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man : emacs

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The Emacs Editor
****************

Emacs is the extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time
display editor.  This Info file describes how to edit with Emacs and
some of how to customize it; it corresponds to GNU Emacs version
22.3.

   To learn more about the Info documentation system, type `h', and
Emacs will take you to a programmed instruction sequence for the Info
commands.

   For information on extending Emacs, see *note Emacs Lisp: (elisp)Top.

* Menu:

* Distrib::	        How to get the latest Emacs distribution.
* Copying::	        The GNU General Public License gives you permission
			  to redistribute GNU Emacs on certain terms;
			  it also explains that there is no warranty.
* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
* Intro::	        An introduction to Emacs concepts.
* Glossary::	        Terms used in this manual.
* Antinews::	        Information about Emacs version 21.
* Mac OS::              Using Emacs in the Mac.
* Microsoft Windows::   Using Emacs on Microsoft Windows and MS-DOS.
* Manifesto::	        What's GNU?  Gnu's Not Unix!
* Acknowledgments::     Major contributors to GNU Emacs.

Indexes (each index contains a large menu)
* Key Index::	        An item for each standard Emacs key sequence.
* Option Index::        An item for every command-line option.
* Command Index::       An item for each command name.
* Variable Index::      An item for each documented variable.
* Concept Index::       An item for each concept.

Important General Concepts
* Screen::	        How to interpret what you see on the screen.
* User Input::	        Kinds of input events (characters, buttons,
                          function keys).
* Keys::	        Key sequences: what you type to request one
                          editing action.
* Commands::	        Named functions run by key sequences to do editing.
* Text Characters::     Character set for text (the contents of buffers
			  and strings).
* Entering Emacs::      Starting Emacs from the shell.
* Exiting::	        Stopping or killing Emacs.
* Emacs Invocation::    Hairy startup options.

Fundamental Editing Commands
* Basic::	        The most basic editing commands.
* Minibuffer::	        Entering arguments that are prompted for.
* M-x::		        Invoking commands by their names.
* Help::	        Commands for asking Emacs about its commands.

Important Text-Changing Commands
* Mark::	        The mark: how to delimit a ``region'' of text.
* Killing::	        Killing (cutting) text.
* Yanking::	        Recovering killed text.  Moving text. (Pasting.)
* Accumulating Text::   Other ways of copying text.
* Rectangles::	        Operating on the text inside a rectangle on the screen.
* Registers::	        Saving a text string or a location in the buffer.
* Display::	        Controlling what text is displayed.
* Search::	        Finding or replacing occurrences of a string.
* Fixit::	        Commands especially useful for fixing typos.
* Keyboard Macros::	A keyboard macro records a sequence of
			  keystrokes to be replayed with a single command.

Major Structures of Emacs
* Files::	        All about handling files.
* Buffers::	        Multiple buffers; editing several files at once.
* Windows::	        Viewing two pieces of text at once.
* Frames::	        Running the same Emacs session in multiple X windows.
* International::       Using non-ASCII character sets (the MULE features).

Advanced Features
* Major Modes::	        Text mode vs. Lisp mode vs. C mode ...
* Indentation::	        Editing the white space at the beginnings of lines.
* Text::	        Commands and modes for editing English.
* Programs::	        Commands and modes for editing programs.
* Building::	        Compiling, running and debugging programs.
* Maintaining::         Features for maintaining large programs.
* Abbrevs::	        How to define text abbreviations to reduce
			  the number of characters you must type.

* Picture Mode::        Editing pictures made up of characters using
                          the quarter-plane screen model.
* Sending Mail::        Sending mail in Emacs.
* Rmail::	        Reading mail in Emacs.
* Dired::	        You can ``edit'' a directory to manage files in it.
* Calendar/Diary::      The calendar and diary facilities.
* Gnus::	        How to read netnews with Emacs.
* Shell::	        Executing shell commands from Emacs.
* Emacs Server::        Using Emacs as an editing server for `mail', etc.
* Printing::	        Printing hardcopies of buffers or regions.
* Sorting::	        Sorting lines, paragraphs or pages within Emacs.
* Narrowing::	        Restricting display and editing to a portion
		          of the buffer.
* Two-Column::	        Splitting apart columns to edit them
		          in side-by-side windows.
* Editing Binary Files::Using Hexl mode to edit binary files.
* Saving Emacs Sessions:: Saving Emacs state from one session to the next.
* Recursive Edit::      A command can allow you to do editing
			  "within the command".  This is called a
			  "recursive editing level".
* Emulation::	        Emulating some other editors with Emacs.
* Hyperlinking::        Following links in buffers.
* Dissociated Press::   Dissociating text for fun.
* Amusements::	        Various games and hacks.
* Customization::       Modifying the behavior of Emacs.
* X Resources::         X resources for customizing Emacs.

Recovery from Problems
* Quitting::	        Quitting and aborting.
* Lossage::	        What to do if Emacs is hung or malfunctioning.
* Bugs::	        How and when to report a bug.
* Contributing::        How to contribute improvements to Emacs.
* Service::	        How to get help for your own Emacs needs.


 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
 ---------------------------------

Here are some other nodes which are really inferiors of the ones
already listed, mentioned here so you can get to them in one step:

The Organization of the Screen

* Point::	        The place in the text where editing commands operate.
* Echo Area::           Short messages appear at the bottom of the screen.
* Mode Line::	        Interpreting the mode line.
* Menu Bar::            How to use the menu bar.

Basic Editing Commands

* Inserting Text::      Inserting text by simply typing it.
* Moving Point::        How to move the cursor to the place where you want to
			  change something.
* Erasing::	        Deleting and killing text.
* Basic Undo::	        Undoing recent changes in the text.
* Basic Files::         Visiting, creating, and saving files.
* Basic Help::          Asking what a character does.
* Blank Lines::	        Commands to make or delete blank lines.
* Continuation Lines::  Lines too wide for the screen.
* Position Info::       What page, line, row, or column is point on?
* Arguments::	        Numeric arguments for repeating a command.
* Repeating::           A short-cut for repeating the previous command.

The Minibuffer

* Minibuffer File::     Entering file names with the minibuffer.
* Minibuffer Edit::     How to edit in the minibuffer.
* Completion::		An abbreviation facility for minibuffer input.
* Minibuffer History::	Reusing recent minibuffer arguments.
* Repetition::		Re-executing commands that used the minibuffer.

Completion

* Example: Completion Example.    Examples of using completion.
* Commands: Completion Commands.  A list of completion commands.
* Strict Completion::             Different types of completion.
* Options: Completion Options.    Options for completion.

Help

* Help Summary::	Brief list of all Help commands.
* Key Help::		Asking what a key does in Emacs.
* Name Help::		Asking about a command, variable or function name.
* Apropos::		Asking what pertains to a given topic.
* Help Mode::           Special features of Help mode and Help buffers.
* Library Keywords::	Finding Lisp libraries by keywords (topics).
* Language Help::       Help relating to international language support.
* Misc Help::		Other help commands.
* Help Files::          Commands to display pre-written help files.
* Help Echo::           Help on active text and tooltips (`balloon help')

The Mark and the Region

* Setting Mark::	Commands to set the mark.
* Transient Mark::	How to make Emacs highlight the region--
			  when there is one.
* Momentary Mark::      Enabling Transient Mark mode momentarily.
* Using Region::	Summary of ways to operate on contents of the region.
* Marking Objects::	Commands to put region around textual units.
* Mark Ring::		Previous mark positions saved so you can go back there.
* Global Mark Ring::	Previous mark positions in various buffers.

Killing and Moving Text

* Deletion::		Commands for deleting small amounts of text and
			  blank areas.
* Killing by Lines::	How to kill entire lines of text at one time.
* Other Kill Commands:: Commands to kill large regions of text and
			  syntactic units such as words and sentences.
* CUA Bindings::        Using C-x, C-c, C-v for copy
                          and paste, with enhanced rectangle support.

Yanking

* Kill Ring::		Where killed text is stored.  Basic yanking.
* Appending Kills::	Several kills in a row all yank together.
* Earlier Kills::	Yanking something killed some time ago.

Registers

* RegPos::      	Saving positions in registers.
* RegText::     	Saving text in registers.
* RegRect::     	Saving rectangles in registers.
* RegConfig::           Saving window configurations in registers.
* RegNumbers::          Numbers in registers.
* RegFiles::    	File names in registers.
* Bookmarks::           Bookmarks are like registers, but persistent.

Controlling the Display

* Scrolling::	           Moving text up and down in a window.
* Auto Scrolling::         Redisplay scrolls text automatically when needed.
* Horizontal Scrolling::   Moving text left and right in a window.
* Follow Mode::            Follow mode lets two windows scroll as one.
* Faces::	           How to change the display style using faces.
* Standard Faces::         Emacs' predefined faces.
* Font Lock::              Minor mode for syntactic highlighting using faces.
* Highlight Interactively:: Tell Emacs what text to highlight.
* Fringes::                Enabling or disabling window fringes.
* Displaying Boundaries::  Displaying top and bottom of the buffer.
* Useless Whitespace::     Showing possibly-spurious trailing whitespace.
* Selective Display::      Hiding lines with lots of indentation.
* Optional Mode Line::     Optional mode line display features.
* Text Display::           How text characters are normally displayed.
* Cursor Display::         Features for displaying the cursor.
* Line Truncation::        Truncating lines to fit the screen width instead
                             of continuing them to multiple screen lines.
* Display Custom::         Information on variables for customizing display.

Searching and Replacement

* Incremental Search::	   Search happens as you type the string.
* Nonincremental Search::  Specify entire string and then search.
* Word Search::		   Search for sequence of words.
* Regexp Search::	   Search for match for a regexp.
* Regexps::		   Syntax of regular expressions.
* Regexp Backslash::       Regular expression constructs starting with `\'.
* Regexp Example::         A complex regular expression explained.
* Search Case::		   To ignore case while searching, or not.
* Replace::		   Search, and replace some or all matches.
* Other Repeating Search:: Operating on all matches for some regexp.

Incremental Search

* Basic Isearch::       Basic incremental search commands.
* Repeat Isearch::      Searching for the same string again.
* Error in Isearch::    When your string is not found.
* Special Isearch::     Special input in incremental search.
* Non-ASCII Isearch::   How to search for non-ASCII characters.
* Isearch Yank::        Commands that grab text into the search string
                          or else edit the search string.
* Highlight Isearch::   Isearch highlights the other possible matches.
* Isearch Scroll::      Scrolling during an incremental search.
* Slow Isearch::        Incremental search features for slow terminals.

Replacement Commands

* Unconditional Replace::  Replacing all matches for a string.
* Regexp Replace::	   Replacing all matches for a regexp.
* Replacement and Case::   How replacements preserve case of letters.
* Query Replace::	   How to use querying.

Commands for Fixing Typos

* Undo::                Full details of Emacs undo commands.
* Kill Errors::         Commands to kill a batch of recently entered text.
* Transpose::	        Exchanging two characters, words, lines, lists...
* Fixing Case::         Correcting case of last word entered.
* Spelling::	        Apply spelling checker to a word or a whole buffer.

Keyboard Macros

* Basic Keyboard Macro::     Defining and running keyboard macros.
* Keyboard Macro Ring::      Where previous keyboard macros are saved.
* Keyboard Macro Counter::   Inserting incrementing numbers in macros.
* Keyboard Macro Query::     Making keyboard macros do different things each time.
* Save Keyboard Macro::      Giving keyboard macros names; saving them in files.
* Edit Keyboard Macro::      Editing keyboard macros.
* Keyboard Macro Step-Edit:: Interactively executing and editing a keyboard
                                macro.

File Handling

* File Names::          How to type and edit file-name arguments.
* Visiting::            Visiting a file prepares Emacs to edit the file.
* Saving::              Saving makes your changes permanent.
* Reverting::           Reverting cancels all the changes not saved.
* Autorevert::          Auto Reverting non-file buffers.
* Auto Save::           Auto Save periodically protects against loss of data.
* File Aliases::        Handling multiple names for one file.
* Version Control::     Version control systems (RCS, CVS and SCCS).
* Directories::         Creating, deleting, and listing file directories.
* Comparing Files::     Finding where two files differ.
* Diff Mode::           Editing diff output.
* Misc File Ops::       Other things you can do on files.
* Compressed Files::    Accessing compressed files.
* File Archives::       Operating on tar, zip, jar etc. archive files.
* Remote Files::        Accessing files on other sites.
* Quoted File Names::   Quoting special characters in file names.
* File Name Cache::     Completion against a list of files you often use.
* File Conveniences::   Convenience Features for Finding Files.
* Filesets::            Handling sets of files.

Saving Files

* Save Commands::       Commands for saving files.
* Backup::              How Emacs saves the old version of your file.
* Customize Save::      Customizing the saving of files.
* Interlocking::        How Emacs protects against simultaneous editing
                          of one file by two users.
* File Shadowing::      Copying files to "shadows" automatically.
* Time Stamps::         Emacs can update time stamps on saved files.

Backup Files

* One or Many: Numbered Backups. Whether to make one backup file or many.
* Names: Backup Names.		How backup files are named.
* Deletion: Backup Deletion.	Emacs deletes excess numbered backups.
* Copying: Backup Copying.	Backups can be made by copying or renaming.

Auto-Saving: Protection Against Disasters

* Files: Auto Save Files.       The file where auto-saved changes are
                                  actually made until you save the file.
* Control: Auto Save Control.   Controlling when and how often to auto-save.
* Recover::		        Recovering text from auto-save files.

Version Control

* Introduction to VC::  How version control works in general.
* VC Mode Line::        How the mode line shows version control status.
* Basic VC Editing::    How to edit a file under version control.
* Old Versions::        Examining and comparing old versions.
* Secondary VC Commands:: The commands used a little less frequently.
* Branches::            Multiple lines of development.
* Remote Repositories:: Efficient access to remote CVS servers.
* Snapshots::           Sets of file versions treated as a unit.
* Miscellaneous VC::    Various other commands and features of VC.
* Customizing VC::      Variables that change VC's behavior.

Using Multiple Buffers

* Select Buffer::       Creating a new buffer or reselecting an old one.
* List Buffers::        Getting a list of buffers that exist.
* Misc Buffer::	        Renaming; changing read-onliness; copying text.
* Kill Buffer::	        Killing buffers you no longer need.
* Several Buffers::     How to go through the list of all buffers
			  and operate variously on several of them.
* Indirect Buffers::    An indirect buffer shares the text of another buffer.
* Buffer Convenience::  Convenience and customization features for
                          buffer handling.

Multiple Windows

* Basic Window::        Introduction to Emacs windows.
* Split Window::        New windows are made by splitting existing windows.
* Other Window::        Moving to another window or doing something to it.
* Pop Up Window::       Finding a file or buffer in another window.
* Force Same Window::   Forcing certain buffers to appear in the selected
                          window rather than in another window.
* Change Window::       Deleting windows and changing their sizes.
* Window Convenience::  Convenience functions for window handling.

Frames and Graphical Displays

* Cut and Paste::       Mouse commands for cut and paste.
* Mouse References::    Using the mouse to select an item from a list.
* Menu Mouse Clicks::   Mouse clicks that bring up menus.
* Mode Line Mouse::     Mouse clicks on the mode line.
* Creating Frames::     Creating additional Emacs frames with various contents.
* Frame Commands::      Iconifying, deleting, and switching frames.
* Speedbar::            How to make and use a speedbar frame.
* Multiple Displays::   How one Emacs job can talk to several displays.
* Special Buffer Frames::  You can make certain buffers have their own frames.
* Frame Parameters::    Changing the colors and other modes of frames.
* Scroll Bars::	        How to enable and disable scroll bars; how to use them.
* Wheeled Mice::        Using mouse wheels for scrolling.
* Drag and Drop::       Using drag and drop to open files and insert text.
* Menu Bars::	        Enabling and disabling the menu bar.
* Tool Bars::           Enabling and disabling the tool bar.
* Dialog Boxes::        Controlling use of dialog boxes.
* Tooltips::            Showing "tooltips", AKA "balloon help" for active text.
* Mouse Avoidance::     Moving the mouse pointer out of the way.
* Non-Window Terminals::  Multiple frames on terminals that show only one.
* Text-Only Mouse::     Using the mouse in text-only terminals.

International Character Set Support

* International Chars::     Basic concepts of multibyte characters.
* Enabling Multibyte::      Controlling whether to use multibyte characters.
* Language Environments::   Setting things up for the language you use.
* Input Methods::           Entering text characters not on your keyboard.
* Select Input Method::     Specifying your choice of input methods.
* Multibyte Conversion::    How single-byte characters convert to multibyte.
* Coding Systems::          Character set conversion when you read and
                              write files, and so on.
* Recognize Coding::        How Emacs figures out which conversion to use.
* Specify Coding::          Specifying a file's coding system explicitly.
* Output Coding::           Choosing coding systems for output.
* Text Coding::             Choosing conversion to use for file text.
* Communication Coding::    Coding systems for interprocess communication.
* File Name Coding::        Coding systems for file _names_.
* Terminal Coding::         Specifying coding systems for converting
                              terminal input and output.
* Fontsets::                Fontsets are collections of fonts
                              that cover the whole spectrum of characters.
* Defining Fontsets::       Defining a new fontset.
* Undisplayable Characters::When characters don't display.
* Unibyte Mode::            You can pick one European character set
                              to use without multibyte characters.
* Charsets::                How Emacs groups its internal character codes.

Major Modes

* Choosing Modes::      How major modes are specified or chosen.

Indentation

* Indentation Commands::  Various commands and techniques for indentation.
* Tab Stops::		  You can set arbitrary "tab stops" and then
			    indent to the next tab stop when you want to.
* Just Spaces::		  You can request indentation using just spaces.

Commands for Human Languages

* Words::	        Moving over and killing words.
* Sentences::	        Moving over and killing sentences.
* Paragraphs::	        Moving over paragraphs.
* Pages::	        Moving over pages.
* Filling::	        Filling or justifying text.
* Case::	        Changing the case of text.
* Text Mode::	        The major modes for editing text files.
* Outline Mode::        Editing outlines.
* TeX Mode::	        Editing input to the formatter TeX.
* HTML Mode::           Editing HTML, SGML, and XML files.
* Nroff Mode::	        Editing input to the formatter nroff.
* Formatted Text::      Editing formatted text directly in WYSIWYG fashion.
* Text Based Tables::   Editing text-based tables in WYSIWYG fashion.

Filling Text

* Auto Fill::	        Auto Fill mode breaks long lines automatically.
* Refill::              Keeping paragraphs filled.
* Fill Commands::       Commands to refill paragraphs and center lines.
* Fill Prefix::	        Filling paragraphs that are indented
                          or in a comment, etc.
* Adaptive Fill::       How Emacs can determine the fill prefix automatically.
* Longlines::           Editing text with very long lines.

Outline Mode

* Format: Outline Format.	   What the text of an outline looks like.
* Motion: Outline Motion.	   Special commands for moving through
                                     outlines.
* Visibility: Outline Visibility.  Commands to control what is visible.
* Views: Outline Views.            Outlines and multiple views.
* Foldout::                        Folding means zooming in on outlines.

TeX Mode

* Editing: TeX Editing.   Special commands for editing in TeX mode.
* LaTeX: LaTeX Editing.   Additional commands for LaTeX input files.
* Printing: TeX Print.    Commands for printing part of a file with TeX.
* Misc: TeX Misc.         Customization of TeX mode, and related features.

Editing Formatted Text

* Requesting Formatted Text::   Entering and exiting Enriched mode.
* Hard and Soft Newlines::      There are two different kinds of newlines.
* Editing Format Info::         How to edit text properties.
* Faces: Format Faces.          Bold, italic, underline, etc.
* Color: Format Colors.         Changing the color of text.
* Indent: Format Indentation.   Changing the left and right margins.
* Justification: Format Justification.
                                Centering, setting text flush with the
                                  left or right margin, etc.
* Other: Format Properties.     The "special" text properties submenu.
* Forcing Enriched Mode::       How to force use of Enriched mode.

Editing Text-based Tables

* Table Definition::    What is a text based table.
* Table Creation::      How to create a table.
* Table Recognition::   How to activate and deactivate tables.
* Cell Commands::       Cell-oriented commands in a table.
* Cell Justification::  Justifying cell contents.
* Row Commands::        Manipulating rows of table cell.
* Column Commands::     Manipulating columns of table cell.
* Fixed Width Mode::    Fixing cell width.
* Table Conversion::    Converting between plain text and tables.
* Measuring Tables::    Analyzing table dimension.
* Table Misc::          Table miscellany.

Editing Programs

* Program Modes::       Major modes for editing programs.
* Defuns::              Commands to operate on major top-level parts
                          of a program.
* Program Indent::      Adjusting indentation to show the nesting.
* Parentheses::         Commands that operate on parentheses.
* Comments::	        Inserting, killing, and aligning comments.
* Documentation::       Getting documentation of functions you plan to call.
* Hideshow::            Displaying blocks selectively.
* Symbol Completion::   Completion on symbol names of your program or language.
* Glasses::             Making identifiersLikeThis more readable.
* Misc for Programs::   Other Emacs features useful for editing programs.
* C Modes::             Special commands of C, C++, Objective-C,
                          Java, and Pike modes.
* Asm Mode::            Asm mode and its special features.
* Fortran::             Fortran mode and its special features.

Top-Level Definitions, or Defuns

* Left Margin Paren::   An open-paren or similar opening delimiter
                          starts a defun if it is at the left margin.
* Moving by Defuns::    Commands to move over or mark a major definition.
* Imenu::               Making buffer indexes as menus.
* Which Function::      Which Function mode shows which function you are in.

Indentation for Programs

* Basic Indent::	Indenting a single line.
* Multi-line Indent::   Commands to reindent many lines at once.
* Lisp Indent::		Specifying how each Lisp function should be indented.
* C Indent::		Extra features for indenting C and related modes.
* Custom C Indent::	Controlling indentation style for C and related modes.

Commands for Editing with Parentheses

* Expressions::         Expressions with balanced parentheses.
* Moving by Parens::    Commands for moving up, down and across
                          in the structure of parentheses.
* Matching::	        Insertion of a close-delimiter flashes matching open.

Manipulating Comments

* Comment Commands::    Inserting, killing, and aligning comments.
* Multi-Line Comments:: Commands for adding and editing multi-line comments.
* Options for Comments::Customizing the comment features.

Documentation Lookup

* Info Lookup::         Looking up library functions and commands
                          in Info files.
* Man Page::            Looking up man pages of library functions and commands.
* Lisp Doc::            Looking up Emacs Lisp functions, etc.

C and Related Modes

* Motion in C::         Commands to move by C statements, etc.
* Electric C::          Colon and other chars can automatically reindent.
* Hungry Delete::       A more powerful DEL command.
* Other C Commands::    Filling comments, viewing expansion of macros,
                          and other neat features.

Compiling and Testing Programs

* Compilation::		Compiling programs in languages other
			  than Lisp (C, Pascal, etc.).
* Compilation Mode::    The mode for visiting compiler errors.
* Compilation Shell::   Customizing your shell properly
                          for use in the compilation buffer.
* Grep Searching::      Searching with grep.
* Flymake::             Finding syntax errors on the fly.
* Debuggers::		Running symbolic debuggers for non-Lisp programs.
* Executing Lisp::	Various modes for editing Lisp programs,
			  with different facilities for running
			  the Lisp programs.
* Lisp Libraries::      Creating Lisp programs to run in Emacs.
* Lisp Eval::		Executing a single Lisp expression in Emacs.
* Lisp Interaction::    Executing Lisp in an Emacs buffer.
* External Lisp::	Communicating through Emacs with a separate Lisp.

Running Debuggers Under Emacs

* Starting GUD::	How to start a debugger subprocess.
* Debugger Operation::	Connection between the debugger and source buffers.
* Commands of GUD::	Key bindings for common commands.
* GUD Customization::	Defining your own commands for GUD.
* GDB Graphical Interface::  An enhanced mode that uses GDB features to
                          implement a graphical debugging environment through
                          Emacs.

Maintaining Large Programs

* Change Log::	        Maintaining a change history for your program.
* Format of ChangeLog:: What the change log file looks like.
* Tags::	        Go directly to any function in your program in one
			  command.  Tags remembers which file it is in.
* Emerge::              A convenient way of merging two versions of a program.

Tags Tables

* Tag Syntax::		Tag syntax for various types of code and text files.
* Create Tags Table::	Creating a tags table with `etags'.
* Etags Regexps::       Create arbitrary tags using regular expressions.
* Select Tags Table::	How to visit a tags table.
* Find Tag::		Commands to find the definition of a specific tag.
* Tags Search::		Using a tags table for searching and replacing.
* List Tags::		Listing and finding tags defined in a file.

Abbrevs

* Abbrev Concepts::     Fundamentals of defined abbrevs.
* Defining Abbrevs::    Defining an abbrev, so it will expand when typed.
* Expanding Abbrevs::   Controlling expansion: prefixes, canceling expansion.
* Editing Abbrevs::     Viewing or editing the entire list of defined abbrevs.
* Saving Abbrevs::      Saving the entire list of abbrevs for another session.
* Dynamic Abbrevs::     Abbreviations for words already in the buffer.
* Dabbrev Customization:: What is a word, for dynamic abbrevs.  Case handling.


Editing Pictures

* Basic Picture::         Basic concepts and simple commands of Picture Mode.
* Insert in Picture::     Controlling direction of cursor motion
                            after "self-inserting" characters.
* Tabs in Picture::       Various features for tab stops and indentation.
* Rectangles in Picture:: Clearing and superimposing rectangles.

Sending Mail

* Mail Format:: 	Format of the mail being composed.
* Mail Headers::        Details of permitted mail header fields.
* Mail Aliases::        Abbreviating and grouping mail addresses.
* Mail Mode::   	Special commands for editing mail being composed.
* Mail Amusements::     Distract the NSA's attention; add a fortune to a msg.
* Mail Methods::        Using alternative mail-composition methods.

