suitable for text editing tasks. List A list is, approximately, a text string beginning with an open parenthesis and ending with the matching close parenthesis. In C mode and other non-Lisp modes, groupings surrounded by other kinds of matched delimiters appropriate to the language, such as braces, are also considered lists. Emacs has special commands for many operations on lists. *Note Moving by Parens::. Local Local means "in effect only in a particular context"; the relevant kind of context is a particular function execution, a particular buffer, or a particular major mode. It is the opposite of global' (q.v.). Specific uses of local' in Emacs terminology appear below. Local Abbrev A local abbrev definition is effective only if a particular major mode is selected. In that major mode, it overrides any global definition for the same abbrev. *Note Abbrevs::. Local Keymap A local keymap is used in a particular major mode; the key bindings (q.v.) in the current local keymap override global bindings of the same key sequences. *Note Keymaps::. Local Variable A local value of a variable (q.v.) applies to only one buffer. *Note Locals::. M-' M-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for , one of the modifier keys that can accompany any character. *Note M-: User Input. M-C-' M-C-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for Control-Meta; it means the same thing as C-M-'. If your terminal lacks a real key, you type a Control-Meta character by typing and then typing the corresponding Control character. *Note C-M-: User Input. M-x' M-x' is the key sequence which is used to call an Emacs command by name. This is how you run commands that are not bound to key sequences. *Note M-x: M-x. Mail Mail means messages sent from one user to another through the computer system, to be read at the recipient's convenience. Emacs has commands for composing and sending mail, and for reading and editing the mail you have received. *Note Sending Mail::. *Note Rmail::, for how to read mail. Mail Composition Method A mail composition method is a program runnable within Emacs for editing and sending a mail message. Emacs lets you select from several alternative mail composition methods. *Note Mail Methods::. Major Mode The Emacs major modes are a mutually exclusive set of options, each of which configures Emacs for editing a certain sort of text. Ideally, each programming language has its own major mode. *Note Major Modes::. Margin The space between the usable part of a window (including the fringe) and the window edge. Mark The mark points to a position in the text. It specifies one end of the region (q.v.), point being the other end. Many commands operate on all the text from point to the mark. Each buffer has its own mark. *Note Mark::. Mark Ring The mark ring is used to hold several recent previous locations of the mark, just in case you want to move back to them. Each buffer has its own mark ring; in addition, there is a single global mark ring (q.v.). *Note Mark Ring::. Menu Bar The menu bar is the line at the top of an Emacs frame. It contains words you can click on with the mouse to bring up menus, or you can use a keyboard interface to navigate it. *Note Menu Bars::. Message See mail.' Meta Meta is the name of a modifier bit which you can use in a command character. To enter a meta character, you hold down the key while typing the character. We refer to such characters with names that start with Meta-' (usually written M-' for short). For example, M-<' is typed by holding down and at the same time typing <' (which itself is done, on most terminals, by holding down and typing ,'). *Note Meta: User Input. On some terminals, the key is actually labeled or . Meta Character A Meta character is one whose character code includes the Meta bit. Minibuffer The minibuffer is the window that appears when necessary inside the echo area (q.v.), used for reading arguments to commands. *Note Minibuffer::. Minibuffer History The minibuffer history records the text you have specified in the past for minibuffer arguments, so you can conveniently use the same text again. *Note Minibuffer History::. Minor Mode A minor mode is an optional feature of Emacs which can be switched on or off independently of all other features. Each minor mode has a command to turn it on or off. *Note Minor Modes::. Minor Mode Keymap A minor mode keymap is a keymap that belongs to a minor mode and is active when that mode is enabled. Minor mode keymaps take precedence over the buffer's local keymap, just as the local keymap takes precedence over the global keymap. *Note Keymaps::. Mode Line The mode line is the line at the bottom of each window (q.v.), giving status information on the buffer displayed in that window. *Note Mode Line::. Modified Buffer A buffer (q.v.) is modified if its text has been changed since the last time the buffer was saved (or since when it was created, if it has never been saved). *Note Saving::. Moving Text Moving text means erasing it from one place and inserting it in another. The usual way to move text is by killing (q.v.) it and then yanking (q.v.) it. *Note Killing::. MULE MULE refers to the Emacs features for editing multilingual non-ASCII text using multibyte characters (q.v.). *Note International::. Multibyte Character A multibyte character is a character that takes up several bytes in a buffer. Emacs uses multibyte characters to represent non-ASCII text, since the number of non-ASCII characters is much more than 256. *Note International Characters: International Chars. Named Mark A named mark is a register (q.v.) in its role of recording a location in text so that you can move point to that location. *Note Registers::. Narrowing Narrowing means creating a restriction (q.v.) that limits editing in the current buffer to only a part of the text in the buffer. Text outside that part is inaccessible for editing until the boundaries are widened again, but it is still there, and saving the file saves it all. *Note Narrowing::. Newline Control-J characters in the buffer terminate lines of text and are therefore also called newlines. *Note Newline: Text Characters. nil' nil' is a value usually interpreted as a logical "false." Its opposite is t', interpreted as "true." Numeric Argument A numeric argument is a number, specified before a command, to change the effect of the command. Often the numeric argument serves as a repeat count. *Note Arguments::. Overwrite Mode Overwrite mode is a minor mode. When it is enabled, ordinary text characters replace the existing text after point rather than pushing it to the right. *Note Minor Modes::. Page A page is a unit of text, delimited by formfeed characters (ASCII control-L, code 014) coming at the beginning of a line. Some Emacs commands are provided for moving over and operating on pages. *Note Pages::. Paragraph Paragraphs are the medium-size unit of human-language text. There are special Emacs commands for moving over and operating on paragraphs. *Note Paragraphs::. Parsing We say that certain Emacs commands parse words or expressions in the text being edited. Really, all they know how to do is find the other end of a word or expression. *Note Syntax::. Point Point is the place in the buffer at which insertion and deletion occur. Point is considered to be between two characters, not at one character. The terminal's cursor (q.v.) indicates the location of point. *Note Point::. Prefix Argument See numeric argument.' Prefix Key A prefix key is a key sequence (q.v.) whose sole function is to introduce a set of longer key sequences. C-x' is an example of prefix key; any two-character sequence starting with C-x' is therefore a legitimate key sequence. *Note Keys::. Primary Rmail File Your primary Rmail file is the file named RMAIL' in your home directory. That's where Rmail stores your incoming mail, unless you specify a different file name. *Note Rmail::. Primary Selection The primary selection is one particular X selection (q.v.); it is the selection that most X applications use for transferring text to and from other applications. The Emacs kill commands set the primary selection and the yank command uses the primary selection when appropriate. *Note Killing::. Prompt A prompt is text used to ask the user for input. Displaying a prompt is called prompting. Emacs prompts always appear in the echo area (q.v.). One kind of prompting happens when the minibuffer is used to read an argument (*note Minibuffer::); the echoing which happens when you pause in the middle of typing a multi-character key sequence is also a kind of prompting (*note Echo Area::). Query-Replace Query-replace is an interactive string replacement feature provided by Emacs. *Note Query Replace::. Quitting Quitting means canceling a partially typed command or a running command, using C-g' (or C-' on MS-DOS). *Note Quitting::. Quoting Quoting means depriving a character of its usual special significance. The most common kind of quoting in Emacs is with C-q'. What constitutes special significance depends on the context and on convention. For example, an "ordinary" character as an Emacs command inserts itself; so in this context, a special character is any character that does not normally insert itself (such as , for example), and quoting it makes it insert itself as if it were not special. Not all contexts allow quoting. *Note Quoting: Inserting Text. Quoting File Names Quoting a file name turns off the special significance of constructs such as ', ~' and :'. *Note Quoted File Names::. Read-Only Buffer A read-only buffer is one whose text you are not allowed to change. Normally Emacs makes buffers read-only when they contain text which has a special significance to Emacs; for example, Dired buffers. Visiting a file