Reading Mail with Rmail

* Rmail Basics::        Basic concepts of Rmail, and simple use.
* Rmail Scrolling::     Scrolling through a message.
* Rmail Motion::        Moving to another message.
* Rmail Deletion::      Deleting and expunging messages.
* Rmail Inbox::         How mail gets into the Rmail file.
* Rmail Files::         Using multiple Rmail files.
* Rmail Output::        Copying message out to files.
* Rmail Labels::        Classifying messages by labeling them.
* Rmail Attributes::    Certain standard labels, called attributes.
* Rmail Reply::         Sending replies to messages you are viewing.
* Rmail Summary::       Summaries show brief info on many messages.
* Rmail Sorting::       Sorting messages in Rmail.
* Rmail Display::       How Rmail displays a message; customization.
* Rmail Coding::        How Rmail handles decoding character sets.
* Rmail Editing::       Editing message text and headers in Rmail.
* Rmail Digest::        Extracting the messages from a digest message.
* Out of Rmail::	Converting an Rmail file to mailbox format.
* Rmail Rot13::         Reading messages encoded in the rot13 code.
* Movemail::            More details of fetching new mail.
* Remote Mailboxes::    Retrieving Mail from Remote Mailboxes.
* Other Mailbox Formats:: Retrieving Mail from Local Mailboxes in
                          Various Formats

Dired, the Directory Editor

* Dired Enter:: 	     How to invoke Dired.
* Dired Navigation::         How to move in the Dired buffer.
* Dired Deletion::           Deleting files with Dired.
* Flagging Many Files::      Flagging files based on their names.
* Dired Visiting::           Other file operations through Dired.
* Marks vs Flags::	     Flagging for deletion vs marking.
* Operating on Files::	     How to copy, rename, print, compress, etc.
			       either one file or several files.
* Shell Commands in Dired::  Running a shell command on the marked files.
* Transforming File Names::  Using patterns to rename multiple files.
* Comparison in Dired::	     Running `diff' by way of Dired.
* Subdirectories in Dired::  Adding subdirectories to the Dired buffer.
* Subdir Switches::          Subdirectory switches in Dired.
* Subdirectory Motion::	     Moving across subdirectories, and up and down.
* Hiding Subdirectories::    Making subdirectories visible or invisible.
* Dired Updating::           Discarding lines for files of no interest.
* Dired and Find::	     Using `find' to choose the files for Dired.
* Wdired::                   Operating on files by editing the Dired buffer.
* Image-Dired::              Viewing image thumbnails in Dired
* Misc Dired Features::      Various other features.

The Calendar and the Diary

* Calendar Motion::     Moving through the calendar; selecting a date.
* Scroll Calendar::     Bringing earlier or later months onto the screen.
* Counting Days::       How many days are there between two dates?
* General Calendar::    Exiting or recomputing the calendar.
* Writing Calendar Files:: Writing calendars to files of various formats.
* Holidays::            Displaying dates of holidays.
* Sunrise/Sunset::      Displaying local times of sunrise and sunset.
* Lunar Phases::        Displaying phases of the moon.
* Other Calendars::     Converting dates to other calendar systems.
* Diary::               Displaying events from your diary.
* Appointments::	Reminders when it's time to do something.
* Importing Diary::     Converting diary events to/from other formats.
* Daylight Saving::    How to specify when daylight saving time is active.
* Time Intervals::      Keeping track of time intervals.
* Advanced Calendar/Diary Usage:: Advanced Calendar/Diary customization.

Movement in the Calendar

* Calendar Unit Motion::      Moving by days, weeks, months, and years.
* Move to Beginning or End::  Moving to start/end of weeks, months, and years.
* Specified Dates::	      Moving to the current date or another
				specific date.

Conversion To and From Other Calendars

* Calendar Systems::	   The calendars Emacs understands
			     (aside from Gregorian).
* To Other Calendar::	   Converting the selected date to various calendars.
* From Other Calendar::	   Moving to a date specified in another calendar.
* Mayan Calendar::	   Moving to a date specified in a Mayan calendar.

The Diary

* Displaying the Diary::   Viewing diary entries and associated calendar dates.
* Format of Diary File::   Entering events in your diary.
* Date Formats::	   Various ways you can specify dates.
* Adding to Diary::	   Commands to create diary entries.
* Special Diary Entries::  Anniversaries, blocks of dates, cyclic entries, etc.

Gnus

* Buffers of Gnus::	The group, summary, and article buffers.
* Gnus Startup::	What you should know about starting Gnus.
* Summary of Gnus::	A short description of the basic Gnus commands.

Running Shell Commands from Emacs

* Single Shell::	How to run one shell command and return.
* Interactive Shell::	Permanent shell taking input via Emacs.
* Shell Mode::		Special Emacs commands used with permanent shell.
* Shell Prompts::       Two ways to recognize shell prompts.
* Shell History::       Repeating previous commands in a shell buffer.
* Directory Tracking::  Keeping track when the subshell changes directory.
* Shell Options::       Options for customizing Shell mode.
* Terminal emulator::   An Emacs window as a terminal emulator.
* Term Mode::           Special Emacs commands used in Term mode.
* Paging in Term::      Paging in the terminal emulator.
* Remote Host::		Connecting to another computer.

Using Emacs as a Server

* Invoking emacsclient:: Emacs client startup options.

Printing Hard Copies

* PostScript::	         Printing buffers or regions as PostScript.
* PostScript Variables:: Customizing the PostScript printing commands.
* Printing Package::     An optional advanced printing interface.

Hyperlinking and Navigation Features

* Browse-URL::          Following URLs.
* Goto-address::        Activating URLs.
* FFAP::                Finding files etc. at point.

Customization

* Minor Modes::		Each minor mode is one feature you can turn on
			  independently of any others.
* Easy Customization::  Convenient way to browse and change user options.
* Variables::		Many Emacs commands examine Emacs variables
			  to decide what to do; by setting variables,
			  you can control their functioning.
* Key Bindings::	The keymaps say what command each key runs.
			  By changing them, you can "redefine keys".
* Syntax::		The syntax table controls how words and
			  expressions are parsed.
* Init File::		How to write common customizations in the
			  `.emacs' file.

Variables

* Examining::	        Examining or setting one variable's value.
* Hooks::	        Hook variables let you specify programs for parts
		          of Emacs to run on particular occasions.
* Locals::	        Per-buffer values of variables.
* File Variables::      How files can specify variable values.

Customizing Key Bindings

* Keymaps::             Generalities.  The global keymap.
* Prefix Keymaps::      Keymaps for prefix keys.
* Local Keymaps::       Major and minor modes have their own keymaps.
* Minibuffer Maps::     The minibuffer uses its own local keymaps.
* Rebinding::           How to redefine one key's meaning conveniently.
* Init Rebinding::      Rebinding keys with your init file, `.emacs'.
* Function Keys::       Rebinding terminal function keys.
* Named ASCII Chars::   Distinguishing <TAB> from C-i, and so on.
* Mouse Buttons::       Rebinding mouse buttons in Emacs.
* Disabling::           Disabling a command means confirmation is required
                          before it can be executed.  This is done to protect
                          beginners from surprises.

The Init File, `~/.emacs'

* Init Syntax::	        Syntax of constants in Emacs Lisp.
* Init Examples::       How to do some things with an init file.
* Terminal Init::       Each terminal type can have an init file.
* Find Init::	        How Emacs finds the init file.
* Init Non-ASCII::      Using non-ASCII characters in an init file.

Dealing with Emacs Trouble

* DEL Does Not Delete:: What to do if <DEL> doesn't delete.
* Stuck Recursive::     `[...]' in mode line around the parentheses.
* Screen Garbled::      Garbage on the screen.
* Text Garbled::        Garbage in the text.
* Memory Full::         How to cope when you run out of memory.
* After a Crash::       Recovering editing in an Emacs session that crashed.
* Emergency Escape::    Emergency escape---
                          What to do if Emacs stops responding.
* Total Frustration::   When you are at your wits' end.

Reporting Bugs

* Bug Criteria::        Have you really found a bug?
* Understanding Bug Reporting::	How to report a bug effectively.
* Checklist::		Steps to follow for a good bug report.
* Sending Patches::	How to send a patch for GNU Emacs.

Command Line Arguments for Emacs Invocation

* Action Arguments::	Arguments to visit files, load libraries,
			  and call functions.
* Initial Options::     Arguments that take effect while starting Emacs.
* Command Example::     Examples of using command line arguments.
* Resume Arguments::	Specifying arguments when you resume a running Emacs.
* Environment::         Environment variables that Emacs uses.
* Display X::           Changing the default display and using remote login.
* Font X::	        Choosing a font for text, under X.
* Colors::	        Choosing display colors.
* Window Size X::       Start-up window size, under X.
* Borders X::	        Internal and external borders, under X.
* Title X::             Specifying the initial frame's title.
* Icons X::             Choosing what sort of icon to use, under X.
* Misc X::              Other display options.

Environment Variables

* General Variables::	Environment variables that all versions of Emacs use.
* Misc Variables::	Certain system specific variables.
* MS-Windows Registry:: An alternative to the environment on MS-Windows.

X Options and Resources

* Resources::           Using X resources with Emacs (in general).
* Table of Resources::  Table of specific X resources that affect Emacs.
* Face Resources::      X resources for customizing faces.
* Lucid Resources::     X resources for Lucid menus.
* LessTif Resources::   X resources for LessTif and Motif menus.
* GTK resources::       Resources for GTK widgets.

Emacs and Mac OS

* Mac Input::           Keyboard and mouse input on Mac.
* Mac International::   International character sets on Mac.
* Mac Environment Variables::  Setting environment variables for Emacs.
* Mac Directories::     Volumes and directories on Mac.
* Mac Font Specs::      Specifying fonts on Mac.
* Mac Functions::       Mac-specific Lisp functions.

Emacs and Microsoft Windows/MS-DOS

* Text and Binary::     Text files use CRLF to terminate lines.
* Windows Files::       File-name conventions on Windows.
* ls in Lisp::          Emulation of `ls' for Dired.
* Windows HOME::        Where Emacs looks for your `.emacs'.
* Windows Keyboard::    Windows-specific keyboard features.
* Windows Mouse::       Windows-specific mouse features.
* Windows Processes::   Running subprocesses on Windows.
* Windows Printing::    How to specify the printer on MS-Windows.
* Windows Misc::        Miscellaneous Windows features.
* MS-DOS::              Using Emacs on MS-DOS (otherwise known as "MS-DOG").

File: emacs,  Node: Distrib,  Next: Intro,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

Distribution
************

GNU Emacs is "free software"; this means that everyone is free to use
it and free to redistribute it on certain conditions.  GNU Emacs is not
in the public domain; it is copyrighted and there are restrictions on
its distribution, but these restrictions are designed to permit
everything that a good cooperating citizen would want to do.  What is
not allowed is to try to prevent others from further sharing any
version of GNU Emacs that they might get from you.  The precise
conditions are found in the GNU General Public License that comes with
Emacs and also appears in this manual(1).  *Note Copying::.

   One way to get a copy of GNU Emacs is from someone else who has it.
You need not ask for our permission to do so, or tell any one else;
just copy it.  If you have access to the Internet, you can get the
latest distribution version of GNU Emacs by anonymous FTP; see
`http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs' on our website for more information.

   You may also receive GNU Emacs when you buy a computer.  Computer
manufacturers are free to distribute copies on the same terms that
apply to everyone else.  These terms require them to give you the full
sources, including whatever changes they may have made, and to permit
you to redistribute the GNU Emacs received from them under the usual
terms of the General Public License.  In other words, the program must
be free for you when you get it, not just free for the manufacturer.

   You can also order copies of GNU Emacs from the Free Software
Foundation.  This is a convenient and reliable way to get a copy; it is
also a good way to help fund our work.  We also sell hardcopy versions
of this manual and `An Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp', by
Robert J. Chassell.  You can find an order form on our web site at
`http://www.gnu.org/order/order.html'.  For further information, write
to

     Free Software Foundation
     51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor
     Boston, MA 02110-1301
     USA

   The income from distribution fees goes to support the foundation's
purpose: the development of new free software, and improvements to our
existing programs including GNU Emacs.

   If you find GNU Emacs useful, please *send a donation* to the Free
Software Foundation to support our work.  Donations to the Free
Software Foundation are tax deductible in the US.  If you use GNU Emacs
at your workplace, please suggest that the company make a donation.  If
company policy is unsympathetic to the idea of donating to charity, you
might instead suggest ordering a CD-ROM from the Foundation
occasionally, or subscribing to periodic updates.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This manual is itself covered by the GNU Free Documentation
License.  This license is similar in spirit to the General Public
License, but is more suitable for documentation.  *Note GNU Free
Documentation License::.

File: emacs,  Node: Copying,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Service,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
*************************************

                        Version 3, 29 June 2007

     Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. `http://fsf.org/'

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
     license document, but changing it is not allowed.

Preamble
========

The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software
and other kinds of works.

   The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed
to take away your freedom to share and change the works.  By contrast,
the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to
share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains
free software for all its users.  We, the Free Software Foundation, use
the GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies
also to any other work released this way by its authors.  You can apply
it to your programs, too.

   When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you
want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new
free programs, and that you know you can do these things.

   To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you
these rights or asking you to surrender the rights.  Therefore, you
have certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software,
or if you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.

   For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same
freedoms that you received.  You must make sure that they, too, receive
or can get the source code.  And you must show them these terms so they
know their rights.

   Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps:
(1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License
giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it.

   For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL clearly explains
that there is no warranty for this free software.  For both users' and
authors' sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as
changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to
authors of previous versions.

   Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run
modified versions of the software inside them, although the
manufacturer can do so.  This is fundamentally incompatible with the
aim of protecting users' freedom to change the software.  The
systematic pattern of such abuse occurs in the area of products for
individuals to use, which is precisely where it is most unacceptable.
Therefore, we have designed this version of the GPL to prohibit the
practice for those products.  If such problems arise substantially in
other domains, we stand ready to extend this provision to those domains
in future versions of the GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of
users.

   Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents.
States should not allow patents to restrict development and use of
software on general-purpose computers, but in those that do, we wish to
avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program could
make it effectively proprietary.  To prevent this, the GPL assures that
patents cannot be used to render the program non-free.

   The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.

TERMS AND CONDITIONS
====================

  0. Definitions.

     "This License" refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public
     License.

     "Copyright" also means copyright-like laws that apply to other
     kinds of works, such as semiconductor masks.

     "The Program" refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this
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     To "modify" a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the
     work in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the
     making of an exact copy.  The resulting work is called a "modified
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     A "covered work" means either the unmodified Program or a work
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     To "propagate" a work means to do anything with it that, without
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     To "convey" a work means any kind of propagation that enables other
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     An interactive user interface displays "Appropriate Legal Notices"
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  1. Source Code.

     The "source code" for a work means the preferred form of the work
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     All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of
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     acknowledges your rights of fair use or other equivalent, as
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     You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not
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  3. Protecting Users' Legal Rights From Anti-Circumvention Law.

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  4. Conveying Verbatim Copies.

     You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you
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     keep intact all notices stating that this License and any
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     give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program.

     You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey,
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  5. Conveying Modified Source Versions.

     You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to
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     terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these
     conditions:

       a. The work must carry prominent notices stating that you
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       b. The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is
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          section 7.  This requirement modifies the requirement in
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       c. You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this
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       d. If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display
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     A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent
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  6. Conveying Non-Source Forms.

     You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms
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  7. Additional Terms.

     "Additional permissions" are terms that supplement the terms of
     this License by making exceptions from one or more of its
     conditions.  Additional permissions that are applicable to the
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     this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable
     law.  If additional permissions apply only to part of the Program,
     that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the
     entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to
     the additional permissions.

     When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option
     remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part
     of it.  (Additional permissions may be written to require their own
     removal in certain cases when you modify the work.)  You may place
     additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work,
     for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission.

     Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material
     you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright
     holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License
     with terms:

       a. Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from
          the terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or

       b. Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices
          or author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate
          Legal Notices displayed by works containing it; or

       c. Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material,
          or requiring that modified versions of such material be
          marked in reasonable ways as different from the original
          version; or

       d. Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors
          or authors of the material; or

       e. Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some
          trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or

       f. Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that
          material by anyone who conveys the material (or modified
          versions of it) with contractual assumptions of liability to
          the recipient, for any liability that these contractual
          assumptions directly impose on those licensors and authors.

     All other non-permissive additional terms are considered "further
     restrictions" within the meaning of section 10.  If the Program as
     you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that
     it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further
     restriction, you may remove that term.  If a license document
     contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or
     conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work
     material governed by the terms of that license document, provided
     that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or
     conveying.

     If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you
     must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the
     additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating
     where to find the applicable terms.

     Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in
     the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions;
     the above requirements apply either way.

  8. Termination.

     You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly
     provided under this License.  Any attempt otherwise to propagate or
     modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights
     under this License (including any patent licenses granted under
     the third paragraph of section 11).

     However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
     license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
     provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly
     and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
     copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
     reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

     Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
     reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
     violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
     received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
     that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
     after your receipt of the notice.

     Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
     the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from
     you under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and
     not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new
     licenses for the same material under section 10.

  9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

     You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or
     run a copy of the Program.  Ancillary propagation of a covered work
     occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer
     transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require
     acceptance.  However, nothing other than this License grants you
     permission to propagate or modify any covered work.  These actions
     infringe copyright if you do not accept this License.  Therefore,
     by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your
     acceptance of this License to do so.

 10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.

     Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically
     receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and
     propagate that work, subject to this License.  You are not
     responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this
     License.

     An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an
     organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an
     organization, or merging organizations.  If propagation of a
     covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that
     transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever
     licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or
     could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to
     possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the
     predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it
     with reasonable efforts.

     You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the
     rights granted or affirmed under this License.  For example, you
     may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for
     exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not
     initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a
     lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making,
     using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any
     portion of it.

 11. Patents.

     A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this
     License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based.
     The work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor
     version".

     A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims
     owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or
     hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner,
     permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its
     contributor version, but do not include claims that would be
     infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the
     contributor version.  For purposes of this definition, "control"
     includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner
     consistent with the requirements of this License.

     Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide,
     royalty-free patent license under the contributor's essential
     patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and
     otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its
     contributor version.

     In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any
     express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to
     enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a
     patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement).  To
     "grant" such a patent license to a party means to make such an
     agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.

     If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent
     license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available
     for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this
     License, through a publicly available network server or other
     readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the
     Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive
     yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular
     work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements
     of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream
     recipients.  "Knowingly relying" means you have actual knowledge
     that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work
     in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in a
     country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that
     country that you have reason to believe are valid.

     If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
     arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a
     covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties
     receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate,
     modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the
     patent license you grant is automatically extended to all
     recipients of the covered work and works based on it.

     A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within
     the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is
     conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that
     are specifically granted under this License.  You may not convey a
     covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third
     party that is in the business of distributing software, under
     which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of
     your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third
     party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered
     work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection
     with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made
     from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with
     specific products or compilations that contain the covered work,
     unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license
     was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

     Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
     any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
     otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

 12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

     If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order,
     agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this
     License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this
     License.  If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy
     simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other
     pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it
     at all.  For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to
     collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you
     convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those
     terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying
     the Program.

 13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

     Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
     permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
     under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a
     single combined work, and to convey the resulting work.  The terms
     of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the
     covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero
     General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through
     a network will apply to the combination as such.

 14. Revised Versions of this License.

     The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new
     versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time.
     Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present
     version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or
     concerns.

     Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the
     Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU
     General Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that numbered version or of any later version published by the
     Free Software Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a
     version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose
     any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

     If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
     versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.

     Later license versions may give you additional or different
     permissions.  However, no additional obligations are imposed on any
     author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a
     later version.

 15. Disclaimer of Warranty.

     THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
     APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE
     COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS"
     WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED,
     INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
     MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE
     RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.
     SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL
     NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

 16. Limitation of Liability.

     IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN
     WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES
     AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU
     FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR
     CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE
     THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA
     BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD
     PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
     PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF
     THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

 17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

     If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
     above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
     reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely
     approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in
     connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of
     liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.


END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
===========================

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
=============================================

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these
terms.

   To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the
"copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

     ONE LINE TO GIVE THE PROGRAM'S NAME AND A BRIEF IDEA OF WHAT IT DOES.
     Copyright (C) YEAR NAME OF AUTHOR

     This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
     it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
     the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at
     your option) any later version.

     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
     WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
     General Public License for more details.

     You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
     along with this program.  If not, see `http://www.gnu.org/licenses/'.

   Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper
mail.

   If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short
notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

     PROGRAM Copyright (C) YEAR NAME OF AUTHOR
     This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
     This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
     under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.

   The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the
appropriate parts of the General Public License.  Of course, your
program's commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would
use an "about box".

   You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
necessary.  For more information on this, and how to apply and follow
the GNU GPL, see `http://www.gnu.org/licenses/'.

   The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your
program into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine
library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary
applications with the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the
GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License.  But first,
please read `http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html'.

File: emacs,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Next: Emacs Invocation,  Prev: Copying,  Up: Top

Appendix B GNU Free Documentation License
*****************************************

                      Version 1.2, November 2002

     Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft," which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.


  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it
     can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document," below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you."  You
     accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a
     way requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter
     section of the Document that deals exclusively with the
     relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the
     Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains
     nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject.
     (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a
     Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.)  The
     relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the
     subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial,
     philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in
     the notice that says that the Document is released under this
     License.  If a section does not fit the above definition of
     Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.
     The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document
     does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
     general public, that is suitable for revising the document
     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images
     composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some
     widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to
     text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of
     formats suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an
     otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of
     markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent
     modification by readers is not Transparent.  An image format is
     not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text.  A
     copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque."

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
     standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for
     human modification.  Examples of transparent image formats include
     PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats include proprietary formats that
     can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML
     or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally
     available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF
     produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
     whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
     stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
     "Acknowledgements," "Dedications," "Endorsements," or "History.")
     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow
     the conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the
     title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material
     on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the
     covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
     satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in
     other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a
     machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
     state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from
     which the general network-using public has access to download
     using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent
     copy of the Document, free of added material.  If you use the
     latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
     begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that
     this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
     location until at least one year after the last time you
     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
     retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of
     copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
     version of the Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

     A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
     distinct    from that of the Document, and from those of previous
     versions    (which should, if there were any, be listed in the
     History section    of the Document).  You may use the same title
     as a previous version    if the original publisher of that version
     gives permission.
     B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
     entities    responsible for authorship of the modifications in the
     Modified    Version, together with at least five of the principal
     authors of the    Document (all of its principal authors, if it
     has fewer than five),    unless they release you from this
     requirement.
     C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
     Modified Version, as the publisher.
     D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
     E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
     adjacent to the other copyright notices.
     F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
     notice    giving the public permission to use the Modified Version
     under the    terms of this License, in the form shown in the
     Addendum below.
     G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
     Sections    and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
     license notice.
     H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
     I. Preserve the section Entitled "History," Preserve its Title,
     and add    to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
     authors, and    publisher of the Modified Version as given on the
     Title Page.  If    there is no section Entitled "History" in the
     Document, create one    stating the title, year, authors, and
     publisher of the Document as    given on its Title Page, then add
     an item describing the Modified    Version as stated in the
     previous sentence.
     J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
       public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
       the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
       it was based on.  These may be placed in the "History" section.
       You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
       least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
      publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
     K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications,"
     Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
       the substance and tone of each of the contributor
     acknowledgements    and/or dedications given therein.
     L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
     unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
     or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
     M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements."  Such a section
     may not be included in the Modified Version.
     N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
     "Endorsements"    or to conflict in title with any Invariant
     Section.
     O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements," provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties-for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
     been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition
     of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
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ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
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   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
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File: emacs,  Node: Intro,  Next: Glossary,  Prev: Distrib,  Up: Top

Introduction
************

You are reading about GNU Emacs, the GNU incarnation of the advanced,
self-documenting, customizable, extensible editor Emacs.  (The `G' in
`GNU' is not silent.)

   We call Emacs advanced because it provides much more than simple
insertion and deletion.  It can control subprocesses, indent programs
automatically, show two or more files at once, and edit formatted text.
Emacs editing commands operate in terms of characters, words, lines,
sentences, paragraphs, and pages, as well as expressions and comments
in various programming languages.

   "Self-documenting" means that at any time you can type a special
character, `Control-h', to find out what your options are.  You can
also use it to find out what any command does, or to find all the
commands that pertain to a topic.  *Note Help::.

   "Customizable" means that you can alter Emacs commands' behavior in
simple ways.  For example, if you use a programming language in which
comments start with `<**' and end with `**>', you can tell the Emacs
comment manipulation commands to use those strings (*note Comments::).
Another sort of customization is rearrangement of the command set.  For
example, you can rebind the basic cursor motion commands (up, down,
left and right) to any keys on the keyboard that you find comfortable.
*Note Customization::.

   "Extensible" means that you can go beyond simple customization and
write entirely new commands--programs in the Lisp language to be run by
Emacs's own Lisp interpreter.  Emacs is an "on-line extensible" system,
which means that it is divided into many functions that call each
other, any of which can be redefined in the middle of an editing
session.  Almost any part of Emacs can be replaced without making a
separate copy of all of Emacs.  Most of the editing commands of Emacs
are written in Lisp; the few exceptions could have been written in Lisp
but use C instead for efficiency.  Writing an extension is programming,
but non-programmers can use it afterwards.  *Note Emacs Lisp Intro:
(eintr)Top, if you want to learn Emacs Lisp programming.