that is write-protected also makes a read-only buffer. *Note Buffers::. Rectangle A rectangle consists of the text in a given range of columns on a given range of lines. Normally you specify a rectangle by putting point at one corner and putting the mark at the diagonally opposite corner. *Note Rectangles::. Recursive Editing Level A recursive editing level is a state in which part of the execution of a command involves asking you to edit some text. This text may or may not be the same as the text to which the command was applied. The mode line indicates recursive editing levels with square brackets ([' and ]'). *Note Recursive Edit::. Redisplay Redisplay is the process of correcting the image on the screen to correspond to changes that have been made in the text being edited. *Note Redisplay: Screen. Regexp See regular expression.' Region The region is the text between point (q.v.) and the mark (q.v.). Many commands operate on the text of the region. *Note Region: Mark. Register Registers are named slots in which text or buffer positions or rectangles can be saved for later use. *Note Registers::. A related Emacs feature is bookmarks' (q.v.). Regular Expression A regular expression is a pattern that can match various text strings; for example, a[0-9]+' matches a' followed by one or more digits. *Note Regexps::. Remote File A remote file is a file that is stored on a system other than your own. Emacs can access files on other computers provided that they are connected to the same network as your machine, and (obviously) that you have a supported method to gain access to those files. *Note Remote Files::. Repeat Count See numeric argument.' Replacement See global substitution.' Restriction A buffer's restriction is the amount of text, at the beginning or the end of the buffer, that is temporarily inaccessible. Giving a buffer a nonzero amount of restriction is called narrowing (q.v.); removing a restriction is called widening (q.v.). *Note Narrowing::. is a character that in Emacs runs the command to insert a newline into the text. It is also used to terminate most arguments read in the minibuffer (q.v.). *Note Return: User Input. Reverting Reverting means returning to the original state. Emacs lets you revert a buffer by re-reading its file from disk. *Note Reverting::. Rmail File An Rmail file is a file containing text in a special format used by Rmail for storing mail. *Note Rmail::. Saving Saving a buffer means copying its text into the file that was visited (q.v.) in that buffer. This is the way text in files actually gets changed by your Emacs editing. *Note Saving::. Scroll Bar A scroll bar is a tall thin hollow box that appears at the side of a window. You can use mouse commands in the scroll bar to scroll the window. The scroll bar feature is supported only under windowing systems. *Note Scroll Bars::. Scrolling Scrolling means shifting the text in the Emacs window so as to see a different part of the buffer. *Note Scrolling::. Searching Searching means moving point to the next occurrence of a specified string or the next match for a specified regular expression. *Note Search::. Search Path A search path is a list of directory names, to be used for searching for files for certain purposes. For example, the variable load-path' holds a search path for finding Lisp library files. *Note Lisp Libraries::. Secondary Selection The secondary selection is one particular X selection; some X applications can use it for transferring text to and from other applications. Emacs has special mouse commands for transferring text using the secondary selection. *Note Secondary Selection::. Selected Frame The selected frame is the one your input currently operates on. *Note Frames::. Selected Window The selected frame is the one your input currently operates on. *Note Basic Window::. Selecting a Buffer Selecting a buffer means making it the current (q.v.) buffer. *Note Select Buffer::. Selection Windowing systems allow an application program to specify selections whose values are text. A program can also read the selections that other programs have set up. This is the principal way of transferring text between window applications. Emacs has commands to work with the primary (q.v.) selection and the secondary (q.v.) selection, and also with the clipboard (q.v.). Self-Documentation Self-documentation is the feature of Emacs which can tell you what any command does, or give you a list of all commands related to a topic you specify. You ask for self-documentation with the help character, C-h'. *Note Help::. Self-Inserting Character A character is self-inserting if typing that character inserts that character in the buffer. Ordinary printing and whitespace characters are self-inserting in Emacs, except in certain special major modes. Sentences Emacs has commands for moving by or killing by sentences. *Note Sentences::. Sexp A sexp (short for "s-expression") is the basic syntactic unit of Lisp in its textual form: either a list, or Lisp atom. Sexps are also the balanced expressions (q.v.) of the Lisp language; this is why the commands for editing balanced expressions have sexp' in their name. *Note Sexps: Expressions. Simultaneous Editing Simultaneous editing means two users modifying the same file at once. Simultaneous editing, if not detected, can cause one user to lose his or her work. Emacs detects all cases of simultaneous editing, and warns one of the users to investigate. *Note Interlocking: Interlocking. is the space character, which you enter by pressing the space bar. Speedbar The speedbar is a special tall frame that provides fast access to Emacs buffers, functions within those buffers, Info nodes, and other interesting parts of text within Emacs. *Note Speedbar::. Spell Checking Spell checking means checking correctness of the written form of each one of the words in a text. Emacs uses the Ispell spelling-checker program to check the spelling of parts of a buffer via a convenient user interface. *Note Spelling::. String A string is a kind of Lisp data object which contains a sequence of characters. Many Emacs variables are intended to have strings as values. The Lisp syntax for a string consists of the characters in the string with a "' before and another "' after. A "' that is part of the string must be written as \"' and a \' that is part of the string must be written as \\'. All other characters, including newline, can be included just by writing them inside the string; however, backslash sequences as in C, such as \n' for newline or \241' using an octal character code, are allowed as well. String Substitution See global substitution'. Syntax Highlighting See font lock.' Syntax Table The syntax table tells Emacs which characters are part of a word, which characters balance each other like parentheses, etc. *Note Syntax::. Super Super is the name of a modifier bit which a keyboard input character may have. To make a character Super, type it while holding down the key. Such characters are given names that start with Super-' (usually written s-' for short). *Note Super: User Input. Suspending Suspending Emacs means stopping it temporarily and returning control to its parent process, which is usually a shell. Unlike killing a job (q.v.), you can later resume the suspended Emacs job without losing your buffers, unsaved edits, undo history, etc. *Note Exiting::. is the tab character. In Emacs it is typically used for indentation or completion. Tags Table A tags table is a file that serves as an index to the function definitions in one or more other files. *Note Tags::. Termscript File A termscript file contains a record of all characters sent by Emacs to the terminal. It is used for tracking down bugs in Emacs redisplay. Emacs does not make a termscript file unless you tell it to. *Note Bugs::. Text Text' has two meanings (*note Text::): * Data consisting of a sequence of characters, as opposed to binary numbers, executable programs, and the like. The basic contents of an Emacs buffer (aside from the text properties, q.v.) are always text in this sense. * Data consisting of written human language, as opposed to programs, or following the stylistic conventions of human language. Text-only Terminal A text-only terminal is a display that is limited to displaying text in character units. Such a terminal cannot control individual pixels it displays. Emacs supports a subset of display features on text-only terminals. Text Properties Text properties are annotations recorded for particular characters in the buffer. Images in the buffer are recorded as text properties; they also specify formatting information. *Note Editing Format Info::. Tool Bar The tool bar is a line (sometimes multiple lines) of icons at the top of an Emacs frame. Clicking on one of these icons executes a command. You can think of this as a graphical relative of the menu bar (q.v.). *Note Tool Bars::. Tooltips Tooltips are small windows displaying a help echo (q.v.) text that explains parts of the display, lists useful options available via mouse clicks, etc. *Note Tooltips::. Top Level Top level is the normal state of Emacs, in which you are editing the text of the file you have visited. You are at top level whenever you are not in a recursive editing level (q.v.) or the minibuffer (q.v.), and not in the middle of a command. You can get back to top level by aborting (q.v.) and quitting (q.v.). *Note Quitting::. Transposition Transposing two units of text means putting each one into the place formerly occupied by the other. There are Emacs commands to transpose two adjacent characters, words, balanced expressions (q.v.) or lines (*note Transpose::). Truncation Truncating text lines in the display means leaving out any text on a line that does not fit