   When running on a graphical display, Emacs provides its own menus
and convenient handling of mouse buttons.  In addition, Emacs provides
many of the benefits of a graphical display even on a text-only
terminal.  For instance, it can highlight parts of a file, display and
edit several files at once, move text between files, and edit files
while running shell commands.

File: emacs,  Node: Glossary,  Next: Key Index,  Prev: Intro,  Up: Top

Glossary
********

Abbrev
     An abbrev is a text string which expands into a different text
     string when present in the buffer.  For example, you might define
     a few letters as an abbrev for a long phrase that you want to
     insert frequently.  *Note Abbrevs::.

Aborting
     Aborting means getting out of a recursive edit (q.v.).  The
     commands `C-]' and `M-x top-level' are used for this.  *Note
     Quitting::.

Alt
     Alt is the name of a modifier bit which a keyboard input character
     may have.  To make a character Alt, type it while holding down the
     <ALT> key.  Such characters are given names that start with `Alt-'
     (usually written `A-' for short).  (Note that many terminals have a
     key labeled <ALT> which is really a <META> key.)  *Note Alt: User
     Input.

Argument
     See `numeric argument.'

ASCII character
     An ASCII character is either an ASCII control character or an ASCII
     printing character.  *Note User Input::.

ASCII control character
     An ASCII control character is the Control version of an upper-case
     letter, or the Control version of one of the characters `@[\]^_?'.

ASCII printing character
     ASCII printing characters include letters, digits, space, and these
     punctuation characters: `!@#$%^& *()_-+=|\~` {}[]:;"' <>,.?/'.

Auto Fill Mode
     Auto Fill mode is a minor mode in which text that you insert is
     automatically broken into lines of a given maximum width.  *Note
     Filling::.

Auto Saving
     Auto saving is the practice of saving the contents of an Emacs
     buffer in a specially-named file, so that the information will not
     be lost if the buffer is lost due to a system error or user error.
     *Note Auto Save::.

Autoloading
     Emacs automatically loads Lisp libraries when a Lisp program
     requests a function or a variable from those libraries.  This is
     called `autoloading'.  *Note Lisp Libraries::.

Backtrace
     A backtrace is a trace of a series of function calls showing how a
     program arrived to a certain point.  It is used mainly for finding
     and correcting bugs (q.v.).  Emacs can display a backtrace when it
     signals an error or when you type `C-g' (see `quitting').  *Note
     Checklist::.

Backup File
     A backup file records the contents that a file had before the
     current editing session.  Emacs makes backup files automatically
     to help you track down or cancel changes you later regret making.
     *Note Backup::.

Balancing Parentheses
     Emacs can balance parentheses (or other matching delimiters) either
     manually or automatically.  You do manual balancing with the
     commands to move over parenthetical groupings (*note Moving by
     Parens::).  Automatic balancing works by blinking or highlighting
     the delimiter that matches the one you just inserted (*note
     Matching Parens: Matching.).

Balanced Expressions
     A balanced expression is a syntactically recognizable expression,
     such as a symbol, number, string constant, block, or parenthesized
     expression in C.  *Note Balanced Expressions: Expressions.

Balloon Help
     See `tooltips.'

Base Buffer
     A base buffer is a buffer whose text is shared by an indirect
     buffer (q.v.).

Bind
     To bind a key sequence means to give it a binding (q.v.).  *Note
     Rebinding::.

Binding
     A key sequence gets its meaning in Emacs by having a binding,
     which is a command (q.v.), a Lisp function that is run when the
     user types that sequence.  *Note Binding: Commands.  Customization
     often involves rebinding a character to a different command
     function.  The bindings of all key sequences are recorded in the
     keymaps (q.v.).  *Note Keymaps::.

Blank Lines
     Blank lines are lines that contain only whitespace.  Emacs has
     several commands for operating on the blank lines in the buffer.

Bookmark
     Bookmarks are akin to registers (q.v.) in that they record
     positions in buffers to which you can return later.  Unlike
     registers, bookmarks persist between Emacs sessions.

Border
     A border is a thin space along the edge of the frame, used just for
     spacing, not for displaying anything.  An Emacs frame has an
     ordinary external border, outside of everything including the menu
     bar, plus an internal border that surrounds the text windows and
     their scroll bars and separates them from the menu bar and tool
     bar.  You can customize both borders with options and resources
     (*note Borders X::).  Borders are not the same as fringes (q.v.).

Buffer
     The buffer is the basic editing unit; one buffer corresponds to
     one text being edited.  You can have several buffers, but at any
     time you are editing only one, the `current buffer,' though
     several can be visible when you are using multiple windows (q.v.).
     Most buffers are visiting (q.v.) some file.  *Note Buffers::.

Buffer Selection History
     Emacs keeps a buffer selection history which records how recently
     each Emacs buffer has been selected.  This is used for choosing a
     buffer to select.  *Note Buffers::.

Bug
     A bug is an incorrect or unreasonable behavior of a program, or
     inaccurate or confusing documentation.  Emacs developers treat bug
     reports, both in Emacs code and its documentation, very seriously
     and ask you to report any bugs you find.  *Note Bugs::.

Button Down Event
     A button down event is the kind of input event generated right
     away when you press down on a mouse button.  *Note Mouse Buttons::.

By Default
     See `default.'

Byte Compilation
     See `compilation.'

`C-'
     `C-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for Control.
     *Note C-: User Input.

`C-M-'
     `C-M-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for
     Control-Meta.  *Note C-M-: User Input.

Case Conversion
     Case conversion means changing text from upper case to lower case
     or vice versa.  *Note Case::, for the commands for case conversion.

Character
     Characters form the contents of an Emacs buffer; see *note Text
     Characters::.  Also, key sequences (q.v.) are usually made up of
     characters (though they may include other input events as well).
     *Note User Input::.

Character Set
     Emacs supports a number of character sets, each of which
     represents a particular alphabet or script.  *Note International::.

Character Terminal
     See `text-only terminal.'

Click Event
     A click event is the kind of input event generated when you press a
     mouse button and release it without moving the mouse.  *Note Mouse
     Buttons::.

Clipboard
     A clipboard is a buffer provided by the window system for
     transferring text between applications.  On the X Window system,
     the clipboard is provided in addition to the primary selection
     (q.v.); on MS-Windows and Mac, the clipboard is used _instead_ of
     the primary selection.  *Note Clipboard::.

Coding System
     A coding system is an encoding for representing text characters in
     a file or in a stream of information.  Emacs has the ability to
     convert text to or from a variety of coding systems when reading
     or writing it.  *Note Coding Systems::.

Command
     A command is a Lisp function specially defined to be able to serve
     as a key binding in Emacs.  When you type a key sequence (q.v.),
     its binding (q.v.) is looked up in the relevant keymaps (q.v.) to
     find the command to run.  *Note Commands::.

Command History
     See `minibuffer history.'

Command Name
     A command name is the name of a Lisp symbol which is a command
     (*note Commands::).  You can invoke any command by its name using
     `M-x' (*note M-x: M-x.).

Comment
     A comment is text in a program which is intended only for humans
     reading the program, and which is marked specially so that it will
     be ignored when the program is loaded or compiled.  Emacs offers
     special commands for creating, aligning and killing comments.
     *Note Comments::.

Common Lisp
     Common Lisp is a dialect of Lisp (q.v.) much larger and more
     powerful than Emacs Lisp.  Emacs provides a subset of Common Lisp
     in the CL package.  *Note Common Lisp: (cl)Top.

Compilation
     Compilation is the process of creating an executable program from
     source code.  Emacs has commands for compiling files of Emacs Lisp
     code (*note Byte Compilation: (elisp)Byte Compilation.) and
     programs in C and other languages (*note Compilation::).

Complete Key
     A complete key is a key sequence which fully specifies one action
     to be performed by Emacs.  For example, `X' and `C-f' and `C-x m'
     are complete keys.  Complete keys derive their meanings from being
     bound (q.v.) to commands (q.v.).  Thus, `X' is conventionally
     bound to a command to insert `X' in the buffer; `C-x m' is
     conventionally bound to a command to begin composing a mail
     message.  *Note Keys::.

Completion
     Completion is what Emacs does when it automatically fills out an
     abbreviation for a name into the entire name.  Completion is done
     for minibuffer (q.v.) arguments when the set of possible valid
     inputs is known; for example, on command names, buffer names, and
     file names.  Completion occurs when <TAB>, <SPC> or <RET> is
     typed.  *Note Completion::.

Continuation Line
     When a line of text is longer than the width of the window, it
     takes up more than one screen line when displayed.  We say that the
     text line is continued, and all screen lines used for it after the
     first are called continuation lines.  *Note Continuation Lines::.
     A related Emacs feature is `filling' (q.v.).

Control Character
     A control character is a character that you type by holding down
     the <CTRL> key.  Some control characters also have their own keys,
     so that you can type them without using <CTRL>.  For example,
     <RET>, <TAB>, <ESC> and <DEL> are all control characters.  *Note
     User Input::.

Copyleft
     A copyleft is a notice giving the public legal permission to
     redistribute and modify a program or other work of art, but
     requiring modified versions to carry similar permission.
     Copyright is normally used to keep users divided and helpless;
     with copyleft we turn that around to empower users and encourage
     them to cooperate.

     The particular form of copyleft used by the GNU project is called
     the GNU General Public License.  *Note Copying::.

<CTRL>
     The <CTRL> or "control" key is what you hold down in order to
     enter a control character (q.v.).

Current Buffer
     The current buffer in Emacs is the Emacs buffer on which most
     editing commands operate.  You can select any Emacs buffer as the
     current one.  *Note Buffers::.

Current Line
     The current line is the line that point is on (*note Point::).

Current Paragraph
     The current paragraph is the paragraph that point is in.  If point
     is between two paragraphs, the current paragraph is the one that
     follows point.  *Note Paragraphs::.

Current Defun
     The current defun is the defun (q.v.) that point is in.  If point
     is between defuns, the current defun is the one that follows point.
     *Note Defuns::.

Cursor
     The cursor is the rectangle on the screen which indicates the
     position called point (q.v.) at which insertion and deletion takes
     place.  The cursor is on or under the character that follows
     point.  Often people speak of `the cursor' when, strictly
     speaking, they mean `point.'  *Note Cursor: Point.

Customization
     Customization is making minor changes in the way Emacs works.  It
     is often done by setting variables (*note Variables::) or faces
     (*note Face Customization::), or by rebinding key sequences (*note
     Keymaps::).

Cut and Paste
     See `killing' and `yanking.'

Default Argument
     The default for an argument is the value that will be assumed if
     you do not specify one.  When the minibuffer is used to read an
     argument, the default argument is used if you just type <RET>.
     *Note Minibuffer::.

Default
     A default is the value that is used for a certain purpose if and
     when you do not specify a value to use.

Default Directory
     When you specify a file name that does not start with `/' or `~',
     it is interpreted relative to the current buffer's default
     directory.  (On MS-Windows and MS-DOS, file names which start with
     a drive letter `X:' are treated as absolute, not relative.)  *Note
     Default Directory: Minibuffer File.

Defun
     A defun is a major definition at the top level in a program.  The
     name `defun' comes from Lisp, where most such definitions use the
     construct `defun'.  *Note Defuns::.

<DEL>
     <DEL> is a character that runs the command to delete one character
     of text before the cursor.  It is typically either the <DELETE>
     key or the <BACKSPACE> key, whichever one is easy to type.  *Note
     DEL: Erasing.

Deletion
     Deletion means erasing text without copying it into the kill ring
     (q.v.).  The alternative is killing (q.v.).  *Note Deletion:
     Killing.

Deletion of Files
     Deleting a file means erasing it from the file system.  *Note Misc
     File Ops: Misc File Ops.

Deletion of Messages
     Deleting a message means flagging it to be eliminated from your
     mail file.  Until you expunge (q.v.) the Rmail file, you can still
     undelete the messages you have deleted.  *Note Rmail Deletion::.

Deletion of Windows
     Deleting a window means eliminating it from the screen.  Other
     windows expand to use up the space.  The deleted window can never
     come back, but no actual text is thereby lost.  *Note Windows::.

Directory
     File directories are named collections in the file system, within
     which you can place individual files or subdirectories.  *Note
     Directories::.

Dired
     Dired is the Emacs facility that displays the contents of a file
     directory and allows you to "edit the directory," performing
     operations on the files in the directory.  *Note Dired::.

Disabled Command
     A disabled command is one that you may not run without special
     confirmation.  The usual reason for disabling a command is that it
     is confusing for beginning users.  *Note Disabling::.

Down Event
     Short for `button down event' (q.v.).

Drag Event
     A drag event is the kind of input event generated when you press a
     mouse button, move the mouse, and then release the button.  *Note
     Mouse Buttons::.

Dribble File
     A dribble file is a file into which Emacs writes all the
     characters that you type on the keyboard.  Dribble files are used
     to make a record for debugging Emacs bugs.  Emacs does not make a
     dribble file unless you tell it to.  *Note Bugs::.

Echo Area
     The echo area is the bottom line of the screen, used for echoing
     the arguments to commands, for asking questions, and showing brief
     messages (including error messages).  The messages are stored in
     the buffer `*Messages*' so you can review them later.  *Note Echo
     Area::.

Echoing
     Echoing is acknowledging the receipt of input events by displaying
     them (in the echo area).  Emacs never echoes single-character key
     sequences; longer key sequences echo only if you pause while typing
     them.

Electric
     We say that a character is electric if it is normally
     self-inserting (q.v.), but the current major mode (q.v.) redefines
     it to do something else as well.  For example, some programming
     language major modes define particular delimiter characters to
     reindent the line or insert one or more newlines in addition to
     self-insertion.

End Of Line
     End of line is a character or a sequence of characters that
     indicate the end of a text line.  On GNU and Unix systems, this is
     a newline (q.v.), but other systems have other conventions.  *Note
     end-of-line: Coding Systems.  Emacs can recognize several
     end-of-line conventions in files and convert between them.

Environment Variable
     An environment variable is one of a collection of variables stored
     by the operating system, each one having a name and a value.
     Emacs can access environment variables set by its parent shell,
     and it can set variables in the environment it passes to programs
     it invokes.  *Note Environment::.

EOL
     See `end of line.'

Error
     An error occurs when an Emacs command cannot execute in the current
     circumstances.  When an error occurs, execution of the command
     stops (unless the command has been programmed to do otherwise) and
     Emacs reports the error by displaying an error message (q.v.).
     Type-ahead is discarded.  Then Emacs is ready to read another
     editing command.

Error Message
     An error message is a single line of output displayed by Emacs
     when the user asks for something impossible to do (such as,
     killing text forward when point is at the end of the buffer).
     They appear in the echo area, accompanied by a beep.

<ESC>
     <ESC> is a character used as a prefix for typing Meta characters on
     keyboards lacking a <META> key.  Unlike the <META> key (which,
     like the <SHIFT> key, is held down while another character is
     typed), you press the <ESC> key as you would press a letter key,
     and it applies to the next character you type.

Expression
     See `balanced expression.'

Expunging
     Expunging an Rmail file or Dired buffer or a Gnus newsgroup buffer
     is an operation that truly discards the messages or files you have
     previously flagged for deletion.

Face
     A face is a style of displaying characters.  It specifies
     attributes such as font family and size, foreground and background
     colors, underline and strike-through, background stipple, etc.
     Emacs provides features to associate specific faces with portions
     of buffer text, in order to display that text as specified by the
     face attributes.  *Note Faces::.

File Locking
     Emacs uses file locking to notice when two different users start
     to edit one file at the same time.  *Note Interlocking::.

File Name
     A file name is a name that refers to a file.  File names may be
     relative or absolute; the meaning of a relative file name depends
     on the current directory, but an absolute file name refers to the
     same file regardless of which directory is current.  On GNU and
     Unix systems, an absolute file name starts with a slash (the root
     directory) or with `~/' or `~USER/' (a home directory).  On
     MS-Windows/MS-DOS, an absolute file name can also start with a
     drive letter and a colon `D:'.

     Some people use the term "pathname" for file names, but we do not;
     we use the word "path" only in the term "search path" (q.v.).

File-Name Component
     A file-name component names a file directly within a particular
     directory.  On GNU and Unix systems, a file name is a sequence of
     file-name components, separated by slashes.  For example, `foo/bar'
     is a file name containing two components, `foo' and `bar'; it
     refers to the file named `bar' in the directory named `foo' in the
     current directory.  MS-DOS/MS-Windows file names can also use
     backslashes to separate components, as in `foo\bar'.

Fill Prefix
     The fill prefix is a string that should be expected at the
     beginning of each line when filling is done.  It is not regarded
     as part of the text to be filled.  *Note Filling::.

Filling
     Filling text means shifting text between consecutive lines so that
     all the lines are approximately the same length.  *Note Filling::.
     Some other editors call this feature `line wrapping.'

Font Lock
     Font Lock is a mode that highlights parts of buffer text according
     to its syntax.  *Note Font Lock::.

Fontset
     A fontset is a named collection of fonts.  A fontset specification
     lists character sets and which font to use to display each of
     them.  Fontsets make it easy to change several fonts at once by
     specifying the name of a fontset, rather than changing each font
     separately.  *Note Fontsets::.

Formatted Text
     Formatted text is text that displays with formatting information
     while you edit.  Formatting information includes fonts, colors,
     and specified margins.  *Note Formatted Text::.

Formfeed Character
     See `page.'

Frame
     A frame is a rectangular cluster of Emacs windows.  Emacs starts
     out with one frame, but you can create more.  You can subdivide
     each frame into Emacs windows (q.v.).  When you are using a window
     system (q.v.), all the frames can be visible at the same time.
     *Note Frames::.  Some other editors use the term "window" for this,
     but in Emacs a window means something else.

Fringe
     On a graphical display (q.v.), there's a narrow portion of the
     frame (q.v.) between the text area and the window's border.  Emacs
     displays the fringe using a special face (q.v.) called `fringe'.
     *Note fringe: Faces.

FTP
     FTP is an acronym for File Transfer Protocol.  Emacs uses an FTP
     client program to provide access to remote files (q.v.).

Function Key
     A function key is a key on the keyboard that sends input but does
     not correspond to any character.  *Note Function Keys::.

Global
     Global means "independent of the current environment; in effect
     throughout Emacs."  It is the opposite of local (q.v.).  Particular
     examples of the use of `global' appear below.

Global Abbrev
     A global definition of an abbrev (q.v.) is effective in all major
     modes that do not have local (q.v.) definitions for the same
     abbrev.  *Note Abbrevs::.

Global Keymap
     The global keymap (q.v.) contains key bindings that are in effect
     except when overridden by local key bindings in a major mode's
     local keymap (q.v.).  *Note Keymaps::.

Global Mark Ring
     The global mark ring records the series of buffers you have
     recently set a mark (q.v.) in.  In many cases you can use this to
     backtrack through buffers you have been editing in, or in which
     you have found tags (see `tags table').  *Note Global Mark Ring::.

Global Substitution
     Global substitution means replacing each occurrence of one string
     by another string throughout a large amount of text.  *Note
     Replace::.

Global Variable
     The global value of a variable (q.v.) takes effect in all buffers
     that do not have their own local (q.v.) values for the variable.
     *Note Variables::.

Graphic Character
     Graphic characters are those assigned pictorial images rather than
     just names.  All the non-Meta (q.v.) characters except for the
     Control (q.v.) characters are graphic characters.  These include
     letters, digits, punctuation, and spaces; they do not include
     <RET> or <ESC>.  In Emacs, typing a graphic character inserts that
     character (in ordinary editing modes).  *Note Inserting Text::.

Graphical Display
     A graphical display is one that can display images and multiple
     fonts.  Usually it also has a window system (q.v.).

Highlighting
     Highlighting text means displaying it with a different foreground
     and/or background color to make it stand out from the rest of the
     text in the buffer.

     Emacs uses highlighting in several ways.  When you mark a region
     with the mouse, the region is always highlighted.  Optionally
     Emacs can also highlight the region whenever it is active (*note
     Transient Mark::).  Incremental search also highlights matches
     (*note Incremental Search::).  See also `font lock'.

Hardcopy
     Hardcopy means printed output.  Emacs has commands for making
     printed listings of text in Emacs buffers.  *Note Printing::.

<HELP>
     <HELP> is the Emacs name for `C-h' or <F1>.  You can type <HELP>
     at any time to ask what options you have, or to ask what any
     command does.  *Note Help::.

Help Echo
     Help echo is a short message displayed in the echo area when the
     mouse pointer is located on portions of display that require some
     explanations.  Emacs displays help echo for menu items, parts of
     the mode line, tool-bar buttons, etc.  On graphics displays, the
     messages can be displayed as tooltips (q.v.).  *Note Tooltips::.

Hook
     A hook is a list of functions to be called on specific occasions,
     such as saving a buffer in a file, major mode activation, etc.  By
     customizing the various hooks, you can modify Emacs's behavior
     without changing any of its code.  *Note Hooks::.

Hyper
     Hyper is the name of a modifier bit which a keyboard input
     character may have.  To make a character Hyper, type it while
     holding down the <HYPER> key.  Such characters are given names
     that start with `Hyper-' (usually written `H-' for short).  *Note
     Hyper: User Input.

Iff
     "Iff" means "if and only if."  This terminology comes from
     mathematics.  Try to avoid using this term in documentation, since
     many are unfamiliar with it and mistake it for a typo.

Inbox
     An inbox is a file in which mail is delivered by the operating
     system.  Rmail transfers mail from inboxes to Rmail files (q.v.)
     in which the mail is then stored permanently or until explicitly
     deleted.  *Note Rmail Inbox::.

Incremental Search
     Emacs provides an incremental search facility, whereby Emacs
     searches for the string as you type it.  *Note Incremental
     Search::.

Indentation
     Indentation means blank space at the beginning of a line.  Most
     programming languages have conventions for using indentation to
     illuminate the structure of the program, and Emacs has special
     commands to adjust indentation.  *Note Indentation::.

Indirect Buffer
     An indirect buffer is a buffer that shares the text of another
     buffer, called its base buffer (q.v.).  *Note Indirect Buffers::.

Info
     Info is the hypertext format used by the GNU project for writing
     documentation.

Input Event
     An input event represents, within Emacs, one action taken by the
     user on the terminal.  Input events include typing characters,
     typing function keys, pressing or releasing mouse buttons, and
     switching between Emacs frames.  *Note User Input::.

Input Method
     An input method is a system for entering non-ASCII text characters
     by typing sequences of ASCII characters (q.v.).  *Note Input
     Methods::.

Insertion
     Insertion means copying text into the buffer, either from the
     keyboard or from some other place in Emacs.

Interlocking
     Interlocking is a feature for warning when you start to alter a
     file that someone else is already editing.  *Note Interlocking:
     Interlocking.

Isearch
     See `incremental search.'

Justification
     Justification means adding extra spaces within lines of text to
     make them extend exactly to a specified width.  *Note Format
     Justification::.

Key Binding
     See `binding.'

Keyboard Macro
     Keyboard macros are a way of defining new Emacs commands from
     sequences of existing ones, with no need to write a Lisp program.
     *Note Keyboard Macros::.

Keyboard Shortcut
     A keyboard shortcut is a key sequence (q.v.) which invokes a
     command.  What some programs call "assigning a keyboard shortcut,"
     Emacs calls "binding a key sequence."  See `binding.'

Key Sequence
     A key sequence (key, for short) is a sequence of input events
     (q.v.)  that are meaningful as a single unit.  If the key sequence
     is enough to specify one action, it is a complete key (q.v.); if
     it is not enough, it is a prefix key (q.v.).  *Note Keys::.

Keymap
     The keymap is the data structure that records the bindings (q.v.)
     of key sequences to the commands that they run.  For example, the
     global keymap binds the character `C-n' to the command function
     `next-line'.  *Note Keymaps::.

Keyboard Translation Table
     The keyboard translation table is an array that translates the
     character codes that come from the terminal into the character
     codes that make up key sequences.

Kill Ring
     The kill ring is where all text you have killed recently is saved.
     You can reinsert any of the killed text still in the ring; this is
     called yanking (q.v.).  *Note Yanking::.

Killing
     Killing means erasing text and saving it on the kill ring so it
     can be yanked (q.v.) later.  Some other systems call this
     "cutting."  Most Emacs commands that erase text perform killing,
     as opposed to deletion (q.v.).  *Note Killing::.

Killing a Job
     Killing a job (such as, an invocation of Emacs) means making it
     cease to exist.  Any data within it, if not saved in a file, is
     lost.  *Note Exiting::.

Language Environment
     Your choice of language environment specifies defaults for the
     input method (q.v.) and coding system (q.v.).  *Note Language
     Environments::.  These defaults are relevant if you edit non-ASCII
     text (*note International::).

Line Wrapping
     See `filling.'

Lisp
     Lisp is a programming language.  Most of Emacs is written in a
     dialect of Lisp, called Emacs Lisp, that is extended with special
     features which make it especially suitable for text editing tasks.

List
     A list is, approximately, a text string beginning with an open
     parenthesis and ending with the matching close parenthesis.  In C
     mode and other non-Lisp modes, groupings surrounded by other kinds
     of matched delimiters appropriate to the language, such as braces,
     are also considered lists.  Emacs has special commands for many
     operations on lists.  *Note Moving by Parens::.

Local
     Local means "in effect only in a particular context"; the relevant
     kind of context is a particular function execution, a particular
     buffer, or a particular major mode.  It is the opposite of `global'
     (q.v.).  Specific uses of `local' in Emacs terminology appear
     below.

Local Abbrev
     A local abbrev definition is effective only if a particular major
     mode is selected.  In that major mode, it overrides any global
     definition for the same abbrev.  *Note Abbrevs::.

Local Keymap
     A local keymap is used in a particular major mode; the key bindings
     (q.v.) in the current local keymap override global bindings of the
     same key sequences.  *Note Keymaps::.