within the right margin of the window displaying it. See also continuation line.' *Note Truncation: Continuation Lines. TTY See text-only terminal.' Undoing Undoing means making your previous editing go in reverse, bringing back the text that existed earlier in the editing session. *Note Undo::. User Option A user option is a face (q.v.) or a variable (q.v.) that exists so that you can customize Emacs by setting it to a new value. *Note Easy Customization::. Variable A variable is an object in Lisp that can store an arbitrary value. Emacs uses some variables for internal purposes, and has others (known as user options' (q.v.)) just so that you can set their values to control the behavior of Emacs. The variables used in Emacs that you are likely to be interested in are listed in the Variables Index in this manual (*note Variable Index::). *Note Variables::, for information on variables. Version Control Version control systems keep track of multiple versions of a source file. They provide a more powerful alternative to keeping backup files (q.v.). *Note Version Control::. Visiting Visiting a file means loading its contents into a buffer (q.v.) where they can be edited. *Note Visiting::. Whitespace Whitespace is any run of consecutive formatting characters (space, tab, newline, and backspace). Widening Widening is removing any restriction (q.v.) on the current buffer; it is the opposite of narrowing (q.v.). *Note Narrowing::. Window Emacs divides a frame (q.v.) into one or more windows, each of which can display the contents of one buffer (q.v.) at any time. *Note Screen::, for basic information on how Emacs uses the screen. *Note Windows::, for commands to control the use of windows. Some other editors use the term "window" for what we call a frame' (q.v.) in Emacs. Window System A window system is software that operates on a graphical display (q.v.), to subdivide the screen so that multiple applications can have their] own windows at the same time. All modern operating systems include a window system. Word Abbrev See abbrev.' Word Search Word search is searching for a sequence of words, considering the punctuation between them as insignificant. *Note Word Search::. WYSIWYG WYSIWYG stands for "What you see is what you get." Emacs generally provides WYSIWYG editing for files of characters; in Enriched mode (*note Formatted Text::), it provides WYSIWYG editing for files that include text formatting information. Yanking Yanking means reinserting text previously killed. It can be used to undo a mistaken kill, or for copying or moving text. Some other systems call this "pasting." *Note Yanking::. File: emacs, Node: Antinews, Next: Mac OS, Prev: X Resources, Up: Top Appendix E Emacs 21 Antinews **************************** For those users who live backwards in time, here is information about downgrading to Emacs version 21.4. We hope you will enjoy the greater simplicity that results from the absence of many Emacs 22.3 features. * The buffer position and line number are now displayed at the end of the mode line, where they can be more easily seen. * The mode line of the selected window is no longer displayed with a special face. All mode lines are created equal. Meanwhile, you can use the variable mode-line-inverse-video' to control whether mode lines are highlighted at all--nil' means don't highlight them. * Clicking on a link with the left mouse button (mouse-1') will always set point at the position clicked, instead of following the link. If you want to follow the link, use the middle mouse button (mouse-2'). * Emacs is tired of X droppings. If you drop a file or a piece of text onto an Emacs window, nothing will happen. * On an xterm, even if you enable Xterm Mouse mode, Emacs provides a more convincing simulation of a text terminal by not responding to mouse clicks on the mode line, header line, or display margin. * For simplicity, windows always have fringes. We wouldn't want to in-fringe anyone's windows. Likewise, horizontal scrolling always works in the same automatic way. * The horizontal-bar cursor shape has been removed. * If command line arguments are given, Emacs will not display a splash screen, so that you can immediately get on with your editing. The command-line option --no-splash' is therefore obsolete, and has been removed. * These command line options have also been removed: --color', --fullwidth', --fullheight', --fullscreen', --no-blinking-cursor', --no-desktop', and -Q'. * The --geometry' option applies only to the initial frame, and the -f' option will not read arguments for interactive functions. * We have standardized on one location for the user init file: the file named .emacs' in your home directory. Emacs will not look for the init file in ~/.emacs.d/init.el'. Similarly, don't try putting .emacs_SHELL' as init_SHELL.sh' in ~/.emacs.d'; Emacs won't find it. * Emacs will not read ~/.abbrev_defs' automatically. If you want to load abbrev definitions from a file, you must always do so explicitly. * When you are logged in as root, all files now give you writable buffers, reflecting the fact that you can write any files. * The maximum size of buffers and integer variables has been halved. On 32-bit machines, the maximum buffer size is now 128 megabytes. * An unquoted $' in a file name is now an error, if the following name is not recognized as an environment variable. Thus, the file name foo$bar' would probably be an error. Meanwhile, the setenv' command does not expand \$' at all. * If a single command accumulates too much undo information, Emacs never discards it. If Emacs runs out of memory as a result, it will handle this by crashing. * Many commands have been removed from the menus or rearranged. * The C-h' (help) subcommands have been rearranged--especially those that display specific files. Type C-h C-h' to see a list of these commands; that will show you what is different. * The C-h v' and C-h f' commands no longer show a hyperlink to the C source code, even if it is available. If you want to find the source code, grep for it. * The apropos commands will not accept a list of words to match, in order to encourage you to be more specific. Also, the user option apropos-sort-by-scores' has been removed. * The minibuffer prompt is now displayed using the default face. The colon is enough to show you what part is the prompt. * Minibuffer completion commands always complete the entire minibuffer contents, just as if you had typed them at the end of the minibuffer, no matter where point is actually located. * The command backward-kill-sexp' is now bound to C-M-delete' and C-M-backspace'. Be careful when using these key sequences! It may shut down your X server, or reboot your operating system. * Commands to set the mark at a place away from point, including M-@', M-h', etc., don't do anything special when you repeat them. In most cases, typing these commands multiple times is equivalent to typing them once. M-h' ignores numeric arguments. * The user option set-mark-command-repeat-pop' has been removed. * C- C-' has no special meaning-it just sets the mark twice. Neither does C-u C-x C-x', which simply exchanges point and mark like C-x C-x'. * The function sentence-end' has been eliminated in favor of a more straightforward approach: directly setting the variable sentence-end'. For example, to end each sentence with a single space, use (setq sentence-end "[.?!][]\"')}]*\$$\\|[ \t]\$$[ \t\n]*") * The variable fill-nobreak-predicate' is no longer customizable, and it can only hold a single function. * Nobreak spaces and hyphens are displayed just like normal characters, and the user option nobreak-char-display' has been removed. * C-w' in an incremental search always grabs an entire word into the search string. More precisely, it grabs text through the next end of a word. * Yanking now preserves all text properties that were in the killed text. The variable yank-excluded-properties' has been removed. * Occur mode, Info mode, and Comint-derived modes now control fontification in their own way, and M-x font-lock-mode' has nothing to do with it. To control fontification in Info mode, use the variable Info-fontify'. * M-x shell' is now completely standard in regard to scrolling behavior. It no longer has the option of scrolling the input line to the bottom of the window the way a text terminal running a shell does. * The Grep package has been merged with Compilation mode. Many grep-specific commands and user options have thus been eliminated. Also, M-x grep' never tries the GNU grep -H' option, and instead silently appends /dev/null' to the command line. * In Dired's !' command, *' and ?' now cause substitution of the file names wherever they appear--not only when they are surrounded by whitespace. * When a file is managed with version control, the command C-x C-q' (whose general meaning is to make a buffer read-only or writable) now does so by checking the file in or out. Checking the file out makes the buffer writable; checking it in makes the buffer read-only. You can still use C-x v v' to do these operations if you wish; its meaning is unchanged. If you want to control the buffer's read-only flag without performing any version control operation, use M-x toggle-read-only'. * SGML mode does not handle XML syntax, and does not have indentation support. * Many Info mode commands have been removed. Incremental search in Info searches only the current node. * Many etags' features for customizing parsing using regexps have been removed. * The Emacs server now runs a small C program called emacsserver', rather than trying to handle everything in Emacs Lisp. Now there can only be one Emacs server running at a time. The server-mode' command and server-name' user option have been eliminated. * The