Local Variable
     A local value of a variable (q.v.) applies to only one buffer.
     *Note Locals::.

`M-'
     `M-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for <META>, one
     of the modifier keys that can accompany any character.  *Note M-:
     User Input.

`M-C-'
     `M-C-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for
     Control-Meta; it means the same thing as `C-M-'.  If your terminal
     lacks a real <META> key, you type a Control-Meta character by
     typing <ESC> and then typing the corresponding Control character.
     *Note C-M-: User Input.

`M-x'
     `M-x' is the key sequence which is used to call an Emacs command by
     name.  This is how you run commands that are not bound to key
     sequences.  *Note M-x: M-x.

Mail
     Mail means messages sent from one user to another through the
     computer system, to be read at the recipient's convenience.  Emacs
     has commands for composing and sending mail, and for reading and
     editing the mail you have received.  *Note Sending Mail::.  *Note
     Rmail::, for how to read mail.

Mail Composition Method
     A mail composition method is a program runnable within Emacs for
     editing and sending a mail message.  Emacs lets you select from
     several alternative mail composition methods.  *Note Mail
     Methods::.

Major Mode
     The Emacs major modes are a mutually exclusive set of options,
     each of which configures Emacs for editing a certain sort of text.
     Ideally, each programming language has its own major mode.  *Note
     Major Modes::.

Margin
     The space between the usable part of a window (including the
     fringe) and the window edge.

Mark
     The mark points to a position in the text.  It specifies one end
     of the region (q.v.), point being the other end.  Many commands
     operate on all the text from point to the mark.  Each buffer has
     its own mark.  *Note Mark::.

Mark Ring
     The mark ring is used to hold several recent previous locations of
     the mark, just in case you want to move back to them.  Each buffer
     has its own mark ring; in addition, there is a single global mark
     ring (q.v.).  *Note Mark Ring::.

Menu Bar
     The menu bar is the line at the top of an Emacs frame.  It contains
     words you can click on with the mouse to bring up menus, or you
     can use a keyboard interface to navigate it.  *Note Menu Bars::.

Message
     See `mail.'

Meta
     Meta is the name of a modifier bit which you can use in a command
     character.  To enter a meta character, you hold down the <META>
     key while typing the character.  We refer to such characters with
     names that start with `Meta-' (usually written `M-' for short).
     For example, `M-<' is typed by holding down <META> and at the same
     time typing `<' (which itself is done, on most terminals, by
     holding down <SHIFT> and typing `,').  *Note Meta: User Input.

     On some terminals, the <META> key is actually labeled <ALT> or
     <EDIT>.

Meta Character
     A Meta character is one whose character code includes the Meta bit.

Minibuffer
     The minibuffer is the window that appears when necessary inside the
     echo area (q.v.), used for reading arguments to commands.  *Note
     Minibuffer::.

Minibuffer History
     The minibuffer history records the text you have specified in the
     past for minibuffer arguments, so you can conveniently use the
     same text again.  *Note Minibuffer History::.

Minor Mode
     A minor mode is an optional feature of Emacs which can be switched
     on or off independently of all other features.  Each minor mode
     has a command to turn it on or off.  *Note Minor Modes::.

Minor Mode Keymap
     A minor mode keymap is a keymap that belongs to a minor mode and is
     active when that mode is enabled.  Minor mode keymaps take
     precedence over the buffer's local keymap, just as the local
     keymap takes precedence over the global keymap.  *Note Keymaps::.

Mode Line
     The mode line is the line at the bottom of each window (q.v.),
     giving status information on the buffer displayed in that window.
     *Note Mode Line::.

Modified Buffer
     A buffer (q.v.) is modified if its text has been changed since the
     last time the buffer was saved (or since when it was created, if it
     has never been saved).  *Note Saving::.

Moving Text
     Moving text means erasing it from one place and inserting it in
     another.  The usual way to move text is by killing (q.v.) it and
     then yanking (q.v.) it.  *Note Killing::.

MULE
     MULE refers to the Emacs features for editing multilingual
     non-ASCII text using multibyte characters (q.v.).  *Note
     International::.

Multibyte Character
     A multibyte character is a character that takes up several bytes
     in a buffer.  Emacs uses multibyte characters to represent
     non-ASCII text, since the number of non-ASCII characters is much
     more than 256.  *Note International Characters: International
     Chars.

Named Mark
     A named mark is a register (q.v.) in its role of recording a
     location in text so that you can move point to that location.
     *Note Registers::.

Narrowing
     Narrowing means creating a restriction (q.v.) that limits editing
     in the current buffer to only a part of the text in the buffer.
     Text outside that part is inaccessible for editing until the
     boundaries are widened again, but it is still there, and saving
     the file saves it all.  *Note Narrowing::.

Newline
     Control-J characters in the buffer terminate lines of text and are
     therefore also called newlines.  *Note Newline: Text Characters.

`nil'
     `nil' is a value usually interpreted as a logical "false."  Its
     opposite is `t', interpreted as "true."

Numeric Argument
     A numeric argument is a number, specified before a command, to
     change the effect of the command.  Often the numeric argument
     serves as a repeat count.  *Note Arguments::.

Overwrite Mode
     Overwrite mode is a minor mode.  When it is enabled, ordinary text
     characters replace the existing text after point rather than
     pushing it to the right.  *Note Minor Modes::.

Page
     A page is a unit of text, delimited by formfeed characters (ASCII
     control-L, code 014) coming at the beginning of a line.  Some Emacs
     commands are provided for moving over and operating on pages.
     *Note Pages::.

Paragraph
     Paragraphs are the medium-size unit of human-language text.  There
     are special Emacs commands for moving over and operating on
     paragraphs.  *Note Paragraphs::.

Parsing
     We say that certain Emacs commands parse words or expressions in
     the text being edited.  Really, all they know how to do is find
     the other end of a word or expression.  *Note Syntax::.

Point
     Point is the place in the buffer at which insertion and deletion
     occur.  Point is considered to be between two characters, not at
     one character.  The terminal's cursor (q.v.) indicates the
     location of point.  *Note Point::.

Prefix Argument
     See `numeric argument.'

Prefix Key
     A prefix key is a key sequence (q.v.) whose sole function is to
     introduce a set of longer key sequences.  `C-x' is an example of
     prefix key; any two-character sequence starting with `C-x' is
     therefore a legitimate key sequence.  *Note Keys::.

Primary Rmail File
     Your primary Rmail file is the file named `RMAIL' in your home
     directory.  That's where Rmail stores your incoming mail, unless
     you specify a different file name.  *Note Rmail::.

Primary Selection
     The primary selection is one particular X selection (q.v.); it is
     the selection that most X applications use for transferring text
     to and from other applications.

     The Emacs kill commands set the primary selection and the yank
     command uses the primary selection when appropriate.  *Note
     Killing::.

Prompt
     A prompt is text used to ask the user for input.  Displaying a
     prompt is called prompting.  Emacs prompts always appear in the
     echo area (q.v.).  One kind of prompting happens when the
     minibuffer is used to read an argument (*note Minibuffer::); the
     echoing which happens when you pause in the middle of typing a
     multi-character key sequence is also a kind of prompting (*note
     Echo Area::).

Query-Replace
     Query-replace is an interactive string replacement feature
     provided by Emacs.  *Note Query Replace::.

Quitting
     Quitting means canceling a partially typed command or a running
     command, using `C-g' (or `C-<BREAK>' on MS-DOS).  *Note Quitting::.

Quoting
     Quoting means depriving a character of its usual special
     significance.  The most common kind of quoting in Emacs is with
     `C-q'.  What constitutes special significance depends on the
     context and on convention.  For example, an "ordinary" character
     as an Emacs command inserts itself; so in this context, a special
     character is any character that does not normally insert itself
     (such as <DEL>, for example), and quoting it makes it insert
     itself as if it were not special.  Not all contexts allow quoting.
     *Note Quoting: Inserting Text.

Quoting File Names
     Quoting a file name turns off the special significance of
     constructs such as `$', `~' and `:'.  *Note Quoted File Names::.

Read-Only Buffer
     A read-only buffer is one whose text you are not allowed to change.
     Normally Emacs makes buffers read-only when they contain text which
     has a special significance to Emacs; for example, Dired buffers.
     Visiting a file that is write-protected also makes a read-only
     buffer.  *Note Buffers::.

Rectangle
     A rectangle consists of the text in a given range of columns on a
     given range of lines.  Normally you specify a rectangle by putting
     point at one corner and putting the mark at the diagonally
     opposite corner.  *Note Rectangles::.

Recursive Editing Level
     A recursive editing level is a state in which part of the
     execution of a command involves asking you to edit some text.
     This text may or may not be the same as the text to which the
     command was applied.  The mode line indicates recursive editing
     levels with square brackets (`[' and `]').  *Note Recursive Edit::.

Redisplay
     Redisplay is the process of correcting the image on the screen to
     correspond to changes that have been made in the text being edited.
     *Note Redisplay: Screen.

Regexp
     See `regular expression.'

Region
     The region is the text between point (q.v.) and the mark (q.v.).
     Many commands operate on the text of the region.  *Note Region:
     Mark.

Register
     Registers are named slots in which text or buffer positions or
     rectangles can be saved for later use.  *Note Registers::.  A
     related Emacs feature is `bookmarks' (q.v.).

Regular Expression
     A regular expression is a pattern that can match various text
     strings; for example, `a[0-9]+' matches `a' followed by one or more
     digits.  *Note Regexps::.

Remote File
     A remote file is a file that is stored on a system other than your
     own.  Emacs can access files on other computers provided that they
     are connected to the same network as your machine, and (obviously)
     that you have a supported method to gain access to those files.
     *Note Remote Files::.

Repeat Count
     See `numeric argument.'

Replacement
     See `global substitution.'

Restriction
     A buffer's restriction is the amount of text, at the beginning or
     the end of the buffer, that is temporarily inaccessible.  Giving a
     buffer a nonzero amount of restriction is called narrowing (q.v.);
     removing a restriction is called widening (q.v.).  *Note
     Narrowing::.

<RET>
     <RET> is a character that in Emacs runs the command to insert a
     newline into the text.  It is also used to terminate most arguments
     read in the minibuffer (q.v.).  *Note Return: User Input.

Reverting
     Reverting means returning to the original state.  Emacs lets you
     revert a buffer by re-reading its file from disk.  *Note
     Reverting::.

Rmail File
     An Rmail file is a file containing text in a special format used by
     Rmail for storing mail.  *Note Rmail::.

Saving
     Saving a buffer means copying its text into the file that was
     visited (q.v.) in that buffer.  This is the way text in files
     actually gets changed by your Emacs editing.  *Note Saving::.

Scroll Bar
     A scroll bar is a tall thin hollow box that appears at the side of
     a window.  You can use mouse commands in the scroll bar to scroll
     the window.  The scroll bar feature is supported only under
     windowing systems.  *Note Scroll Bars::.

Scrolling
     Scrolling means shifting the text in the Emacs window so as to see
     a different part of the buffer.  *Note Scrolling::.

Searching
     Searching means moving point to the next occurrence of a specified
     string or the next match for a specified regular expression.
     *Note Search::.

Search Path
     A search path is a list of directory names, to be used for
     searching for files for certain purposes.  For example, the
     variable `load-path' holds a search path for finding Lisp library
     files.  *Note Lisp Libraries::.

Secondary Selection
     The secondary selection is one particular X selection; some X
     applications can use it for transferring text to and from other
     applications.  Emacs has special mouse commands for transferring
     text using the secondary selection.  *Note Secondary Selection::.

Selected Frame
     The selected frame is the one your input currently operates on.
     *Note Frames::.

Selected Window
     The selected frame is the one your input currently operates on.
     *Note Basic Window::.

Selecting a Buffer
     Selecting a buffer means making it the current (q.v.) buffer.
     *Note Select Buffer::.

Selection
     Windowing systems allow an application program to specify
     selections whose values are text.  A program can also read the
     selections that other programs have set up.  This is the principal
     way of transferring text between window applications.  Emacs has
     commands to work with the primary (q.v.) selection and the
     secondary (q.v.)  selection, and also with the clipboard (q.v.).

Self-Documentation
     Self-documentation is the feature of Emacs which can tell you what
     any command does, or give you a list of all commands related to a
     topic you specify.  You ask for self-documentation with the help
     character, `C-h'.  *Note Help::.

Self-Inserting Character
     A character is self-inserting if typing that character inserts that
     character in the buffer.  Ordinary printing and whitespace
     characters are self-inserting in Emacs, except in certain special
     major modes.

Sentences
     Emacs has commands for moving by or killing by sentences.  *Note
     Sentences::.

Sexp
     A sexp (short for "s-expression") is the basic syntactic unit of
     Lisp in its textual form: either a list, or Lisp atom.  Sexps are
     also the balanced expressions (q.v.) of the Lisp language; this is
     why the commands for editing balanced expressions have `sexp' in
     their name.  *Note Sexps: Expressions.

Simultaneous Editing
     Simultaneous editing means two users modifying the same file at
     once.  Simultaneous editing, if not detected, can cause one user
     to lose his or her work.  Emacs detects all cases of simultaneous
     editing, and warns one of the users to investigate.  *Note
     Interlocking: Interlocking.

<SPC>
     <SPC> is the space character, which you enter by pressing the
     space bar.

Speedbar
     The speedbar is a special tall frame that provides fast access to
     Emacs buffers, functions within those buffers, Info nodes, and
     other interesting parts of text within Emacs.  *Note Speedbar::.

Spell Checking
     Spell checking means checking correctness of the written form of
     each one of the words in a text.  Emacs uses the Ispell
     spelling-checker program to check the spelling of parts of a
     buffer via a convenient user interface.  *Note Spelling::.

String
     A string is a kind of Lisp data object which contains a sequence of
     characters.  Many Emacs variables are intended to have strings as
     values.  The Lisp syntax for a string consists of the characters
     in the string with a `"' before and another `"' after.  A `"' that
     is part of the string must be written as `\"' and a `\' that is
     part of the string must be written as `\\'.  All other characters,
     including newline, can be included just by writing them inside the
     string; however, backslash sequences as in C, such as `\n' for
     newline or `\241' using an octal character code, are allowed as
     well.

String Substitution
     See `global substitution'.

Syntax Highlighting
     See `font lock.'

Syntax Table
     The syntax table tells Emacs which characters are part of a word,
     which characters balance each other like parentheses, etc.  *Note
     Syntax::.

Super
     Super is the name of a modifier bit which a keyboard input
     character may have.  To make a character Super, type it while
     holding down the <SUPER> key.  Such characters are given names
     that start with `Super-' (usually written `s-' for short).  *Note
     Super: User Input.

Suspending
     Suspending Emacs means stopping it temporarily and returning
     control to its parent process, which is usually a shell.  Unlike
     killing a job (q.v.), you can later resume the suspended Emacs job
     without losing your buffers, unsaved edits, undo history, etc.
     *Note Exiting::.

<TAB>
     <TAB> is the tab character.  In Emacs it is typically used for
     indentation or completion.

Tags Table
     A tags table is a file that serves as an index to the function
     definitions in one or more other files.  *Note Tags::.

Termscript File
     A termscript file contains a record of all characters sent by
     Emacs to the terminal.  It is used for tracking down bugs in Emacs
     redisplay.  Emacs does not make a termscript file unless you tell
     it to.  *Note Bugs::.

Text
     `Text' has two meanings (*note Text::):

        * Data consisting of a sequence of characters, as opposed to
          binary numbers, executable programs, and the like.  The basic
          contents of an Emacs buffer (aside from the text properties,
          q.v.) are always text in this sense.

        * Data consisting of written human language, as opposed to
          programs, or following the stylistic conventions of human
          language.

Text-only Terminal
     A text-only terminal is a display that is limited to displaying
     text in character units.  Such a terminal cannot control
     individual pixels it displays.  Emacs supports a subset of display
     features on text-only terminals.

Text Properties
     Text properties are annotations recorded for particular characters
     in the buffer.  Images in the buffer are recorded as text
     properties; they also specify formatting information.  *Note
     Editing Format Info::.

Tool Bar
     The tool bar is a line (sometimes multiple lines) of icons at the
     top of an Emacs frame.  Clicking on one of these icons executes a
     command.  You can think of this as a graphical relative of the
     menu bar (q.v.).  *Note Tool Bars::.

Tooltips
     Tooltips are small windows displaying a help echo (q.v.) text that
     explains parts of the display, lists useful options available via
     mouse clicks, etc.  *Note Tooltips::.

Top Level
     Top level is the normal state of Emacs, in which you are editing
     the text of the file you have visited.  You are at top level
     whenever you are not in a recursive editing level (q.v.) or the
     minibuffer (q.v.), and not in the middle of a command.  You can
     get back to top level by aborting (q.v.) and quitting (q.v.).
     *Note Quitting::.

Transposition
     Transposing two units of text means putting each one into the place
     formerly occupied by the other.  There are Emacs commands to
     transpose two adjacent characters, words, balanced expressions
     (q.v.) or lines (*note Transpose::).

Truncation
     Truncating text lines in the display means leaving out any text on
     a line that does not fit within the right margin of the window
     displaying it.  See also `continuation line.'  *Note Truncation:
     Continuation Lines.

TTY
     See `text-only terminal.'

Undoing
     Undoing means making your previous editing go in reverse, bringing
     back the text that existed earlier in the editing session.  *Note
     Undo::.

User Option
     A user option is a face (q.v.) or a variable (q.v.) that exists so
     that you can customize Emacs by setting it to a new value.  *Note
     Easy Customization::.

Variable
     A variable is an object in Lisp that can store an arbitrary value.
     Emacs uses some variables for internal purposes, and has others
     (known as `user options' (q.v.)) just so that you can set their
     values to control the behavior of Emacs.  The variables used in
     Emacs that you are likely to be interested in are listed in the
     Variables Index in this manual (*note Variable Index::).  *Note
     Variables::, for information on variables.

Version Control
     Version control systems keep track of multiple versions of a
     source file.  They provide a more powerful alternative to keeping
     backup files (q.v.).  *Note Version Control::.

Visiting
     Visiting a file means loading its contents into a buffer (q.v.)
     where they can be edited.  *Note Visiting::.

Whitespace
     Whitespace is any run of consecutive formatting characters (space,
     tab, newline, and backspace).

Widening
     Widening is removing any restriction (q.v.) on the current buffer;
     it is the opposite of narrowing (q.v.).  *Note Narrowing::.

Window
     Emacs divides a frame (q.v.) into one or more windows, each of
     which can display the contents of one buffer (q.v.) at any time.
     *Note Screen::, for basic information on how Emacs uses the screen.
     *Note Windows::, for commands to control the use of windows.  Some
     other editors use the term "window" for what we call a `frame'
     (q.v.) in Emacs.

Window System
     A window system is software that operates on a graphical display
     (q.v.), to subdivide the screen so that multiple applications can
     have their] own windows at the same time.  All modern operating
     systems include a window system.

Word Abbrev
     See `abbrev.'

Word Search
     Word search is searching for a sequence of words, considering the
     punctuation between them as insignificant.  *Note Word Search::.

WYSIWYG
     WYSIWYG stands for "What you see is what you get."  Emacs generally
     provides WYSIWYG editing for files of characters; in Enriched mode
     (*note Formatted Text::), it provides WYSIWYG editing for files
     that include text formatting information.

Yanking
     Yanking means reinserting text previously killed.  It can be used
     to undo a mistaken kill, or for copying or moving text.  Some other
     systems call this "pasting."  *Note Yanking::.

File: emacs,  Node: Antinews,  Next: Mac OS,  Prev: X Resources,  Up: Top

Appendix E Emacs 21 Antinews
****************************

For those users who live backwards in time, here is information about
downgrading to Emacs version 21.4.  We hope you will enjoy the greater
simplicity that results from the absence of many Emacs 22.3 features.

   * The buffer position and line number are now displayed at the end of
     the mode line, where they can be more easily seen.

   * The mode line of the selected window is no longer displayed with a
     special face.  All mode lines are created equal.  Meanwhile, you
     can use the variable `mode-line-inverse-video' to control whether
     mode lines are highlighted at all--`nil' means don't highlight
     them.

   * Clicking on a link with the left mouse button (`mouse-1') will
     always set point at the position clicked, instead of following the
     link.  If you want to follow the link, use the middle mouse button
     (`mouse-2').

   * Emacs is tired of X droppings.  If you drop a file or a piece of
     text onto an Emacs window, nothing will happen.

   * On an xterm, even if you enable Xterm Mouse mode, Emacs provides a
     more convincing simulation of a text terminal by not responding to
     mouse clicks on the mode line, header line, or display margin.

   * For simplicity, windows always have fringes.  We wouldn't want to
     in-fringe anyone's windows.  Likewise, horizontal scrolling always
     works in the same automatic way.

   * The horizontal-bar cursor shape has been removed.

   * If command line arguments are given, Emacs will not display a
     splash screen, so that you can immediately get on with your
     editing.  The command-line option `--no-splash' is therefore
     obsolete, and has been removed.

   * These command line options have also been removed: `--color',
     `--fullwidth', `--fullheight', `--fullscreen',
     `--no-blinking-cursor', `--no-desktop', and `-Q'.

   * The `--geometry' option applies only to the initial frame, and the
     `-f' option will not read arguments for interactive functions.

   * We have standardized on one location for the user init file: the
     file named `.emacs' in your home directory.  Emacs will not look
     for the init file in `~/.emacs.d/init.el'.  Similarly, don't try
     putting `.emacs_SHELL' as `init_SHELL.sh' in `~/.emacs.d'; Emacs
     won't find it.

   * Emacs will not read `~/.abbrev_defs' automatically.  If you want
     to load abbrev definitions from a file, you must always do so
     explicitly.

   * When you are logged in as root, all files now give you writable
     buffers, reflecting the fact that you can write any files.

   * The maximum size of buffers and integer variables has been halved.
     On 32-bit machines, the maximum buffer size is now 128 megabytes.

   * An unquoted `$' in a file name is now an error, if the following
     name is not recognized as an environment variable.  Thus, the file
     name `foo$bar' would probably be an error.  Meanwhile, the
     `setenv' command does not expand `$' at all.

   * If a single command accumulates too much undo information, Emacs
     never discards it.  If Emacs runs out of memory as a result, it
     will handle this by crashing.

   * Many commands have been removed from the menus or rearranged.

   * The `C-h' (help) subcommands have been rearranged--especially
     those that display specific files.  Type `C-h C-h' to see a list
     of these commands; that will show you what is different.

   * The `C-h v' and `C-h f' commands no longer show a hyperlink to the
     C source code, even if it is available.  If you want to find the
     source code, grep for it.

   * The apropos commands will not accept a list of words to match, in
     order to encourage you to be more specific.  Also, the user option
     `apropos-sort-by-scores' has been removed.

   * The minibuffer prompt is now displayed using the default face.
     The colon is enough to show you what part is the prompt.

   * Minibuffer completion commands always complete the entire
     minibuffer contents, just as if you had typed them at the end of
     the minibuffer, no matter where point is actually located.

   * The command `backward-kill-sexp' is now bound to `C-M-delete' and
     `C-M-backspace'.  Be careful when using these key sequences!  It
     may shut down your X server, or reboot your operating system.

   * Commands to set the mark at a place away from point, including
     `M-@', `M-h', etc., don't do anything special when you repeat
     them.  In most cases, typing these commands multiple times is
     equivalent to typing them once.  `M-h' ignores numeric arguments.

   * The user option `set-mark-command-repeat-pop' has been removed.

   * `C-<SPC> C-<SPC>' has no special meaning-it just sets the mark
     twice.  Neither does `C-u C-x C-x', which simply exchanges point
     and mark like `C-x C-x'.

   * The function `sentence-end' has been eliminated in favor of a more
     straightforward approach: directly setting the variable
     `sentence-end'.  For example, to end each sentence with a single
     space, use

          (setq sentence-end "[.?!][]\"')}]*\\($\\|[ \t]\\)[ \t\n]*")

   * The variable `fill-nobreak-predicate' is no longer customizable,
     and it can only hold a single function.

   * Nobreak spaces and hyphens are displayed just like normal
     characters, and the user option `nobreak-char-display' has been
     removed.

   * `C-w' in an incremental search always grabs an entire word into
     the search string.  More precisely, it grabs text through the next
     end of a word.

   * Yanking now preserves all text properties that were in the killed
     text.  The variable `yank-excluded-properties' has been removed.

   * Occur mode, Info mode, and Comint-derived modes now control
     fontification in their own way, and `M-x font-lock-mode' has
     nothing to do with it.  To control fontification in Info mode, use
     the variable `Info-fontify'.

   * `M-x shell' is now completely standard in regard to scrolling
     behavior.  It no longer has the option of scrolling the input line
     to the bottom of the window the way a text terminal running a
     shell does.

   * The Grep package has been merged with Compilation mode.  Many
     grep-specific commands and user options have thus been eliminated.
     Also, `M-x grep' never tries the GNU grep `-H' option, and instead
     silently appends `/dev/null' to the command line.

   * In Dired's `!' command, `*' and `?' now cause substitution of the
     file names wherever they appear--not only when they are surrounded
     by whitespace.

   * When a file is managed with version control, the command `C-x C-q'
     (whose general meaning is to make a buffer read-only or writable)
     now does so by checking the file in or out.  Checking the file out
     makes the buffer writable; checking it in makes the buffer
     read-only.

     You can still use `C-x v v' to do these operations if you wish;
     its meaning is unchanged.  If you want to control the buffer's
     read-only flag without performing any version control operation,
     use `M-x toggle-read-only'.

   * SGML mode does not handle XML syntax, and does not have indentation
     support.

   * Many Info mode commands have been removed.  Incremental search in
     Info searches only the current node.

   * Many `etags' features for customizing parsing using regexps have
     been removed.

   * The Emacs server now runs a small C program called `emacsserver',
     rather than trying to handle everything in Emacs Lisp.  Now there
     can only be one Emacs server running at a time.  The `server-mode'
     command and `server-name' user option have been eliminated.

   * The `emacsclient' program no longer accepts the `--eval',
     `--display' and `--server-file' command line options, and can only
     establish local connections using Unix domain sockets.

   * The command `quail-show-key', for showing how to input a
     character, has been removed.

   * The default value of `keyboard-coding-system' is always `nil',
     regardless of your locale settings.  If you want some other value,
     set it yourself.

   * Unicode support and unification between Latin-N character sets
     have been removed.  Cutting and pasting X selections does not
     support "extended segments", so there are certain coding systems
     it cannot handle.

   * The input methods for Emacs are included in a separate distribution
     called "Leim."  To use this, you must extract the Leim tar file on
     top of the Emacs distribution, into the same directory, before you
     build Emacs.

   * The following input methods have been eliminated: belarusian,
     bulgarian-bds, bulgarian-phonetic, chinese-sisheng, croatian,
     dutch, georgian, latin-alt-postfix, latin-postfix, latin-prefix,
     latvian-keyboard, lithuanian-numeric, lithuanian-keyboard,
     malayalam-inscript, rfc1345, russian-computer, sgml, slovenian,
     tamil-inscript ucs, ukrainian-computer, vietnamese-telex, and
     welsh.

   * The following language environments have been eliminated:
     Belarusian, Bulgarian, Chinese-EUC-TW, Croatian, French, Georgian,
     Italian, Latin-6, Latin-7, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malayalam,
     Russian, Russian, Slovenian, Swedish, Tajik, Tamil, UTF-8,
     Ukrainian, Ukrainian, Welsh, and Windows-1255.

   * The `code-pages' library, which contained various 8-bit coding
     systems, has been removed.

   * The Kmacro package has been replaced with a simple and elegant
     keyboard macro system.  Use `C-x (' to start a new keyboard macro,
     `C-x )' to end the macro, and `C-x e' to execute the last macro.
     Use `M-x name-last-kbd-macro' to name the most recently defined
     macro.

   * Emacs no longer displays your breakpoints in the source buffer, so
     you have to remember where you left them.  It can be difficult to
     inspect the state of your debugged program from the command line,
     so Emacs tries to demonstrate this in the GUD buffer.

   * The Calc, CUA, Ibuffer, Ido, Password, Printing, Reveal,
     Ruler-mode, SES, Table, Tramp, and URL packages have been removed.
     The Benchmark, Cfengine, Conf, Dns, Flymake, Python, Thumbs, and
     Wdired modes have also been removed.

   * The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual and the Introduction to
     Programming in Emacs Lisp are now distributed separately, not in
     the Emacs distribution.

   * On MS Windows, there is no longer any support for tooltips, images,
     sound, different mouse pointer shapes, or pointing devices with
     more than 3 buttons.  If you want these features, consider
     switching to another operating system.  But even if you don't want
     these features, you should still switch--for freedom's sake.

   * Emacs will not use Unicode for clipboard operations on MS Windows.

   * To keep up with decreasing computer memory capacity and disk
     space, many other functions and files have been eliminated in
     Emacs 21.4.

File: emacs,  Node: Mac OS,  Next: Microsoft Windows,  Prev: Antinews,  Up: Top

Appendix F Emacs and Mac OS
***************************

This section briefly describes the peculiarities of using Emacs under
Mac OS with native window system support.  For Mac OS X, Emacs can be
built either without window system support, with X11, or with Carbon
API.  This section only applies to the Carbon build.  For Mac OS
Classic, Emacs can be built with or without Carbon API, and this
section applies to either of them because they run on the native window
system.

   Emacs built on Mac OS X supports most of its major features except
display support of PostScript images.  The following features of Emacs
are not supported on Mac OS Classic: unexec (`dump-emacs'),
asynchronous subprocesses (`start-process'), and networking
(`open-network-stream').  As a result, packages such as Gnus, GUD, and
Comint do not work.  Synchronous subprocesses (`call-process') are
supported on non-Carbon build, but specially-crafted external programs
are needed.  Since external programs to handle commands such as
`print-buffer' and `diff' are not available on Mac OS Classic, they are
not supported.  Non-Carbon build on Mac OS Classic does not support some
features such as file dialogs, drag-and-drop, and Unicode menus.

* Menu:

* Input: Mac Input.                Keyboard and mouse input on Mac.
* Intl: Mac International.         International character sets on Mac.
* Env: Mac Environment Variables.  Setting environment variables for Emacs.
* Directories: Mac Directories.    Volumes and directories on Mac.
* Font: Mac Font Specs.            Specifying fonts on Mac.
* Functions: Mac Functions.        Mac-specific Lisp functions.

File: emacs,  Node: Mac Input,  Next: Mac International,  Up: Mac OS

F.1 Keyboard and Mouse Input on Mac
===================================

On Mac, Emacs can use <control>, <command>, <option>, and laptop
<function> keys as any of Emacs modifier keys except <SHIFT> (i.e.,
<ALT>, <CTRL>, <HYPER>, <META>, and <SUPER>).  The assignment is
controlled by the variables `mac-control-modifier',
`mac-command-modifier', `mac-option-modifier', and
`mac-function-modifier'.  The value for each of these variables can be
one of the following symbols: `alt', `control', `hyper', `meta',
`super', and `nil' (no particular assignment).  By default, the
<control> key works as <CTRL>, and the <command> key as <META>.

   For the <option> key, if `mac-option-modifier' is set to `nil',
which is the default, the key works as the normal <option> key, i.e.,
dead-key processing will work.  This is useful for entering non-ASCII
Latin characters directly from the Mac keyboard, for example.

   Emacs recognizes the setting in the Keyboard control panel (Mac OS
Classic) or the International system preference pane (Mac OS X) and
supports international and alternative keyboard layouts (e.g., Dvorak).
Selecting one of the layouts from the keyboard layout pull-down menu
will affect how the keys typed on the keyboard are interpreted.

   Mac OS intercepts and handles certain key combinations (e.g.,
<command>-<SPC> for switching input languages).  These will not be
passed to Emacs.  One can disable this interception by setting
`mac-pass-command-to-system' or `mac-pass-control-to-system' to `nil'.

   Especially for one-button mice, the multiple button feature can be
emulated by setting `mac-emulate-three-button-mouse' to `t' or
`reverse'.  If set to `t' (`reverse', respectively), pressing the mouse
button with the <option> key is recognized as the second (third)
button, and that with the <command> key is recognized as the third
(second) button.

   For multi-button mice, the wheel button and the secondary button are
recognized as the second and the third button, respectively.  If
`mac-wheel-button-is-mouse-2' is set to `nil', their roles are
exchanged.

File: emacs,  Node: Mac International,  Next: Mac Environment Variables,  Prev: Mac Input,  Up: Mac OS

F.2 International Character Set Support on Mac
==============================================

Mac uses non-standard encodings for the upper 128 single-byte
characters.  They also deviate from the ISO 2022 standard by using
character codes in the range 128-159.  The coding systems `mac-roman',
`mac-centraleurroman', and `mac-cyrillic' are used to represent these
Mac encodings.

   You can use input methods provided either by LEIM (*note Input
Methods::) or Mac OS to enter international characters.  To use the
former, see the International Character Set Support section of the
manual (*note International::).

   Emacs on Mac OS automatically changes the value of
`keyboard-coding-system' according to the current keyboard layout.  So
users don't need to set it manually, and even if set, it will be
changed when the keyboard layout change is detected next time.

   The Mac clipboard and the Emacs kill ring (*note Killing::) are
synchronized by default: you can yank a piece of text and paste it into
another Mac application, or cut or copy one in another Mac application
and yank it into a Emacs buffer.  This feature can be disabled by
setting `x-select-enable-clipboard' to `nil'.  One can still do copy
and paste with another application from the Edit menu.

   On Mac, the role of the coding system for selection that is set by
`set-selection-coding-system' (*note Communication Coding::) is
two-fold.  First, it is used as a preferred coding system for the
traditional text flavor that does not specify any particular encodings
and is mainly used by applications on Mac OS Classic.  Second, it
specifies the intermediate encoding for the UTF-16 text flavor that is
mainly used by applications on Mac OS X.

   When pasting UTF-16 text data from the clipboard, it is first
converted to the encoding specified by the selection coding system
using the converter in the Mac OS system, and then decoded into the
Emacs internal encoding using the converter in Emacs.  If the first
conversion failed, then the UTF-16 data is directly converted to Emacs
internal encoding using the converter in Emacs.  Copying UTF-16 text to
the clipboard goes through the inverse path.  The reason for this
two-pass decoding is to avoid subtle differences in Unicode mappings
between the Mac OS system and Emacs such as various kinds of hyphens,
and to minimize users' customization.  For example, users that mainly
use Latin characters would prefer Greek characters to be decoded into
the `mule-unicode-0100-24ff' charset, but Japanese users would prefer
them to be decoded into the `japanese-jisx0208' charset.  Since the
coding system for selection is automatically set according to the
system locale setting, users usually don't have to set it manually.

   The default language environment (*note Language Environments::) is
set according to the locale setting at the startup time.  On Mac OS,
the locale setting is consulted in the following order:

  1. Environment variables `LC_ALL', `LC_CTYPE' and `LANG' as in other
     systems.

  2. Preference `AppleLocale' that is set by default on Mac OS X 10.3
     and later.

  3. Preference `AppleLanguages' that is set by default on Mac OS X
     10.1 and later.

  4. Variable `mac-system-locale' that is derived from the system
     language and region codes.  This variable is available on all
     supported Mac OS versions including Mac OS Classic.

   The default values of almost all variables about coding systems are
also set according to the language environment.  So usually you don't
have to customize these variables manually.

File: emacs,  Node: Mac Environment Variables,  Next: Mac Directories,  Prev: Mac International,  Up: Mac OS

F.3 Environment Variables and Command Line Arguments.
=====================================================

On Mac OS X, when Emacs is run in a terminal, it inherits the values of
environment variables from the shell from which it is invoked.
However, when it is run from the Finder as a GUI application, it only
inherits environment variable values defined in the file
`~/.MacOSX/environment.plist' that affects all the applications invoked
from the Finder or the `open' command.

   Command line arguments are specified like

     /Applications/Emacs.app/Contents/MacOS/Emacs -g 80x25 &

if Emacs is installed at `/Applications/Emacs.app'.  If Emacs is
invoked like this, then it also inherits the values of environment
variables from the shell from which it is invoked.

   On Mac OS Classic, environment variables and command line arguments
for Emacs can be set by modifying the `STR#' resources 128 and 129,
respectively.  A common environment variable that one may want to set
is `HOME'.

   The way to set an environment variable is by adding a string of the
form

     ENV_VAR=VALUE

to resource `STR#' number 128 using `ResEdit'. To set up the program to
use unibyte characters exclusively, for example, add the string

     EMACS_UNIBYTE=1

   Although Emacs on Mac does not support X resources (*note X
Resources::) directly, one can use the Preferences system in place of X
resources.  For example, adding the line

     Emacs.cursorType: bar

to `~/.Xresources' in X11 corresponds to the execution of

     defaults write org.gnu.Emacs Emacs.cursorType bar

on Mac OS X.  One can use boolean or numeric values as well as string
values as follows:

     defaults write org.gnu.Emacs Emacs.toolBar -bool false
     defaults write org.gnu.Emacs Emacs.lineSpacing -int 3

Try `M-x man RET defaults RET' for the usage of the `defaults' command.
Alternatively, if you have Developer Tools installed on Mac OS X, you
can use Property List Editor to edit the file
`~/Library/Preferences/org.gnu.Emacs.plist'.

File: emacs,  Node: Mac Directories,  Next: Mac Font Specs,  Prev: Mac Environment Variables,  Up: Mac OS

F.4 Volumes and Directories on Mac
==================================

This node applies to Mac OS Classic only.

   The directory structure in Mac OS Classic is seen by Emacs as

     /VOLUMENAME/FILENAME

   So when Emacs requests a file name, doing file name completion on
`/' will display all volumes on the system.  You can use `..' to go up
a directory level.

   On Mac OS Classic, to access files and folders on the desktop, look
in the folder `Desktop Folder' in your boot volume (this folder is
usually invisible in the Mac `Finder').

   On Mac OS Classic, Emacs creates the Mac folder
`:Preferences:Emacs:' in the `System Folder' and uses it as the
temporary directory.  Emacs maps the directory name `/tmp/' to that.
Therefore it is best to avoid naming a volume `tmp'.  If everything
works correctly, the program should leave no files in it when it exits.
You should be able to set the environment variable `TMPDIR' to use
another directory but this folder will still be created.

File: emacs,  Node: Mac Font Specs,  Next: Mac Functions,  Prev: Mac Directories,  Up: Mac OS

F.5 Specifying Fonts on Mac
===========================

It is rare that you need to specify a font name in Emacs; usually you
specify face attributes instead.  For example, you can use 14pt Courier
by customizing the default face attributes for all frames:

     (set-face-attribute 'default nil
                         :family "courier" :height 140)

Alternatively, an interactive one is also available (*note Face
Customization::).

   But when you do need to specify a font name in Emacs on Mac, use a
standard X font name:

     -MAKER-FAMILY-WEIGHT-SLANT-WIDTHTYPE-STYLE...
     ...-PIXELS-HEIGHT-HORIZ-VERT-SPACING-WIDTH-CHARSET

*Note Font X::.  Wildcards are supported as they are on X.

   Emacs on Mac OS Classic uses QuickDraw Text routines for drawing
texts by default.  Emacs on Mac OS X uses ATSUI (Apple Type Services
for Unicode Imaging) as well as QuickDraw Text, and most of the
characters other than Chinese, Japanese, and Korean ones are drawn using
the former by default.

   ATSUI-compatible fonts have maker name `apple' and charset
`iso10646-1'.  For example, 12-point Monaco can be specified by the
name:

     -apple-monaco-medium-r-normal--12-*-*-*-*-*-iso10646-1

   Note that these names must be specified using a format containing all
14 `-'s (not by `-apple-monaco-medium-r-normal--12-*-iso10646-1', for
instance), because every ATSUI-compatible font is a scalable one.

   QuickDraw Text fonts have maker name `apple' and various charset
names other than `iso10646-1'.  Native Apple fonts in Mac Roman
encoding has charset `mac-roman'.  You can specify a `mac-roman' font
for ASCII characters like

     (add-to-list
      'default-frame-alist
      '(font . "-apple-monaco-medium-r-normal--13-*-*-*-*-*-mac-roman"))

but that does not extend to ISO-8859-1: specifying a `mac-roman' font
for Latin-1 characters introduces wrong glyphs.

   Native Apple Traditional Chinese, Simplified Chinese, Japanese,
Korean, Central European, Cyrillic, Symbol, and Dingbats fonts have the
charsets `big5-0', `gb2312.1980-0', `jisx0208.1983-sjis' and
`jisx0201.1976-0', `ksc5601.1989-0', `mac-centraleurroman',
`mac-cyrillic', `mac-symbol', and `mac-dingbats', respectively.

   The use of `create-fontset-from-fontset-spec' (*note Defining
Fontsets::) for defining fontsets often results in wrong ones especially
when using only OS-bundled QuickDraw Text fonts.  The recommended way to
use them is to create a fontset using
`create-fontset-from-mac-roman-font':

     (create-fontset-from-mac-roman-font
      "-apple-courier-medium-r-normal--13-*-*-*-*-*-mac-roman"
      nil "foo")

and then optionally specifying Chinese, Japanese, or Korean font
families using `set-fontset-font':

     (set-fontset-font "fontset-foo"
     		  'chinese-gb2312 '("song" . "gb2312.1980-0"))

   Single-byte fonts converted from GNU fonts in BDF format, which are
not in the Mac Roman encoding, have foundry, family, and character sets
encoded in the names of their font suitcases.  E.g., the font suitcase
`ETL-Fixed-ISO8859-1' contains fonts which can be referred to by the
name `-ETL-fixed-*-iso8859-1'.

   Mac OS X 10.2 or later can use two types of text renderings: Quartz
2D (aka Core Graphics) and QuickDraw.  By default, Emacs uses the
former on such versions.  It can be changed by setting
`mac-allow-anti-aliasing' to `t' (Quartz 2D) or `nil' (QuickDraw).
Both ATSUI and QuickDraw Text drawings are affected by the value of
this variable.

   Appearance of text in small sizes will also be affected by the "Turn
off text smoothing for font sizes N and smaller" setting in the General
pane (Mac OS X 10.1 or 10.2) or in the Appearance pane (10.3 or later)
of the System Preferences.  This threshold can alternatively be set
just for Emacs (i.e., not as the system-wide setting) using the
`defaults' command:

     defaults write org.gnu.Emacs AppleAntiAliasingThreshold N

File: emacs,  Node: Mac Functions,  Prev: Mac Font Specs,  Up: Mac OS

F.6 Mac-Specific Lisp Functions
===============================

The function `do-applescript' takes a string argument, executes it as
an AppleScript command, and returns the result as a string.

   The function `mac-file-name-to-posix' takes a Mac file name and
returns the GNU or Unix equivalent.  The function
`posix-file-name-to-mac' performs the opposite conversion.  They are
useful for constructing AppleScript commands to be passed to
`do-applescript'.

   The functions `mac-set-file-creator', `mac-get-file-creator',
`mac-set-file-type', and `mac-get-file-type' can be used to set and get
creator and file codes.

   The function `mac-get-preference' returns the preferences value
converted to a Lisp object for a specified key and application.

File: emacs,  Node: Microsoft Windows,  Next: Manifesto,  Prev: Mac OS,  Up: Top

Appendix G Emacs and Microsoft Windows/MS-DOS
*********************************************

This section describes peculiarities of using Emacs on Microsoft
Windows.  Some of these peculiarities are also relevant to Microsoft's
older MS-DOS "operating system" (also known as "MS-DOG").  However,
Emacs features that are relevant _only_ to MS-DOS are described in a
separate section (*note MS-DOS::).

   The behavior of Emacs on MS-Windows is reasonably similar to what is
documented in the rest of the manual, including support for long file
names, multiple frames, scroll bars, mouse menus, and subprocesses.
However, a few special considerations apply, and they are described
here.

* Menu:

* Text and Binary::     Text files use CRLF to terminate lines.
* Windows Files::       File-name conventions on Windows.
* ls in Lisp::          Emulation of `ls' for Dired.
* Windows HOME::        Where Emacs looks for your `.emacs'.
* Windows Keyboard::    Windows-specific keyboard features.
* Windows Mouse::       Windows-specific mouse features.
* Windows Processes::   Running subprocesses on Windows.
* Windows Printing::    How to specify the printer on MS-Windows.
* Windows Misc::        Miscellaneous Windows features.

* MS-DOS::              Using Emacs on MS-DOS (otherwise known as "MS-DOG").

File: emacs,  Node: Text and Binary,  Next: Windows Files,  Up: Microsoft Windows

G.1 Text Files and Binary Files
===============================

GNU Emacs uses newline characters to separate text lines.  This is the
convention used on GNU, Unix, and other Posix-compliant systems.

   By contrast, MS-DOS and MS-Windows normally use carriage-return
linefeed, a two-character sequence, to separate text lines.  (Linefeed
is the same character as newline.)  Therefore, convenient editing of
typical files with Emacs requires conversion of these end-of-line (EOL)
sequences.  And that is what Emacs normally does: it converts
carriage-return linefeed into newline when reading files, and converts
newline into carriage-return linefeed when writing files.  The same
mechanism that handles conversion of international character codes does
this conversion also (*note Coding Systems::).

   One consequence of this special format-conversion of most files is
that character positions as reported by Emacs (*note Position Info::) do
not agree with the file size information known to the operating system.

   In addition, if Emacs recognizes from a file's contents that it uses
newline rather than carriage-return linefeed as its line separator, it
does not perform EOL conversion when reading or writing that file.
Thus, you can read and edit files from GNU and Unix systems on MS-DOS
with no special effort, and they will retain their Unix-style
end-of-line convention after you edit them.

   The mode line indicates whether end-of-line translation was used for
the current buffer.  If MS-DOS end-of-line translation is in use for the
buffer, the MS-Windows build of Emacs displays a backslash `\' after
the coding system mnemonic near the beginning of the mode line (*note
Mode Line::).  If no EOL translation was performed, the string `(Unix)'
is displayed instead of the backslash, to alert you that the file's EOL
format is not the usual carriage-return linefeed.

   To visit a file and specify whether it uses DOS-style or Unix-style
end-of-line, specify a coding system (*note Text Coding::).  For
example, `C-x <RET> c unix <RET> C-x C-f foobar.txt' visits the file
`foobar.txt' without converting the EOLs; if some line ends with a
carriage-return linefeed pair, Emacs will display `^M' at the end of
that line.  Similarly, you can direct Emacs to save a buffer in a
specified EOL format with the `C-x <RET> f' command.  For example, to
save a buffer with Unix EOL format, type `C-x <RET> f unix <RET> C-x
C-s'.  If you visit a file with DOS EOL conversion, then save it with
Unix EOL format, that effectively converts the file to Unix EOL style,
like `dos2unix'.

   When you use NFS, Samba, or some other similar method to access file
systems that reside on computers using GNU or Unix systems, Emacs
should not perform end-of-line translation on any files in these file
systems--not even when you create a new file.  To request this,
designate these file systems as "untranslated" file systems by calling
the function `add-untranslated-filesystem'.  It takes one argument: the
file system name, including a drive letter and optionally a directory.
For example,

     (add-untranslated-filesystem "Z:")

designates drive Z as an untranslated file system, and

     (add-untranslated-filesystem "Z:\\foo")

designates directory `\foo' on drive Z as an untranslated file system.

   Most often you would use `add-untranslated-filesystem' in your
`.emacs' file, or in `site-start.el' so that all the users at your site
get the benefit of it.

   To countermand the effect of `add-untranslated-filesystem', use the
function `remove-untranslated-filesystem'.  This function takes one
argument, which should be a string just like the one that was used
previously with `add-untranslated-filesystem'.

   Designating a file system as untranslated does not affect character
set conversion, only end-of-line conversion.  Essentially, it directs
Emacs to create new files with the Unix-style convention of using
newline at the end of a line.  *Note Coding Systems::.

   Some kinds of files should not be converted at all, because their
contents are not really text.  Therefore, Emacs on MS-Windows
distinguishes certain files as "binary files".  (This distinction is
not part of MS-Windows; it is made by Emacs only.)  Binary files
include executable programs, compressed archives, etc.  Emacs uses the
file name to decide whether to treat a file as binary: the variable
`file-name-buffer-file-type-alist' defines the file-name patterns that
indicate binary files.  If a file name matches one of the patterns for
binary files (those whose associations are of the type `(PATTERN . t)',
Emacs reads and writes that file using the `no-conversion' coding
system (*note Coding Systems::) which turns off _all_ coding-system
conversions, not only the EOL conversion.
`file-name-buffer-file-type-alist' also includes file-name patterns for
files which are known to be Windows-style text files with
carriage-return linefeed EOL format, such as `CONFIG.SYS'; Emacs always
writes those files with Windows-style EOLs.

   If a file which belongs to an untranslated file system matches one of
the file-name patterns in `file-name-buffer-file-type-alist', the EOL
conversion is determined by `file-name-buffer-file-type-alist'.

File: emacs,  Node: Windows Files,  Next: ls in Lisp,  Prev: Text and Binary,  Up: Microsoft Windows

G.2 File Names on MS-Windows
============================

MS-Windows and MS-DOS normally use a backslash, `\', to separate name
units within a file name, instead of the slash used on other systems.
Emacs on MS-DOS/MS-Windows permits use of either slash or backslash,
and also knows about drive letters in file names.

   On MS-DOS/MS-Windows, file names are case-insensitive, so Emacs by
default ignores letter-case in file names during completion.

   If the variable `w32-get-true-file-attributes' is `local' (the
default), Emacs tries to determine the accurate link counts and file
types for files on local fixed drives.  Any other non-`nil' value means
do this even on remote and removable volumes, where it could slow down
Dired and other similar features; `nil' means never do this.  Setting
this option to non-`nil' is only useful on NTFS volumes.

File: emacs,  Node: ls in Lisp,  Next: Windows HOME,  Prev: Windows Files,  Up: Microsoft Windows

G.3 Emulation of `ls' on MS-Windows
===================================

Dired normally uses the external program `ls' (or its close work-alike)
to produce the directory listing displayed in Dired buffers (*note
Dired::).  However, MS-Windows and MS-DOS systems don't come with such
a program, although several ports of GNU `ls' are available.
Therefore, Emacs on those systems _emulates_ `ls' in Lisp, by using the
`ls-lisp.el' package.  While `ls-lisp.el' provides a reasonably full
emulation of `ls', there are some options and features peculiar to that
emulation; they are described in this section.

   The `ls' emulation supports many of the `ls' switches, but it
doesn't support all of them.  Here's the list of the switches it does
support: `-A', `-a', `-B', `-C', `-c', `-i', `-G', `-g', `-R', `-r',
`-S', `-s', `-t', `-U', `-u', and `-X'.  The `-F' switch is partially
supported (it appends the character that classifies the file, but does
not prevent symlink following).

   On MS-Windows and MS-DOS, `ls-lisp.el' is preloaded when Emacs is
built, so the Lisp emulation of `ls' is always used on those platforms.
If you have a ported `ls', setting
`ls-lisp-use-insert-directory-program' to a non-`nil' value will revert
to using an external program named by the variable
`insert-directory-program'.

   By default, `ls-lisp.el' uses a case-sensitive sort order for the
directory listing it produces; this is so the listing looks the same as
on other platforms.  If you wish that the files be sorted in
case-insensitive order, set the variable `ls-lisp-ignore-case' to a
non-`nil' value.