emacsclient' program no longer accepts the --eval', --display' and --server-file' command line options, and can only establish local connections using Unix domain sockets. * The command quail-show-key', for showing how to input a character, has been removed. * The default value of keyboard-coding-system' is always nil', regardless of your locale settings. If you want some other value, set it yourself. * Unicode support and unification between Latin-N character sets have been removed. Cutting and pasting X selections does not support "extended segments", so there are certain coding systems it cannot handle. * The input methods for Emacs are included in a separate distribution called "Leim." To use this, you must extract the Leim tar file on top of the Emacs distribution, into the same directory, before you build Emacs. * The following input methods have been eliminated: belarusian, bulgarian-bds, bulgarian-phonetic, chinese-sisheng, croatian, dutch, georgian, latin-alt-postfix, latin-postfix, latin-prefix, latvian-keyboard, lithuanian-numeric, lithuanian-keyboard, malayalam-inscript, rfc1345, russian-computer, sgml, slovenian, tamil-inscript ucs, ukrainian-computer, vietnamese-telex, and welsh. * The following language environments have been eliminated: Belarusian, Bulgarian, Chinese-EUC-TW, Croatian, French, Georgian, Italian, Latin-6, Latin-7, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malayalam, Russian, Russian, Slovenian, Swedish, Tajik, Tamil, UTF-8, Ukrainian, Ukrainian, Welsh, and Windows-1255. * The code-pages' library, which contained various 8-bit coding systems, has been removed. * The Kmacro package has been replaced with a simple and elegant keyboard macro system. Use C-x (' to start a new keyboard macro, C-x )' to end the macro, and C-x e' to execute the last macro. Use M-x name-last-kbd-macro' to name the most recently defined macro. * Emacs no longer displays your breakpoints in the source buffer, so you have to remember where you left them. It can be difficult to inspect the state of your debugged program from the command line, so Emacs tries to demonstrate this in the GUD buffer. * The Calc, CUA, Ibuffer, Ido, Password, Printing, Reveal, Ruler-mode, SES, Table, Tramp, and URL packages have been removed. The Benchmark, Cfengine, Conf, Dns, Flymake, Python, Thumbs, and Wdired modes have also been removed. * The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual and the Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp are now distributed separately, not in the Emacs distribution. * On MS Windows, there is no longer any support for tooltips, images, sound, different mouse pointer shapes, or pointing devices with more than 3 buttons. If you want these features, consider switching to another operating system. But even if you don't want these features, you should still switch--for freedom's sake. * Emacs will not use Unicode for clipboard operations on MS Windows. * To keep up with decreasing computer memory capacity and disk space, many other functions and files have been eliminated in Emacs 21.4. File: emacs, Node: Mac OS, Next: Microsoft Windows, Prev: Antinews, Up: Top Appendix F Emacs and Mac OS *************************** This section briefly describes the peculiarities of using Emacs under Mac OS with native window system support. For Mac OS X, Emacs can be built either without window system support, with X11, or with Carbon API. This section only applies to the Carbon build. For Mac OS Classic, Emacs can be built with or without Carbon API, and this section applies to either of them because they run on the native window system. Emacs built on Mac OS X supports most of its major features except display support of PostScript images. The following features of Emacs are not supported on Mac OS Classic: unexec (dump-emacs'), asynchronous subprocesses (start-process'), and networking (open-network-stream'). As a result, packages such as Gnus, GUD, and Comint do not work. Synchronous subprocesses (call-process') are supported on non-Carbon build, but specially-crafted external programs are needed. Since external programs to handle commands such as print-buffer' and diff' are not available on Mac OS Classic, they are not supported. Non-Carbon build on Mac OS Classic does not support some features such as file dialogs, drag-and-drop, and Unicode menus. * Menu: * Input: Mac Input. Keyboard and mouse input on Mac. * Intl: Mac International. International character sets on Mac. * Env: Mac Environment Variables. Setting environment variables for Emacs. * Directories: Mac Directories. Volumes and directories on Mac. * Font: Mac Font Specs. Specifying fonts on Mac. * Functions: Mac Functions. Mac-specific Lisp functions. File: emacs, Node: Mac Input, Next: Mac International, Up: Mac OS F.1 Keyboard and Mouse Input on Mac =================================== On Mac, Emacs can use , ,