   By default, files and subdirectories are sorted together, to emulate
the behavior of `ls'.  However, native MS-Windows/MS-DOS file managers
list the directories before the files; if you want that behavior,
customize the option `ls-lisp-dirs-first' to a non-`nil' value.

   The variable `ls-lisp-verbosity' controls the file attributes that
`ls-lisp.el' displays.  The value should be a list that contains one or
more of the symbols `links', `uid', and `gid'.  `links' means display
the count of different file names that are associated with (a.k.a.
"links to") the file's data; this is only useful on NTFS volumes.
`uid' means display the numerical identifier of the user who owns the
file.  `gid' means display the numerical identifier of the file owner's
group.  The default value is `(links uid gid)' i.e. all the 3 optional
attributes are displayed.

   The variable `ls-lisp-emulation' controls the flavour of the `ls'
emulation by setting the defaults for the 3 options described above:
`ls-lisp-ignore-case', `ls-lisp-dirs-first', and `ls-lisp-verbosity'.
The value of this option can be one of the following symbols:

`GNU'
`nil'
     Emulate GNU systems; this is the default.  This sets
     `ls-lisp-ignore-case' and `ls-lisp-dirs-first' to `nil', and
     `ls-lisp-verbosity' to `(links uid gid)'.

`UNIX'
     Emulate Unix systems.  Like `GNU', but sets `ls-lisp-verbosity' to
     `(links uid)'.

`MacOS'
     Emulate MacOS.  Sets `ls-lisp-ignore-case' to `t', and
     `ls-lisp-dirs-first' and `ls-lisp-verbosity' to `nil'.

`MS-Windows'
     Emulate MS-Windows.  Sets `ls-lisp-ignore-case' and
     `ls-lisp-dirs-first' to `t', and `ls-lisp-verbosity' to `(links)'
     on Windows NT/2K/XP/2K3 and to `nil' on Windows 9X.  Note that the
     default emulation is _not_ `MS-Windows', even on Windows, since
     many users of Emacs on those platforms prefer the GNU defaults.

Any other value of `ls-lisp-emulation' means the same as `GNU'.  Note
that this option needs to be set _before_ `ls-lisp.el' is loaded, which
means that on MS-Windows and MS-DOS you will have to set the value from
your `.emacs' file and then restart Emacs, since `ls-lisp.el' is
preloaded.

   The variable `ls-lisp-support-shell-wildcards' controls how
file-name patterns are supported: if it is non-`nil' (the default),
they are treated as shell-style wildcards; otherwise they are treated
as Emacs regular expressions.

   The variable `ls-lisp-format-time-list' defines how to format the
date and time of files.  _The value of this variable is ignored_,
unless Emacs cannot determine the current locale.  (However, if the
value of `ls-lisp-use-localized-time-format' is non-`nil', Emacs obeys
`ls-lisp-format-time-list' even if the current locale is available; see
below.)

   The value of `ls-lisp-format-time-list' is a list of 2 strings.  The
first string is used if the file was modified within the current year,
while the second string is used for older files.  In each of these two
strings you can use `%'-sequences to substitute parts of the time.  For
example:
     ("%b %e %H:%M" "%b %e  %Y")

Note that the strings substituted for these `%'-sequences depend on the
current locale.  *Note Time Parsing: (elisp)Time Parsing, for more
about format time specs.

   Normally, Emacs formats the file time stamps in either traditional
or ISO-style time format.  However, if the value of the variable
`ls-lisp-use-localized-time-format' is non-`nil', Emacs formats file
time stamps according to what `ls-lisp-format-time-list' specifies.
The `%'-sequences in `ls-lisp-format-time-list' produce
locale-dependent month and day names, which might cause misalignment of
columns in Dired display.

File: emacs,  Node: Windows HOME,  Next: Windows Keyboard,  Prev: ls in Lisp,  Up: Microsoft Windows

G.4 HOME Directory on MS-Windows
================================

The Windows equivalent of the `HOME' directory is the "user-specific
application data directory".  The actual location depends on your
Windows version and system configuration; typical values are
`C:\Documents and Settings\USERNAME\Application Data' on Windows 2K/XP
and later, and either `C:\WINDOWS\Application Data' or
`C:\WINDOWS\Profiles\USERNAME\Application Data' on the older Windows
9X/ME systems.

   The home directory is where your init file `.emacs' is stored.  When
Emacs starts, it first checks whether the environment variable `HOME'
is set.  If it is, it looks for the init file in the directory pointed
by `HOME'.  If `HOME' is not defined, Emacs checks for an existing
`.emacs' file in `C:\', the root directory of drive `C:'(1).  If
there's no such file in `C:\', Emacs next uses the Windows system calls
to find out the exact location of your application data directory.  If
that fails as well, Emacs falls back to `C:\'.

   Whatever the final place is, Emacs sets the value of the `HOME'
environment variable to point to it, and it will use that location for
other files and directories it normally creates in the user's home
directory.

   You can always find out where Emacs thinks is your home directory's
location by typing `C-x d ~/ <RET>'.  This should present the list of
files in the home directory, and show its full name on the first line.
Likewise, to visit your init file, type `C-x C-f ~/.emacs <RET>'.

   Because MS-DOS does not allow file names with leading dots, and
because older Windows systems made it hard to create files with such
names, the Windows port of Emacs supports an alternative name `_emacs'
as a fallback, if such a file exists in the home directory, whereas
`.emacs' does not.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) The check in `C:\' is in preference to the application data
directory for compatibility with older versions of Emacs, which didn't
check the application data directory.

File: emacs,  Node: Windows Keyboard,  Next: Windows Mouse,  Prev: Windows HOME,  Up: Microsoft Windows

G.5 Keyboard Usage on MS-Windows
================================

This section describes the Windows-specific features related to
keyboard input in Emacs.

   Many key combinations (known as "keyboard shortcuts") that have
conventional uses in MS-Windows programs conflict with traditional
Emacs key bindings.  (These Emacs key bindings were established years
before Microsoft was founded.)  Examples of conflicts include `C-c',
`C-x', `C-z', `C-a', and `W-<SPC>'.  You can redefine some of them with
meanings more like the MS-Windows meanings by enabling CUA Mode (*note
CUA Bindings::).

   The <F10> key on Windows activates the menu bar in a way that makes
it possible to use the menus without a mouse.  In this mode, the arrow
keys traverse the menus, <RET> selects a highlighted menu item, and
<ESC> closes the menu.

   By default, the key labeled <Alt> is mapped as the <META> key.  If
you wish it to produce the `Alt' modifier instead, set the variable
`w32-alt-is-meta' to a `nil' value.

   By default, the <CapsLock> key only affects normal character keys
(it converts lower-case characters to their upper-case variants).
However, if you set the variable `w32-capslock-is-shiftlock' to a
non-`nil' value, the <CapsLock> key will affect non-character keys as
well, as if you pressed the <Shift> key while typing the non-character
key.

   If the variable `w32-enable-caps-lock' is set to a `nil' value, the
<CapsLock> key produces the symbol `capslock' instead of the shifted
version of they keys.  The default value is `t'.

   Similarly, if `w32-enable-num-lock' is `nil', the <NumLock> key will
produce the symbol `kp-numlock'.  The default is `t', which causes
<NumLock> to work as expected: toggle the meaning of the keys on the
numeric keypad.

   The variable `w32-apps-modifier' controls the effect of the <Apps>
key (usually located between the right <Alt> and the right <Ctrl>
keys).  Its value can be one of the symbols `hyper', `super', `meta',
`alt', `control', or `shift' for the respective modifier, or `nil' to
appear as the key `apps'.  The default is `nil'.

   The variable `w32-lwindow-modifier' determines the effect of the
left Windows key (usually labeled with <start> and the Windows logo).
If its value is `nil' (the default), the key will produce the symbol
`lwindow'.  Setting it to one of the symbols `hyper', `super', `meta',
`alt', `control', or `shift' will produce the respective modifier.  A
similar variable `w32-rwindow-modifier' controls the effect of the right
Windows key, and `w32-scroll-lock-modifier' does the same for the
<ScrLock> key.  If these variables are set to `nil', the right Windows
key produces the symbol `rwindow' and <ScrLock> produces the symbol
`scroll'.

   Emacs compiled as a native Windows application normally turns off
the Windows feature that tapping the <ALT> key invokes the Windows
menu.  The reason is that the <ALT> serves as <META> in Emacs.  When
using Emacs, users often press the <META> key temporarily and then
change their minds; if this has the effect of bringing up the Windows
menu, it alters the meaning of subsequent commands.  Many users find
this frustrating.

   You can re-enable Windows' default handling of tapping the <ALT> key
by setting `w32-pass-alt-to-system' to a non-`nil' value.

   The variables `w32-pass-lwindow-to-system' and
`w32-pass-rwindow-to-system' determine whether the respective keys are
passed to Windows or swallowed by Emacs.  If the value is `nil', the
respective key is silently swallowed by Emacs, otherwise it is passed
to Windows.  The default is `t' for both of these variables.  Passing
each of these keys to Windows produces its normal effect: for example,
`<Lwindow>' opens the `Start' menu, etc.(1)

   The variable `w32-recognize-altgr' controls whether the <AltGr> key
(if it exists on your keyboard), or its equivalent, the combination of
the right <Alt> and left <Ctrl> keys pressed together, is recognized as
the <AltGr> key.  The default is `t', which means these keys produce
`AltGr'; setting it to `nil' causes <AltGr> or the equivalent key
combination to be interpreted as the combination of <CTRL> and <META>
modifiers.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Some combinations of the "Windows" keys with other keys are
caught by Windows at low level in a way that Emacs currently cannot
prevent.  For example, `<Lwindow> r' always pops up the Windows `Run'
dialog.  Customizing the value of `w32-phantom-key-code' might help in
some cases, though.

File: emacs,  Node: Windows Mouse,  Next: Windows Processes,  Prev: Windows Keyboard,  Up: Microsoft Windows

G.6 Mouse Usage on MS-Windows
=============================

This section describes the Windows-specific variables related to mouse.

   The variable `w32-mouse-button-tolerance' specifies the time
interval, in milliseconds, for faking middle mouse button press on
2-button mice.  If both mouse buttons are depressed within this time
interval, Emacs generates a middle mouse button click event instead of
a double click on one of the buttons.

   If the variable `w32-pass-extra-mouse-buttons-to-system' is
non-`nil', Emacs passes the fourth and fifth mouse buttons to Windows.

   The variable `w32-swap-mouse-buttons' controls which of the 3 mouse
buttons generates the `mouse-2' events.  When it is `nil' (the
default), the middle button generates `mouse-2' and the right button
generates `mouse-3' events.  If this variable is non-`nil', the roles
of these two buttons are reversed.

File: emacs,  Node: Windows Processes,  Next: Windows Printing,  Prev: Windows Mouse,  Up: Microsoft Windows

G.7 Subprocesses on Windows 9X/ME and Windows NT/2K/XP
======================================================

Emacs compiled as a native Windows application (as opposed to the DOS
version) includes full support for asynchronous subprocesses.  In the
Windows version, synchronous and asynchronous subprocesses work fine on
both Windows 9X/ME and Windows NT/2K/XP as long as you run only 32-bit
Windows applications.  However, when you run a DOS application in a
subprocess, you may encounter problems or be unable to run the
application at all; and if you run two DOS applications at the same
time in two subprocesses, you may have to reboot your system.

   Since the standard command interpreter (and most command line
utilities) on Windows 9X are DOS applications, these problems are
significant when using that system.  But there's nothing we can do
about them; only Microsoft can fix them.

   If you run just one DOS application subprocess, the subprocess should
work as expected as long as it is "well-behaved" and does not perform
direct screen access or other unusual actions.  If you have a CPU
monitor application, your machine will appear to be 100% busy even when
the DOS application is idle, but this is only an artifact of the way CPU
monitors measure processor load.

   You must terminate the DOS application before you start any other DOS
application in a different subprocess.  Emacs is unable to interrupt or
terminate a DOS subprocess.  The only way you can terminate such a
subprocess is by giving it a command that tells its program to exit.

   If you attempt to run two DOS applications at the same time in
separate subprocesses, the second one that is started will be suspended
until the first one finishes, even if either or both of them are
asynchronous.

   If you can go to the first subprocess, and tell it to exit, the
second subprocess should continue normally.  However, if the second
subprocess is synchronous, Emacs itself will be hung until the first
subprocess finishes.  If it will not finish without user input, then
you have no choice but to reboot if you are running on Windows 9X.  If
you are running on Windows NT/2K/XP, you can use a process viewer
application to kill the appropriate instance of NTVDM instead (this
will terminate both DOS subprocesses).

   If you have to reboot Windows 9X in this situation, do not use the
`Shutdown' command on the `Start' menu; that usually hangs the system.
Instead, type `CTL-ALT-<DEL>' and then choose `Shutdown'.  That usually
works, although it may take a few minutes to do its job.

   The variable `w32-quote-process-args' controls how Emacs quotes the
process arguments.  Non-`nil' means quote with the `"' character.  If
the value is a character, use that character to escape any quote
characters that appear; otherwise chose a suitable escape character
based on the type of the program.

   The function `w32-shell-execute' can be useful for writing
customized commands that run MS-Windows applications registered to
handle a certain standard Windows operation for a specific type of
document or file.  This function is a wrapper around the Windows
`ShellExecute' API.  See the MS-Windows API documentation for more
details.

File: emacs,  Node: Windows Printing,  Next: Windows Misc,  Prev: Windows Processes,  Up: Microsoft Windows

G.8 Printing and MS-Windows
===========================

Printing commands, such as `lpr-buffer' (*note Printing::) and
`ps-print-buffer' (*note PostScript::) work in MS-DOS and MS-Windows by
sending the output to one of the printer ports, if a Posix-style `lpr'
program is unavailable.  The same Emacs variables control printing on
all systems, but in some cases they have different default values on
MS-DOS and MS-Windows.

   Emacs on Windows automatically determines your default printer and
sets the variable PRINTER-NAME to that printer's name.  But in some
rare cases this can fail, or you may wish to use a different printer
from within Emacs.  The rest of this section explains how to tell Emacs
which printer to use.

   If you want to use your local printer, then set the Lisp variable
`lpr-command' to `""' (its default value on Windows) and `printer-name'
to the name of the printer port--for example, `"PRN"', the usual local
printer port or `"LPT2"', or `"COM1"' for a serial printer.  You can
also set `printer-name' to a file name, in which case "printed" output
is actually appended to that file.  If you set `printer-name' to
`"NUL"', printed output is silently discarded (sent to the system null
device).

   You can also use a printer shared by another machine by setting
`printer-name' to the UNC share name for that printer--for example,
`"//joes_pc/hp4si"'.  (It doesn't matter whether you use forward
slashes or backslashes here.)  To find out the names of shared
printers, run the command `net view' from the command prompt to obtain
a list of servers, and `net view SERVER-NAME' to see the names of
printers (and directories) shared by that server.  Alternatively, click
the `Network Neighborhood' icon on your desktop, and look for machines
which share their printers via the network.

   If the printer doesn't appear in the output of `net view', or if
setting `printer-name' to the UNC share name doesn't produce a hardcopy
on that printer, you can use the `net use' command to connect a local
print port such as `"LPT2"' to the networked printer.  For example,
typing `net use LPT2: \\joes_pc\hp4si'(1) causes Windows to "capture"
the `LPT2' port and redirect the printed material to the printer
connected to the machine `joes_pc'.  After this command, setting
`printer-name' to `"LPT2"' should produce the hardcopy on the networked
printer.

   With some varieties of Windows network software, you can instruct
Windows to capture a specific printer port such as `"LPT2"', and
redirect it to a networked printer via the `Control Panel->Printers'
applet instead of `net use'.

   If you set `printer-name' to a file name, it's best to use an
absolute file name.  Emacs changes the working directory according to
the default directory of the current buffer, so if the file name in
`printer-name' is relative, you will end up with several such files,
each one in the directory of the buffer from which the printing was
done.

   If the value of `printer-name' is correct, but printing does not
produce the hardcopy on your printer, it is possible that your printer
does not support printing plain text (some cheap printers omit this
functionality).  In that case, try the PostScript print commands,
described below.

   The commands `print-buffer' and `print-region' call the `pr'
program, or use special switches to the `lpr' program, to produce
headers on each printed page.  MS-DOS and MS-Windows don't normally
have these programs, so by default, the variable `lpr-headers-switches'
is set so that the requests to print page headers are silently ignored.
Thus, `print-buffer' and `print-region' produce the same output as
`lpr-buffer' and `lpr-region', respectively.  If you do have a suitable
`pr' program (for example, from GNU Coreutils), set
`lpr-headers-switches' to `nil'; Emacs will then call `pr' to produce
the page headers, and print the resulting output as specified by
`printer-name'.

   Finally, if you do have an `lpr' work-alike, you can set the
variable `lpr-command' to `"lpr"'.  Then Emacs will use `lpr' for
printing, as on other systems.  (If the name of the program isn't
`lpr', set `lpr-command' to specify where to find it.)  The variable
`lpr-switches' has its standard meaning when `lpr-command' is not `""'.
If the variable `printer-name' has a string value, it is used as the
value for the `-P' option to `lpr', as on Unix.

   A parallel set of variables, `ps-lpr-command', `ps-lpr-switches',
and `ps-printer-name' (*note PostScript Variables::), defines how
PostScript files should be printed.  These variables are used in the
same way as the corresponding variables described above for
non-PostScript printing.  Thus, the value of `ps-printer-name' is used
as the name of the device (or file) to which PostScript output is sent,
just as `printer-name' is used for non-PostScript printing.  (There are
two distinct sets of variables in case you have two printers attached
to two different ports, and only one of them is a PostScript printer.)

   The default value of the variable `ps-lpr-command' is `""', which
causes PostScript output to be sent to the printer port specified by
`ps-printer-name', but `ps-lpr-command' can also be set to the name of
a program which will accept PostScript files.  Thus, if you have a
non-PostScript printer, you can set this variable to the name of a
PostScript interpreter program (such as Ghostscript).  Any switches
that need to be passed to the interpreter program are specified using
`ps-lpr-switches'.  (If the value of `ps-printer-name' is a string, it
will be added to the list of switches as the value for the `-P' option.
This is probably only useful if you are using `lpr', so when using an
interpreter typically you would set `ps-printer-name' to something
other than a string so it is ignored.)

   For example, to use Ghostscript for printing on the system's default
printer, put this in your `.emacs' file:

     (setq ps-printer-name t)
     (setq ps-lpr-command "D:/gs6.01/bin/gswin32c.exe")
     (setq ps-lpr-switches '("-q" "-dNOPAUSE" "-dBATCH"
     			"-sDEVICE=mswinpr2"
     			"-sPAPERSIZE=a4"))

(This assumes that Ghostscript is installed in the `D:/gs6.01'
directory.)

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Note that the `net use' command requires the UNC share name to be
typed with the Windows-style backslashes, while the value of
`printer-name' can be set with either forward- or backslashes.

File: emacs,  Node: Windows Misc,  Next: MS-DOS,  Prev: Windows Printing,  Up: Microsoft Windows

G.9 Miscellaneous Windows-specific features
===========================================

This section describes miscellaneous Windows-specific features.

   The variable `w32-use-visible-system-caret' is a flag that
determines whether to make the system caret visible.  The default is
`nil', which means Emacs draws its own cursor to indicate the position
of point.  A non-`nil' value means Emacs will indicate point location
by the system caret; this facilitates use of screen reader software.
When this variable is non-`nil', other variables affecting the cursor
display have no effect.

   The variable `w32-grab-focus-on-raise', if set to a non-`nil' value
causes a frame to grab focus when it is raised.  The default is `t',
which fits well with the Windows default click-to-focus policy.

   The variable `w32-list-proportional-fonts' controls whether
proportional fonts are included in the font selection dialog.  If its
value is non-`nil', these fonts will be included.  The default is `nil'.

File: emacs,  Node: MS-DOS,  Prev: Windows Misc,  Up: Microsoft Windows

G.10 Emacs and MS-DOS
=====================

This section briefly describes the peculiarities of using Emacs on the
MS-DOS "operating system" (also known as "MS-DOG").  Information about
peculiarities common to MS-DOS and Microsoft's current operating
systems Windows (also known as "Losedows") is in *note Microsoft
Windows::.

   If you build Emacs for MS-DOS, the binary will also run on Windows
3.X, Windows NT, Windows 9X/ME, Windows 2000/XP, or OS/2 as a DOS
application; all of this chapter applies for all of those systems, if
you use an Emacs that was built for MS-DOS.

   *Note Text and Binary::, for information about Emacs' special
handling of text files under MS-DOS (and Windows).

* Menu:

* Keyboard: MS-DOS Keyboard.   Keyboard conventions on MS-DOS.
* Mouse: MS-DOS Mouse.         Mouse conventions on MS-DOS.
* Display: MS-DOS Display.     Fonts, frames and display size on MS-DOS.
* Files: MS-DOS File Names.    File name conventions on MS-DOS.
* Printing: MS-DOS Printing.   Printing specifics on MS-DOS.
* I18N: MS-DOS and MULE.       Support for internationalization on MS-DOS.
* Processes: MS-DOS Processes. Running subprocesses on MS-DOS.

File: emacs,  Node: MS-DOS Keyboard,  Next: MS-DOS Mouse,  Up: MS-DOS

G.10.1 Keyboard Usage on MS-DOS
-------------------------------

The key that is called <DEL> in Emacs (because that's how it is
designated on most workstations) is known as <BS> (backspace) on a PC.
That is why the PC-specific terminal initialization remaps the <BS> key
to act as <DEL>; the <DELETE> key is remapped to act as `C-d' for the
same reasons.

   Emacs built for MS-DOS recognizes `C-<BREAK>' as a quit character,
just like `C-g'.  This is because Emacs cannot detect that you have
typed `C-g' until it is ready for more input.  As a consequence, you
cannot use `C-g' to stop a running command (*note Quitting::).  By
contrast, `C-<BREAK>' _is_ detected as soon as you type it (as `C-g' is
on other systems), so it can be used to stop a running command and for
emergency escape (*note Emergency Escape::).

   The PC keyboard maps use the left <ALT> key as the <META> key.  You
have two choices for emulating the <SUPER> and <HYPER> keys: choose
either the right <CTRL> key or the right <ALT> key by setting the
variables `dos-hyper-key' and `dos-super-key' to 1 or 2 respectively.
If neither `dos-super-key' nor `dos-hyper-key' is 1, then by default
the right <ALT> key is also mapped to the <META> key.  However, if the
MS-DOS international keyboard support program `KEYB.COM' is installed,
Emacs will _not_ map the right <ALT> to <META>, since it is used for
accessing characters like `~' and `@' on non-US keyboard layouts; in
this case, you may only use the left <ALT> as <META> key.

   The variable `dos-keypad-mode' is a flag variable that controls what
key codes are returned by keys in the numeric keypad.  You can also
define the keypad <ENTER> key to act like `C-j', by putting the
following line into your `_emacs' file:

     ;; Make the <ENTER> key from the numeric keypad act as `C-j'.
     (define-key function-key-map [kp-enter] [?\C-j])

File: emacs,  Node: MS-DOS Mouse,  Next: MS-DOS Display,  Prev: MS-DOS Keyboard,  Up: MS-DOS

G.10.2 Mouse Usage on MS-DOS
----------------------------

Emacs on MS-DOS supports a mouse (on the default terminal only).  The
mouse commands work as documented, including those that use menus and
the menu bar (*note Menu Bar::).   Scroll bars don't work in MS-DOS
Emacs.  PC mice usually have only two buttons; these act as `Mouse-1'
and `Mouse-2', but if you press both of them together, that has the
effect of `Mouse-3'.  If the mouse does have 3 buttons, Emacs detects
that at startup, and all the 3 buttons function normally, as on X.

   Help strings for menu-bar and pop-up menus are displayed in the echo
area when the mouse pointer moves across the menu items.  Highlighting
of mouse-sensitive text (*note Mouse References::) is also supported.

   Some versions of mouse drivers don't report the number of mouse
buttons correctly.  For example, mice with a wheel report that they
have 3 buttons, but only 2 of them are passed to Emacs; the clicks on
the wheel, which serves as the middle button, are not passed.  In these
cases, you can use the `M-x msdos-set-mouse-buttons' command to tell
Emacs how many mouse buttons to expect.  You could make such a setting
permanent by adding this fragment to your `_emacs' init file:

     ;; Treat the mouse like a 2-button mouse.
     (msdos-set-mouse-buttons 2)

   Emacs built for MS-DOS supports clipboard operations when it runs on
Windows.  Commands that put text on the kill ring, or yank text from
the ring, check the Windows clipboard first, just as Emacs does on the
X Window System (*note Mouse Commands::).  Only the primary selection
and the cut buffer are supported by MS-DOS Emacs on Windows; the
secondary selection always appears as empty.

   Due to the way clipboard access is implemented by Windows, the
length of text you can put into the clipboard is limited by the amount
of free DOS memory that is available to Emacs.  Usually, up to 620KB of
text can be put into the clipboard, but this limit depends on the system
configuration and is lower if you run Emacs as a subprocess of another
program.  If the killed text does not fit, Emacs outputs a message
saying so, and does not put the text into the clipboard.

   Null characters also cannot be put into the Windows clipboard.  If
the killed text includes null characters, Emacs does not put such text
into the clipboard, and displays in the echo area a message to that
effect.

   The variable `dos-display-scancodes', when non-`nil', directs Emacs
to display the ASCII value and the keyboard scan code of each
keystroke; this feature serves as a complement to the `view-lossage'
command, for debugging.

File: emacs,  Node: MS-DOS Display,  Next: MS-DOS File Names,  Prev: MS-DOS Mouse,  Up: MS-DOS

G.10.3 Display on MS-DOS
------------------------

Display on MS-DOS cannot use font variants, like bold or italic, but it
does support multiple faces, each of which can specify a foreground and
a background color.  Therefore, you can get the full functionality of
Emacs packages that use fonts (such as `font-lock', Enriched Text mode,
and others) by defining the relevant faces to use different colors.
Use the `list-colors-display' command (*note Frame Parameters::) and
the `list-faces-display' command (*note Faces::) to see what colors and
faces are available and what they look like.

   *Note MS-DOS and MULE::, later in this chapter, for information on
how Emacs displays glyphs and characters that aren't supported by the
native font built into the DOS display.

   When Emacs starts, it changes the cursor shape to a solid box.  This
is for compatibility with other systems, where the box cursor is the
default in Emacs.  This default shape can be changed to a bar by
specifying the `cursor-type' parameter in the variable
`default-frame-alist' (*note Creating Frames::).  The MS-DOS terminal
doesn't support a vertical-bar cursor, so the bar cursor is horizontal,
and the `WIDTH' parameter, if specified by the frame parameters,
actually determines its height.  For this reason, the `bar' and `hbar'
cursor types produce the same effect on MS-DOS.  As an extension, the
bar cursor specification can include the starting scan line of the
cursor as well as its width, like this:

      '(cursor-type bar WIDTH . START)

In addition, if the WIDTH parameter is negative, the cursor bar begins
at the top of the character cell.

   The MS-DOS terminal can only display a single frame at a time.  The
Emacs frame facilities work on MS-DOS much as they do on text-only
terminals (*note Frames::).  When you run Emacs from a DOS window on
MS-Windows, you can make the visible frame smaller than the full
screen, but Emacs still cannot display more than a single frame at a
time.

   The `mode4350' command switches the display to 43 or 50 lines,
depending on your hardware; the `mode25' command switches to the
default 80x25 screen size.

   By default, Emacs only knows how to set screen sizes of 80 columns by
25, 28, 35, 40, 43 or 50 rows.  However, if your video adapter has
special video modes that will switch the display to other sizes, you can
have Emacs support those too.  When you ask Emacs to switch the frame to
N rows by M columns dimensions, it checks if there is a variable called
`screen-dimensions-NxM', and if so, uses its value (which must be an
integer) as the video mode to switch to.  (Emacs switches to that video
mode by calling the BIOS `Set Video Mode' function with the value of
`screen-dimensions-NxM' in the `AL' register.)  For example, suppose
your adapter will switch to 66x80 dimensions when put into video mode
85.  Then you can make Emacs support this screen size by putting the
following into your `_emacs' file:

     (setq screen-dimensions-66x80 85)

   Since Emacs on MS-DOS can only set the frame size to specific
supported dimensions, it cannot honor every possible frame resizing
request.  When an unsupported size is requested, Emacs chooses the next
larger supported size beyond the specified size.  For example, if you
ask for 36x80 frame, you will get 40x80 instead.

   The variables `screen-dimensions-NxM' are used only when they
exactly match the specified size; the search for the next larger
supported size ignores them.  In the above example, even if your VGA
supports 38x80 dimensions and you define a variable
`screen-dimensions-38x80' with a suitable value, you will still get
40x80 screen when you ask for a 36x80 frame.  If you want to get the
38x80 size in this case, you can do it by setting the variable named
`screen-dimensions-36x80' with the same video mode value as
`screen-dimensions-38x80'.

   Changing frame dimensions on MS-DOS has the effect of changing all
the other frames to the new dimensions.

File: emacs,  Node: MS-DOS File Names,  Next: MS-DOS Printing,  Prev: MS-DOS Display,  Up: MS-DOS

G.10.4 File Names on MS-DOS
---------------------------

On MS-DOS, file names are case-insensitive and limited to eight
characters, plus optionally a period and three more characters.  Emacs
knows enough about these limitations to handle file names that were
meant for other operating systems.  For instance, leading dots `.'  in
file names are invalid in MS-DOS, so Emacs transparently converts them
to underscores `_'; thus your default init file (*note Init File::) is
called `_emacs' on MS-DOS.  Excess characters before or after the
period are generally ignored by MS-DOS itself; thus, if you visit the
file `LongFileName.EvenLongerExtension', you will silently get
`longfile.eve', but Emacs will still display the long file name on the
mode line.  Other than that, it's up to you to specify file names which
are valid under MS-DOS; the transparent conversion as described above
only works on file names built into Emacs.

   The above restrictions on the file names on MS-DOS make it almost
impossible to construct the name of a backup file (*note Backup Names::)
without losing some of the original file name characters.  For example,
the name of a backup file for `docs.txt' is `docs.tx~' even if single
backup is used.

   If you run Emacs as a DOS application under Windows 9X, Windows ME,
or Windows 2000/XP, you can turn on support for long file names.  If
you do that, Emacs doesn't truncate file names or convert them to lower
case; instead, it uses the file names that you specify, verbatim.  To
enable long file name support, set the environment variable `LFN' to
`y' before starting Emacs.  Unfortunately, Windows NT doesn't allow DOS
programs to access long file names, so Emacs built for MS-DOS will only
see their short 8+3 aliases.

   MS-DOS has no notion of home directory, so Emacs on MS-DOS pretends
that the directory where it is installed is the value of the `HOME'
environment variable.  That is, if your Emacs binary, `emacs.exe', is
in the directory `c:/utils/emacs/bin', then Emacs acts as if `HOME'
were set to `c:/utils/emacs'.  In particular, that is where Emacs looks
for the init file `_emacs'.  With this in mind, you can use `~' in file
names as an alias for the home directory, as you would on GNU or Unix.
You can also set `HOME' variable in the environment before starting
Emacs; its value will then override the above default behavior.

   Emacs on MS-DOS handles the directory name `/dev' specially, because
of a feature in the emulator libraries of DJGPP that pretends I/O
devices have names in that directory.  We recommend that you avoid
using an actual directory named `/dev' on any disk.

File: emacs,  Node: MS-DOS Printing,  Next: MS-DOS and MULE,  Prev: MS-DOS File Names,  Up: MS-DOS

G.10.5 Printing and MS-DOS
--------------------------

Printing commands, such as `lpr-buffer' (*note Printing::) and
`ps-print-buffer' (*note PostScript::) can work on MS-DOS by sending
the output to one of the printer ports, if a Posix-style `lpr' program
is unavailable.  The same Emacs variables control printing on all
systems, but in some cases they have different default values on MS-DOS.

   *Note Windows Printing::, for details about setting up printing to a
networked printer.

   Some printers expect DOS codepage encoding of non-ASCII text, even
though they are connected to a Windows machine which uses a different
encoding for the same locale.  For example, in the Latin-1 locale, DOS
uses codepage 850 whereas Windows uses codepage 1252.  *Note MS-DOS and
MULE::.  When you print to such printers from Windows, you can use the
`C-x RET c' (`universal-coding-system-argument') command before `M-x
lpr-buffer'; Emacs will then convert the text to the DOS codepage that
you specify.  For example, `C-x RET c cp850-dos RET M-x lpr-region RET'
will print the region while converting it to the codepage 850 encoding.
You may need to create the `cpNNN' coding system with `M-x
codepage-setup'.

   For backwards compatibility, the value of `dos-printer'
(`dos-ps-printer'), if it has a value, overrides the value of
`printer-name' (`ps-printer-name'), on MS-DOS.

File: emacs,  Node: MS-DOS and MULE,  Next: MS-DOS Processes,  Prev: MS-DOS Printing,  Up: MS-DOS

G.10.6 International Support on MS-DOS
--------------------------------------

Emacs on MS-DOS supports the same international character sets as it
does on GNU, Unix and other platforms (*note International::),
including coding systems for converting between the different character
sets.  However, due to incompatibilities between MS-DOS/MS-Windows and
other systems, there are several DOS-specific aspects of this support
that you should be aware of.  This section describes these aspects.

   The description below is largely specific to the MS-DOS port of
Emacs, especially where it talks about practical implications for Emacs
users.  For other operating systems, see the `code-pages.el' package,
which implements support for MS-DOS- and MS-Windows-specific encodings
for all platforms other than MS-DOS.

`M-x dos-codepage-setup'
     Set up Emacs display and coding systems as appropriate for the
     current DOS codepage.

`M-x codepage-setup'
     Create a coding system for a certain DOS codepage.

   MS-DOS is designed to support one character set of 256 characters at
any given time, but gives you a variety of character sets to choose
from.  The alternative character sets are known as "DOS codepages".
Each codepage includes all 128 ASCII characters, but the other 128
characters (codes 128 through 255) vary from one codepage to another.
Each DOS codepage is identified by a 3-digit number, such as 850, 862,
etc.

   In contrast to X, which lets you use several fonts at the same time,
MS-DOS normally doesn't allow use of several codepages in a single
session.  MS-DOS was designed to load a single codepage at system
startup, and require you to reboot in order to change it(1).  Much the
same limitation applies when you run DOS executables on other systems
such as MS-Windows.

   If you invoke Emacs on MS-DOS with the `--unibyte' option (*note
Initial Options::), Emacs does not perform any conversion of non-ASCII
characters.  Instead, it reads and writes any non-ASCII characters
verbatim, and sends their 8-bit codes to the display verbatim.  Thus,
unibyte Emacs on MS-DOS supports the current codepage, whatever it may
be, but cannot even represent any other characters.

   For multibyte operation on MS-DOS, Emacs needs to know which
characters the chosen DOS codepage can display.  So it queries the
system shortly after startup to get the chosen codepage number, and
stores the number in the variable `dos-codepage'.  Some systems return
the default value 437 for the current codepage, even though the actual
codepage is different.  (This typically happens when you use the
codepage built into the display hardware.)  You can specify a different
codepage for Emacs to use by setting the variable `dos-codepage' in
your init file.

   Multibyte Emacs supports only certain DOS codepages: those which can
display Far-Eastern scripts, like the Japanese codepage 932, and those
that encode a single ISO 8859 character set.

   The Far-Eastern codepages can directly display one of the MULE
character sets for these countries, so Emacs simply sets up to use the
appropriate terminal coding system that is supported by the codepage.
The special features described in the rest of this section mostly
pertain to codepages that encode ISO 8859 character sets.

   For the codepages which correspond to one of the ISO character sets,
Emacs knows the character set name based on the codepage number.  Emacs
automatically creates a coding system to support reading and writing
files that use the current codepage, and uses this coding system by
default.  The name of this coding system is `cpNNN', where NNN is the
codepage number.(2)

   All the `cpNNN' coding systems use the letter `D' (for "DOS") as
their mode-line mnemonic.  Since both the terminal coding system and
the default coding system for file I/O are set to the proper `cpNNN'
coding system at startup, it is normal for the mode line on MS-DOS to
begin with `-DD\-'.  *Note Mode Line::.  Far-Eastern DOS terminals do
not use the `cpNNN' coding systems, and thus their initial mode line
looks like the Emacs default.

   Since the codepage number also indicates which script you are using,
Emacs automatically runs `set-language-environment' to select the
language environment for that script (*note Language Environments::).

   If a buffer contains a character belonging to some other ISO 8859
character set, not the one that the chosen DOS codepage supports, Emacs
displays it using a sequence of ASCII characters.  For example, if the
current codepage doesn't have a glyph for the letter `o`' (small `o'
with a grave accent), it is displayed as `{`o}', where the braces serve
as a visual indication that this is a single character.  (This may look
awkward for some non-Latin characters, such as those from Greek or
Hebrew alphabets, but it is still readable by a person who knows the
language.)  Even though the character may occupy several columns on the
screen, it is really still just a single character, and all Emacs
commands treat it as one.

   Not all characters in DOS codepages correspond to ISO 8859
characters--some are used for other purposes, such as box-drawing
characters and other graphics.  Emacs maps these characters to two
special character sets called `eight-bit-control' and
`eight-bit-graphic', and displays them as their IBM glyphs.  However,
you should be aware that other systems might display these characters
differently, so you should avoid them in text that might be copied to a
different operating system, or even to another DOS machine that uses a
different codepage.

   Emacs supports many other characters sets aside from ISO 8859, but it
cannot display them on MS-DOS.  So if one of these multibyte characters
appears in a buffer, Emacs on MS-DOS displays them as specified by the
`dos-unsupported-character-glyph' variable; by default, this glyph is
an empty triangle.  Use the `C-u C-x =' command to display the actual
code and character set of such characters.  *Note Position Info::.

   By default, Emacs defines a coding system to support the current
codepage.  To define a coding system for some other codepage (e.g., to
visit a file written on a DOS machine in another country), use the `M-x
codepage-setup' command.  It prompts for the 3-digit code of the
codepage, with completion, then creates the coding system for the
specified codepage.  You can then use the new coding system to read and
write files, but you must specify it explicitly for the file command
when you want to use it (*note Text Coding::).

   These coding systems are also useful for visiting a file encoded
using a DOS codepage, using Emacs running on some other operating
system.

   MS-Windows provides its own codepages, which are different from the
DOS codepages for the same locale.  For example, DOS codepage 850
supports the same character set as Windows codepage 1252; DOS codepage
855 supports the same character set as Windows codepage 1251, etc.  The
MS-Windows version of Emacs uses the current codepage for display when
invoked with the `-nw' option.  Support for codepages in the Windows
port of Emacs is part of the `code-pages.el' package.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Normally, one particular codepage is burnt into the display
memory, while other codepages can be installed by modifying system
configuration files, such as `CONFIG.SYS', and rebooting.  While there
is third-party software that allows changing the codepage without
rebooting, we describe here how a stock MS-DOS system behaves.

   (2) The standard Emacs coding systems for ISO 8859 are not quite
right for the purpose, because typically the DOS codepage does not
match the standard ISO character codes.  For example, the letter `c,'
(`c' with cedilla) has code 231 in the standard Latin-1 character set,
but the corresponding DOS codepage 850 uses code 135 for this glyph.

File: emacs,  Node: MS-DOS Processes,  Prev: MS-DOS and MULE,  Up: MS-DOS

G.10.7 Subprocesses on MS-DOS
-----------------------------

Because MS-DOS is a single-process "operating system," asynchronous
subprocesses are not available.  In particular, Shell mode and its
variants do not work.  Most Emacs features that use asynchronous
subprocesses also don't work on MS-DOS, including Shell mode and GUD.
When in doubt, try and see; commands that don't work output an error
message saying that asynchronous processes aren't supported.

   Compilation under Emacs with `M-x compile', searching files with
`M-x grep' and displaying differences between files with `M-x diff' do
work, by running the inferior processes synchronously.  This means you
cannot do any more editing until the inferior process finishes.

   Spell checking also works, by means of special support for
synchronous invocation of the `ispell' program.  This is slower than the
asynchronous invocation on other platforms

   Instead of the Shell mode, which doesn't work on MS-DOS, you can use
the `M-x eshell' command.  This invokes the Eshell package that
implements a Posix-like shell entirely in Emacs Lisp.

   By contrast, Emacs compiled as a native Windows application *does*
support asynchronous subprocesses.  *Note Windows Processes::.

   Printing commands, such as `lpr-buffer' (*note Printing::) and
`ps-print-buffer' (*note PostScript::), work in MS-DOS by sending the
output to one of the printer ports.  *Note MS-DOS Printing::.

   When you run a subprocess synchronously on MS-DOS, make sure the
program terminates and does not try to read keyboard input.  If the
program does not terminate on its own, you will be unable to terminate
it, because MS-DOS provides no general way to terminate a process.
Pressing `C-c' or `C-<BREAK>' might sometimes help in these cases.

   Accessing files on other machines is not supported on MS-DOS.  Other
network-oriented commands such as sending mail, Web browsing, remote
login, etc., don't work either, unless network access is built into
MS-DOS with some network redirector.

   Dired on MS-DOS uses the `ls-lisp' package where other platforms use
the system `ls' command.  Therefore, Dired on MS-DOS supports only some
of the possible options you can mention in the `dired-listing-switches'
variable.  The options that work are `-A', `-a', `-c', `-i', `-r', `-S',
`-s', `-t', and `-u'.

File: emacs,  Node: Manifesto,  Prev: Microsoft Windows,  Up: Top

The GNU Manifesto
*****************

     The GNU Manifesto which appears below was written by Richard
     Stallman at the beginning of the GNU project, to ask for
     participation and support.  For the first few years, it was
     updated in minor ways to account for developments, but now it
     seems best to leave it unchanged as most people have seen it.

     Since that time, we have learned about certain common
     misunderstandings that different wording could help avoid.
     Footnotes added in 1993 help clarify these points.

     For up-to-date information about available GNU software, please see
     our web site, `http://www.gnu.org'.  For software tasks and other
     ways to contribute, see `http://www.gnu.org/help'.

What's GNU?  Gnu's Not Unix!
============================

GNU, which stands for Gnu's Not Unix, is the name for the complete
Unix-compatible software system which I am writing so that I can give it
away free to everyone who can use it.(1) Several other volunteers are
helping me.  Contributions of time, money, programs and equipment are
greatly needed.

   So far we have an Emacs text editor with Lisp for writing editor
commands, a source level debugger, a yacc-compatible parser generator,
a linker, and around 35 utilities.  A shell (command interpreter) is
nearly completed.  A new portable optimizing C compiler has compiled
itself and may be released this year.  An initial kernel exists but
many more features are needed to emulate Unix.  When the kernel and
compiler are finished, it will be possible to distribute a GNU system
suitable for program development.  We will use TeX as our text
formatter, but an nroff is being worked on.  We will use the free,
portable X window system as well.  After this we will add a portable
Common Lisp, an Empire game, a spreadsheet, and hundreds of other
things, plus on-line documentation.  We hope to supply, eventually,
everything useful that normally comes with a Unix system, and more.

   GNU will be able to run Unix programs, but will not be identical to
Unix.  We will make all improvements that are convenient, based on our
experience with other operating systems.  In particular, we plan to
have longer file names, file version numbers, a crashproof file system,
file name completion perhaps, terminal-independent display support, and
perhaps eventually a Lisp-based window system through which several
Lisp programs and ordinary Unix programs can share a screen.  Both C
and Lisp will be available as system programming languages.  We will
try to support UUCP, MIT Chaosnet, and Internet protocols for
communication.

   GNU is aimed initially at machines in the 68000/16000 class with
virtual memory, because they are the easiest machines to make it run
on.  The extra effort to make it run on smaller machines will be left
to someone who wants to use it on them.

   To avoid horrible confusion, please pronounce the `G' in the word
`GNU' when it is the name of this project.

Why I Must Write GNU
====================

I consider that the golden rule requires that if I like a program I must
share it with other people who like it.  Software sellers want to divide
the users and conquer them, making each user agree not to share with
others.  I refuse to break solidarity with other users in this way.  I
cannot in good conscience sign a nondisclosure agreement or a software
license agreement.  For years I worked within the Artificial
Intelligence Lab to resist such tendencies and other inhospitalities,
but eventually they had gone too far: I could not remain in an
institution where such things are done for me against my will.

   So that I can continue to use computers without dishonor, I have
decided to put together a sufficient body of free software so that I
will be able to get along without any software that is not free.  I
have resigned from the AI lab to deny MIT any legal excuse to prevent
me from giving GNU away.

Why GNU Will Be Compatible with Unix
====================================

Unix is not my ideal system, but it is not too bad.  The essential
features of Unix seem to be good ones, and I think I can fill in what
Unix lacks without spoiling them.  And a system compatible with Unix
would be convenient for many other people to adopt.

How GNU Will Be Available
=========================

GNU is not in the public domain.  Everyone will be permitted to modify
and redistribute GNU, but no distributor will be allowed to restrict its
further redistribution.  That is to say, proprietary modifications will
not be allowed.  I want to make sure that all versions of GNU remain
free.

Why Many Other Programmers Want to Help
=======================================

I have found many other programmers who are excited about GNU and want
to help.

   Many programmers are unhappy about the commercialization of system
software.  It may enable them to make more money, but it requires them
to feel in conflict with other programmers in general rather than feel
as comrades.  The fundamental act of friendship among programmers is the
sharing of programs; marketing arrangements now typically used
essentially forbid programmers to treat others as friends.  The
purchaser of software must choose between friendship and obeying the
law.  Naturally, many decide that friendship is more important.  But
those who believe in law often do not feel at ease with either choice.
They become cynical and think that programming is just a way of making
money.

   By working on and using GNU rather than proprietary programs, we can
be hospitable to everyone and obey the law.  In addition, GNU serves as
an example to inspire and a banner to rally others to join us in
sharing.  This can give us a feeling of harmony which is impossible if
we use software that is not free.  For about half the programmers I
talk to, this is an important happiness that money cannot replace.

How You Can Contribute
======================

I am asking computer manufacturers for donations of machines and money.
I'm asking individuals for donations of programs and work.

   One consequence you can expect if you donate machines is that GNU
will run on them at an early date.  The machines should be complete,
ready to use systems, approved for use in a residential area, and not
in need of sophisticated cooling or power.

   I have found very many programmers eager to contribute part-time
work for GNU.  For most projects, such part-time distributed work would
be very hard to coordinate; the independently-written parts would not
work together.  But for the particular task of replacing Unix, this
problem is absent.  A complete Unix system contains hundreds of utility
programs, each of which is documented separately.  Most interface
specifications are fixed by Unix compatibility.  If each contributor
can write a compatible replacement for a single Unix utility, and make
it work properly in place of the original on a Unix system, then these
utilities will work right when put together.  Even allowing for Murphy
to create a few unexpected problems, assembling these components will
be a feasible task.  (The kernel will require closer communication and
will be worked on by a small, tight group.)

   If I get donations of money, I may be able to hire a few people full
or part time.  The salary won't be high by programmers' standards, but
I'm looking for people for whom building community spirit is as
important as making money.  I view this as a way of enabling dedicated
people to devote their full energies to working on GNU by sparing them
the need to make a living in another way.

Why All Computer Users Will Benefit
===================================

Once GNU is written, everyone will be able to obtain good system
software free, just like air.(2)

   This means much more than just saving everyone the price of a Unix
license.  It means that much wasteful duplication of system programming
effort will be avoided.  This effort can go instead into advancing the
state of the art.

   Complete system sources will be available to everyone.  As a result,
a user who needs changes in the system will always be free to make them
himself, or hire any available programmer or company to make them for
him.  Users will no longer be at the mercy of one programmer or company
which owns the sources and is in sole position to make changes.

   Schools will be able to provide a much more educational environment
by encouraging all students to study and improve the system code.
Harvard's computer lab used to have the policy that no program could be
installed on the system if its sources were not on public display, and
upheld it by actually refusing to install certain programs.  I was very
much inspired by this.

   Finally, the overhead of considering who owns the system software
and what one is or is not entitled to do with it will be lifted.

   Arrangements to make people pay for using a program, including
licensing of copies, always incur a tremendous cost to society through
the cumbersome mechanisms necessary to figure out how much (that is,
which programs) a person must pay for.  And only a police state can
force everyone to obey them.  Consider a space station where air must
be manufactured at great cost: charging each breather per liter of air
may be fair, but wearing the metered gas mask all day and all night is
intolerable even if everyone can afford to pay the air bill.  And the
TV cameras everywhere to see if you ever take the mask off are
outrageous.  It's better to support the air plant with a head tax and
chuck the masks.

   Copying all or parts of a program is as natural to a programmer as
breathing, and as productive.  It ought to be as free.

Some Easily Rebutted Objections to GNU's Goals
==============================================

     "Nobody will use it if it is free, because that means they can't
     rely on any support."

     "You have to charge for the program to pay for providing the
     support."

   If people would rather pay for GNU plus service than get GNU free
without service, a company to provide just service to people who have
obtained GNU free ought to be profitable.(3)

   We must distinguish between support in the form of real programming
work and mere handholding.  The former is something one cannot rely on
from a software vendor.  If your problem is not shared by enough
people, the vendor will tell you to get lost.

   If your business needs to be able to rely on support, the only way
is to have all the necessary sources and tools.  Then you can hire any
available person to fix your problem; you are not at the mercy of any
individual.  With Unix, the price of sources puts this out of
consideration for most businesses.  With GNU this will be easy.  It is
still possible for there to be no available competent person, but this
problem cannot be blamed on distribution arrangements.  GNU does not
eliminate all the world's problems, only some of them.

   Meanwhile, the users who know nothing about computers need
handholding: doing things for them which they could easily do
themselves but don't know how.

   Such services could be provided by companies that sell just
hand-holding and repair service.  If it is true that users would rather
spend money and get a product with service, they will also be willing
to buy the service having got the product free.  The service companies
will compete in quality and price; users will not be tied to any
particular one.  Meanwhile, those of us who don't need the service
should be able to use the program without paying for the service.

     "You cannot reach many people without advertising, and you must
     charge for the program to support that."

     "It's no use advertising a program people can get free."

   There are various forms of free or very cheap publicity that can be
used to inform numbers of computer users about something like GNU.  But
it may be true that one can reach more microcomputer users with
advertising.  If this is really so, a business which advertises the
service of copying and mailing GNU for a fee ought to be successful
enough to pay for its advertising and more.  This way, only the users
who benefit from the advertising pay for it.

   On the other hand, if many people get GNU from their friends, and
such companies don't succeed, this will show that advertising was not
really necessary to spread GNU.  Why is it that free market advocates
don't want to let the free market decide this?(4)

     "My company needs a proprietary operating system to get a
     competitive edge."

   GNU will remove operating system software from the realm of
competition.  You will not be able to get an edge in this area, but
neither will your competitors be able to get an edge over you.  You and
they will compete in other areas, while benefiting mutually in this
one.  If your business is selling an operating system, you will not
like GNU, but that's tough on you.  If your business is something else,
GNU can save you from being pushed into the expensive business of
selling operating systems.

   I would like to see GNU development supported by gifts from many
manufacturers and users, reducing the cost to each.(5)

     "Don't programmers deserve a reward for their creativity?"

   If anything deserves a reward, it is social contribution.
Creativity can be a social contribution, but only in so far as society
is free to use the results.  If programmers deserve to be rewarded for
creating innovative programs, by the same token they deserve to be
punished if they restrict the use of these programs.

     "Shouldn't a programmer be able to ask for a reward for his
     creativity?"

   There is nothing wrong with wanting pay for work, or seeking to
maximize one's income, as long as one does not use means that are
destructive.  But the means customary in the field of software today
are based on destruction.

   Extracting money from users of a program by restricting their use of
it is destructive because the restrictions reduce the amount and the
ways that the program can be used.  This reduces the amount of wealth
that humanity derives from the program.  When there is a deliberate
choice to restrict, the harmful consequences are deliberate destruction.

   The reason a good citizen does not use such destructive means to
become wealthier is that, if everyone did so, we would all become
poorer from the mutual destructiveness.  This is Kantian ethics; or,
the Golden Rule.  Since I do not like the consequences that result if
everyone hoards information, I am required to consider it wrong for one
to do so.  Specifically, the desire to be rewarded for one's creativity
does not justify depriving the world in general of all or part of that
creativity.

     "Won't programmers starve?"

   I could answer that nobody is forced to be a programmer.  Most of us
cannot manage to get any money for standing on the street and making
faces.  But we are not, as a result, condemned to spend our lives
standing on the street making faces, and starving.  We do something
else.

   But that is the wrong answer because it accepts the questioner's
implicit assumption: that without ownership of software, programmers
cannot possibly be paid a cent.  Supposedly it is all or nothing.

   The real reason programmers will not starve is that it will still be
possible for them to get paid for programming; just not paid as much as
now.

   Restricting copying is not the only basis for business in software.
It is the most common basis because it brings in the most money.  If it
were prohibited, or rejected by the customer, software business would
move to other bases of organization which are now used less often.
There are always numerous ways to organize any kind of business.

   Probably programming will not be as lucrative on the new basis as it
is now.  But that is not an argument against the change.  It is not
considered an injustice that sales clerks make the salaries that they
now do.  If programmers made the same, that would not be an injustice
either.  (In practice they would still make considerably more than
that.)

     "Don't people have a right to control how their creativity is
     used?"

   "Control over the use of one's ideas" really constitutes control over
other people's lives; and it is usually used to make their lives more
difficult.

   People who have studied the issue of intellectual property rights(6)
carefully (such as lawyers) say that there is no intrinsic right to
intellectual property.  The kinds of supposed intellectual property
rights that the government recognizes were created by specific acts of
legislation for specific purposes.

   For example, the patent system was established to encourage
inventors to disclose the details of their inventions.  Its purpose was
to help society rather than to help inventors.  At the time, the life
span of 17 years for a patent was short compared with the rate of
advance of the state of the art.  Since patents are an issue only among
manufacturers, for whom the cost and effort of a license agreement are
small compared with setting up production, the patents often do not do
much harm.  They do not obstruct most individuals who use patented
products.

   The idea of copyright did not exist in ancient times, when authors
frequently copied other authors at length in works of non-fiction.  This
practice was useful, and is the only way many authors' works have
survived even in part.  The copyright system was created expressly for
the purpose of encouraging authorship.  In the domain for which it was
invented--books, which could be copied economically only on a printing
press--it did little harm, and did not obstruct most of the individuals
who read the books.

   All intellectual property rights are just licenses granted by society
because it was thought, rightly or wrongly, that society as a whole
would benefit by granting them.  But in any particular situation, we
have to ask: are we really better off granting such license?  What kind
of act are we licensing a person to do?

   The case of programs today is very different from that of books a
hundred years ago.  The fact that the easiest way to copy a program is
from one neighbor to another, the fact that a program has both source
code and object code which are distinct, and the fact that a program is
used rather than read and enjoyed, combine to create a situation in
which a person who enforces a copyright is harming society as a whole
both materially and spiritually; in which a person should not do so
regardless of whether the law enables him to.

     "Competition makes things get done better."

   The paradigm of competition is a race: by rewarding the winner, we
encourage everyone to run faster.  When capitalism really works this
way, it does a good job; but its defenders are wrong in assuming it
always works this way.  If the runners forget why the reward is offered
and become intent on winning, no matter how, they may find other
strategies--such as, attacking other runners.  If the runners get into
a fist fight, they will all finish late.

   Proprietary and secret software is the moral equivalent of runners
in a fist fight.  Sad to say, the only referee we've got does not seem
to object to fights; he just regulates them ("For every ten yards you
run, you can fire one shot").  He really ought to break them up, and
penalize runners for even trying to fight.

     "Won't everyone stop programming without a monetary incentive?"

   Actually, many people will program with absolutely no monetary
incentive.  Programming has an irresistible fascination for some
people, usually the people who are best at it.  There is no shortage of
professional musicians who keep at it even though they have no hope of
making a living that way.

   But really this question, though commonly asked, is not appropriate
to the situation.  Pay for programmers will not disappear, only become
less.  So the right question is, will anyone program with a reduced
monetary incentive?  My experience shows that they will.

   For more than ten years, many of the world's best programmers worked
at the Artificial Intelligence Lab for far less money than they could
have had anywhere else.  They got many kinds of non-monetary rewards:
fame and appreciation, for example.  And creativity is also fun, a
reward in itself.

   Then most of them left when offered a chance to do the same
interesting work for a lot of money.

   What the facts show is that people will program for reasons other
than riches; but if given a chance to make a lot of money as well, they
will come to expect and demand it.  Low-paying organizations do poorly
in competition with high-paying ones, but they do not have to do badly
if the high-paying ones are banned.

     "We need the programmers desperately.  If they demand that we stop
     helping our neighbors, we have to obey."

   You're never so desperate that you have to obey this sort of demand.
Remember: millions for defense, but not a cent for tribute!

     "Programmers need to make a living somehow."

   In the short run, this is true.  However, there are plenty of ways
that programmers could make a living without selling the right to use a
program.  This way is customary now because it brings programmers and
businessmen the most money, not because it is the only way to make a
living.  It is easy to find other ways if you want to find them.  Here
are a number of examples.

   A manufacturer introducing a new computer will pay for the porting of
operating systems onto the new hardware.

   The sale of teaching, hand-holding and maintenance services could
also employ programmers.

   People with new ideas could distribute programs as freeware(7),
asking for donations from satisfied users, or selling hand-holding
services.  I have met people who are already working this way
successfully.

   Users with related needs can form users' groups, and pay dues.  A
group would contract with programming companies to write programs that
the group's members would like to use.

   All sorts of development can be funded with a Software Tax:

     Suppose everyone who buys a computer has to pay x percent of the
     price as a software tax.  The government gives this to an agency
     like the NSF to spend on software development.

     But if the computer buyer makes a donation to software development
     himself, he can take a credit against the tax.  He can donate to
     the project of his own choosing--often, chosen because he hopes to
     use the results when it is done.  He can take a credit for any
     amount of donation up to the total tax he had to pay.

     The total tax rate could be decided by a vote of the payers of the
     tax, weighted according to the amount they will be taxed on.

     The consequences:

        * The computer-using community supports software development.

        * This community decides what level of support is needed.

        * Users who care which projects their share is spent on can
          choose this for themselves.

   In the long run, making programs free is a step toward the
post-scarcity world, where nobody will have to work very hard just to
make a living.  People will be free to devote themselves to activities
that are fun, such as programming, after spending the necessary ten
hours a week on required tasks such as legislation, family counseling,
robot repair and asteroid prospecting.  There will be no need to be
able to make a living from programming.

   We have already greatly reduced the amount of work that the whole
society must do for its actual productivity, but only a little of this
has translated itself into leisure for workers because much
nonproductive activity is required to accompany productive activity.
The main causes of this are bureaucracy and isometric struggles against
competition.  Free software will greatly reduce these drains in the
area of software production.  We must do this, in order for technical
gains in productivity to translate into less work for us.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) The wording here was careless.  The intention was that nobody
would have to pay for _permission_ to use the GNU system.  But the
words don't make this clear, and people often interpret them as saying
that copies of GNU should always be distributed at little or no charge.
That was never the intent; later on, the manifesto mentions the
possibility of companies providing the service of distribution for a
profit.  Subsequently I have learned to distinguish carefully between
"free" in the sense of freedom and "free" in the sense of price.  Free
software is software that users have the freedom to distribute and
change.  Some users may obtain copies at no charge, while others pay to
obtain copies--and if the funds help support improving the software, so
much the better.  The important thing is that everyone who has a copy
has the freedom to cooperate with others in using it.

   (2) This is another place I failed to distinguish carefully between
the two different meanings of "free."  The statement as it stands is
not false--you can get copies of GNU software at no charge, from your
friends or over the net.  But it does suggest the wrong idea.

   (3) Several such companies now exist.

   (4) The Free Software Foundation raises most of its funds from a
distribution service, although it is a charity rather than a company.
If _no one_ chooses to obtain copies by ordering from the FSF, it will
be unable to do its work.  But this does not mean that proprietary
restrictions are justified to force every user to pay.  If a small
fraction of all the users order copies from the FSF, that is sufficient
to keep the FSF afloat.  So we ask users to choose to support us in
this way.  Have you done your part?

   (5) A group of computer companies recently pooled funds to support
maintenance of the GNU C Compiler.

   (6) In the 80s I had not yet realized how confusing it was to speak
of "the issue" of "intellectual property."  That term is obviously
biased; more subtle is the fact that it lumps together various
disparate laws which raise very different issues.  Nowadays I urge
people to reject the term "intellectual property" entirely, lest it
lead others to suppose that those laws form one coherent issue.  The
way to be clear is to discuss patents, copyrights, and trademarks
separately.  See `http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/not-ipr.xhtml' for more
explanation of how this term spreads confusion and bias.

   (7) Subsequently we have discovered the need to distinguish between
"free software" and "freeware".  The term "freeware" means software you
are free to redistribute, but usually you are not free to study and
change the source code, so most of it is not free software.  See
`http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html' for more
explanation.

File: emacs,  Node: Acknowledgments,  Next: Screen,  Prev: Concept Index,  Up: Top

Acknowledgments
***************

Many people have contributed code included in the Free Software
Foundation's distribution of GNU Emacs.  To show our appreciation for
their public spirit, we list here in alphabetical order those who have
written substantial portions.

   * Per Abrahamsen wrote the customization buffer facilities, as well
     as `double.el' for typing accented characters not normally
     available from the keyboard, `xt-mouse.el' which handles mouse
     commands through Xterm, `gnus-cus.el' which implements
     customization commands for Gnus, `gnus-cite.el', a
     citation-parsing facility for news articles and `cpp.el' which
     hides or highlights parts of C programs according to preprocessor
     conditionals.

   * Tomas Abrahamsson wrote `artist.el', a package for producing ASCII
     art with a mouse or with keyboard keys.

   * Jay K. Adams wrote `jka-compr.el', providing automatic
     decompression and recompression for compressed files.

   * Ralf Angeli wrote `scroll-lock.el', a minor mode which keeps the
     point vertically fixed by scrolling the window when moving up and
     down in the buffer.

   * Joe Arceneaux wrote the original text property implementation, and
     implemented support for X11.

   * Miles Bader wrote `image-file.el', support code for visiting image
     files, `minibuf-eldef.el', a minor mode whereby the default value
     is shown in the minibuffer prompt only when appropriate, and
     `button.el', the library that implements clickable buttons.

   * David Bakhash wrote `strokes.el', a mode for controlling Emacs by
     moving the mouse in particular patterns.

   * Eli Barzilay wrote `calculator.el', a desktop calculator for Emacs.

   * Steven L. Baur wrote `footnote.el' which lets you include
     footnotes in email messages, and `gnus-audio.el' which provides
     sound effects for Gnus.

   * Alexander L. Belikoff, Sergey Berezin, David Edmondson, Andreas
     Fuchs, Mario Lang, Gergely Nagy, Michael Olson, and Alex Schroeder
     contributed ERC, an advanced Internet Relay Chat client.

   * Boaz Ben-Zvi wrote `profile.el', to time Emacs Lisp functions.

   * Anna M. Bigatti wrote `cal-html.el', which produces HTML calendars.

   * Ray Blaak wrote `delphi.el', a major mode for editing Delphi
     (Object Pascal) source code.

   * Jim Blandy wrote Emacs 19's input system, brought its
     configuration and build process up to the GNU coding standards,
     and contributed to the frame support and multi-face support.  Jim
     also wrote `tvi970.el', terminal support for the TeleVideo 970
     terminals.

   * Per Bothner wrote `term.el', a terminal emulator in an Emacs
     buffer.

   * Terrence M. Brannon wrote `landmark.el', a neural-network robot
     that learns landmarks.

   * Frank Bresz wrote `diff.el', a program to display `diff' output.

   * Peter Breton implemented:

        - `dirtrack' which does better tracking of directory changes in
          shell buffers,

        - `filecache.el' which records which directories your files are
          in,

        - `locate.el' which interfaces to the `locate' command,

        - `find-lisp.el', an Emacs Lisp emulation of the `find' program,

        - `net-utils.el', and

        - the "generic mode" feature.

   * Emmanuel Briot wrote `xml.el', an XML parser for Emacs.

   * Kevin Broadey wrote `foldout.el', providing folding extensions to
     Emacs's outline modes.

   * David M. Brown wrote `array.el', for editing arrays and other
     tabular data.

   * W/lodek Bzyl and Ryszard Kubiak wrote `ogonek.el', a package for
     changing the encoding of Polish characters.

   * Bill Carpenter provided `feedmail.el', a package for massaging
     outgoing mail messages and sending them through various popular
     mailers.

   * Per Cederqvist and Inge Wallin wrote `ewoc.el', an Emacs widget for
     manipulating object collections.

   * Hans Chalupsky wrote `advice.el', an overloading mechanism for
     Emacs Lisp functions, and `trace.el', a tracing facility for Emacs
     Lisp.

   * Chris Chase and Carsten Dominik wrote `idlwave.el', an editing mode
     for IDL and WAVE CL.

   * Bob Chassell wrote `texnfo-upd.el' and `makeinfo.el', modes and
     utilities for working with Texinfo files; and `page-ext.el',
     commands for extended page handling.

   * Andrew Choi wrote the Macintosh support code, and contributed
     `mac-win.el', support for the Mac window system.

   * James Clark wrote `sgml-mode.el', a mode for editing SGML
     documents, and contributed to Emacs's dumping procedures.

   * Mike Clarkson wrote `edt.el', an emulation of DEC's EDT editor.

   * Glynn Clements provided `gamegrid.el' and a couple of games that
     use it, Snake and Tetris.

   * Georges Brun-Cottan and Stefan Monnier wrote `easy-mmode.el', a
     package for easy definition of major and minor modes.

   * Andrew Csillag wrote M4 mode (`m4-mode.el').

   * Doug Cutting and Jamie Zawinski wrote `disass.el', a disassembler
     for compiled Emacs Lisp code.

   * Mathias Dahl wrote `image-dired.el', a package for viewing image
     files as "thumbnails."

   * Michael DeCorte wrote `emacs.csh', a C-shell script that starts a
     new Emacs job, or restarts a paused Emacs if one exists.

   * Gary Delp wrote `mailpost.el', an interface between RMAIL and the
     `/usr/uci/post' mailer.

   * Matthieu Devin wrote `delsel.el', a package to make newly-typed
     text replace the current selection.

   * Eric Ding contributed `goto-addr.el',

   * Jan Dja"rv added support for the GTK+ toolkit and X drag-and-drop.

   * Carsten Dominik wrote `reftex.el', a package for setting up labels
     and cross-references in LaTeX documents, and `org.el', a mode for
     maintaining notes, todo lists, and project planning.

   * Scott Draves wrote `tq.el', help functions for maintaining
     transaction queues between Emacs and its subprocesses.

   * Benjamin Drieu wrote `pong.el', an implementation of the classical
     pong game.

   * Viktor Dukhovni wrote support for dumping under SunOS version 4.

   * John Eaton co-wrote Octave mode.

   * Rolf Ebert co-wrote Ada mode (`ada-mode.el').

   * Stephen Eglen implemented `mspools.el', for use with Procmail,
     which tells you which mail folders have mail waiting in them, and
     `iswitchb.el', a feature for incremental reading and completion of
     buffer names.

   * Torbjo"rn Einarsson contributed the  Fortran 90 mode (`f90.el').

   * Tsugutomo Enami co-wrote the support for international character
     sets.

   * Hans Henrik Eriksen wrote `simula.el', a mode for editing SIMULA 87
     code.

   * Michael Ernst wrote `reposition.el', a command for recentering a
     function's source code and preceding comment on the screen.

   * Ata Etemadi wrote `cdl.el', functions for working with Common Data
     Language source code.

   * Frederick Farnbach implemented `morse.el', which converts text to
     Morse code.

   * Oscar Figueiredo wrote EUDC, the Emacs Unified Directory Client,
     which is an interface to directory servers via LDAP, CCSO PH/QI,
     or BBDB; and `ldap.el', the LDAP client interface.

   * Fred Fish wrote the support for dumping COFF executable files.

   * Karl Fogel wrote:

        - `bookmark.el', for creating named placeholders, saving them
          and jumping to them later,

        - `mail-hist.el', a history mechanism for outgoing mail
          messages, and

        - `saveplace.el', for preserving point's location in files
          between editing sessions.

   * Gary Foster wrote `crisp.el', the emulation for CRiSP and Brief
     editors, and `scroll-lock.el' (now `scroll-all.el') a mode for
     scrolling several buffers together.

   * Noah Friedman wrote `rlogin.el', an interface to Rlogin,
     `type-break.el', which reminds you to take periodic breaks from
     typing, and `eldoc-mode', a mode to show the defined parameters or
     the doc string for the Lisp function near point.  With Roland
     McGrath, he wrote `rsz-mini.el', a minor mode to automatically
     resize the minibuffer to fit the text it contains.

   * Keith Gabryelski wrote `hexl.el', a mode for editing binary files.

   * Kevin Gallagher rewrote and enhanced the EDT emulation, and wrote
     `flow-ctrl.el', a package for coping with unsuppressible XON/XOFF
     flow control.

   * Kevin Gallo added multiple-frame support for Windows NT and wrote
     `w32-win.el', support functions for the MS-Windows window system.

   * Juan Leo'n Lahoz Garci'a wrote `wdired.el', a package for
     performing file operations by directly editing Dired buffers.

   * Howard Gayle wrote:

        - the C and lisp code for display tables and case tables,

        - `rot13.el', a command to display the plain-text form of a
          buffer encoded with the Caesar cipher,

        - `case-table.el', code to extend the character set and support
          case tables,

        - much of the support for the ISO-8859 European character sets
          (which includes `iso-ascii.el', `iso-insert.el',
          `iso-swed.el', `latin-1.el', `iso-syntax.el', `iso-transl.el',
          `swedish.el'), and

        - `vt100-led.el', a package for controlling the LED's on
          VT100-compatible terminals.

   * Stephen Gildea made the Emacs quick reference card, and made many
     contributions for `time-stamp.el', a package for maintaining
     last-change time stamps in files.

   * Julien Gilles wrote `gnus-ml.el', a mailing list minor mode for
     Gnus.

   * David Gillespie wrote:

        - The Common Lisp compatibility packages,

        - `Calc', an advanced calculator and mathematical tool,

        - `complete.el', a partial completion mechanism, and

        - `edmacro.el', a package for editing keyboard macros.

   * Bob Glickstein contributed the `sregex.el' feature, a facility for
     writing regexps using a Lisp-like syntax.

   * Boris Goldowsky wrote:

        - `avoid.el', a package to keep the mouse cursor out of the way
          of the text cursor,

        - `shadowfile.el', a package for keeping identical copies of
          files in more than one place,

        - `format.el', a package for reading and writing files in
          various formats,

        - `enriched.el', a package for saving text properties in files,
          and

        - `facemenu.el', a package for specifying faces.

   * Michelangelo Grigni wrote `ffap.el' which visits a file, taking
     the file name from the buffer.

   * Odd Gripenstam wrote `dcl-mode.el' for editing DCL command files.

   * Kai Grossjohann and Michael Albinus wrote the Tramp package, which
     provides transparent remote file editing using rcp, ssh, ftp, and
     other network protocols.

   * Michael Gschwind wrote `iso-cvt.el', a package to convert between
     the ISO 8859-1 character set and the notations for non-ASCII
     characters used by TeX and net tradition, and `latin-2.el', code
     which sets up case-conversion and syntax tables for the ISO Latin-2
     character set.

   * Henry Guillaume wrote `find-file.el', a package to visit files
     related to the currently visited file.

   * Doug Gwyn wrote the portable `alloca' implementation.

   * Ken'ichi Handa implemented most of the support for international
     character sets, and wrote `isearch-x.el', a facility for searching
     non-ASCII text.  Together with Naoto Takahashi, he wrote
     `quail.el', a simple input facility for typing non-ASCII text from
     an ASCII keyboard.  Ken'ichi also wrote `ps-bdf.el', a BDF font
     support for printing non-ASCII text on a PostScript printer.

   * Chris Hanson wrote `netuname.el', a package to use HP-UX's Remote
     File Access facility from Emacs.

   * Jesper Harder wrote `yenc.el', for decoding yenc encoded messages.

   * K. Shane Hartman wrote:

        - `chistory.el' and `echistory.el', packages for browsing
          command history lists,

        - `electric.el' and `helper.el', providing an alternative
          command loop and appropriate help facilities,

        - `emacsbug.el', a package for reporting Emacs bugs,

        - `picture.el', a mode for editing ASCII pictures, and

        - `view.el', a package for perusing files and buffers without
          editing them.

   * John Heidemann wrote `mouse-copy.el' and `mouse-drag.el', which
     provide alternative mouse-based editing and scrolling features.

   * Jon K Hellan wrote `utf7.el', support for mail-safe transformation
     format of Unicode.

   * Markus Heritsch co-wrote Ada mode (`ada-mode.el').

   * Karl Heuer wrote the original blessmail script, implemented the
     `intangible' text property, and rearranged the structure of the
     `Lisp_Object' type to allow for more data bits.

   * Manabu Higashida ported Emacs to MS-DOS.

   * Anders Holst wrote `hippie-exp.el', a versatile completion and
     expansion package.

   * Kurt Hornik co-wrote Octave mode.

   * Tom Houlder wrote `mantemp.el', which generates manual C++
     template instantiations.

   * Joakim Hove wrote `html2text.el', a html to plain text converter.

   * Denis Howe wrote `browse-url.el', a package for invoking a WWW
     browser to display a URL.

   * Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen did a major redesign of the Gnus
     news-reader and wrote many of its parts.

   * Andrew Innes contributed extensively to the MS-Windows support.

   * Seiichiro Inoue improved Emacs's XIM support.

   * Ulf Jasper wrote `icalendar.el', a package for converting Emacs
     diary entries to and from the iCalendar format, and
     `newsticker.el', an RSS and Atom based Newsticker.

   * Kyle Jones wrote `life.el', a package to play Conway's "life" game,
     and `mldrag.el', a package which allows the user to resize windows
     by dragging mode lines and vertical window separators with the
     mouse.

   * Terry Jones wrote `shadow.el', a package for finding potential
     load-path problems when some Lisp file "shadows" another.

   * Simon Josefsson wrote:

        - `dns-mode.el', an editing mode for Domain Name System master
          files,

        - `flow-fill.el', a package for interpreting RFC2646 formatted
          text in messages,

        - `fringe.el', a package for customizing the fringe,

        - `imap.el', an Emacs Lisp library for talking to IMAP servers,

        - `nnimap', the IMAP back-end for Gnus, and

        - `rfc2104.el', a hashed message authentication facility.

   * Arne J/orgensen wrote `latexenc.el', a package to automatically
     guess the correct coding system in LaTeX files.

   * Tomoji Kagatani implemented `smtpmail.el', used for sending out
     mail with SMTP.

   * David Kaufman wrote `yow.c', an essential utility program for the
     hopelessly pinheaded.

   * Henry Kautz wrote `bib-mode.el', a mode for maintaining
     bibliography databases compatible with `refer' (the `troff'
     version) and `lookbib', and `refbib.el', a package to convert
     those databases to the format used by the LaTeX text formatting
     package.

   * Taichi Kawabata added support for Devanagari script and the Indian
     languages.

   * Howard Kaye wrote `sort.el', commands to sort text in Emacs
     buffers.

   * Michael Kifer wrote `ediff.el', an interactive interface to the
     `diff', `patch', and `merge' programs, and Viper, the newest
     emulation for VI.

   * Richard King wrote the first version of `userlock.el' and
     `filelock.c', which provide simple support for multiple users
     editing the same file.  He also wrote the initial version of
     `uniquify.el', a facility to make buffer names unique by adding
     parts of the file's name to the buffer name.

   * Peter Kleiweg wrote `ps-mode.el', a major mode for editing
     PostScript files and running a PostScript interpreter
     interactively from within Emacs.

   * Pavel Kobiakov wrote `flymake.el', a minor mode for performing
     on-the-fly syntax checking.

   * Larry K. Kolodney wrote `cvtmail.c', a program to convert the mail
     directories used by Gosling Emacs into RMAIL format.

   * David M. Koppelman wrote `hi-lock.el', a minor mode for
     interactive automatic highlighting of parts of the buffer text.

   * Koseki Yoshinori wrote `iimage.el', a minor mode for displaying
     inline images.

   * Robert Krawitz wrote the original `xmenu.c', part of Emacs's pop-up
     menu support.

   * Sebastian Kremer wrote Emacs 19's `dired-mode', with contributions
     by Lawrence R. Dodd.  He also wrote `ls-lisp.el', a Lisp emulation
     of the `ls' command for platforms which don't have `ls' as a
     standard program.

   * Geoff Kuenning wrote Emacs 19's `ispell.el', based on work by Ken
     Stevens and others.

   * David Ka*gedal wrote `tempo.el', providing support for easy
     insertion of boilerplate text and other common constructions.

   * Daniel LaLiberte wrote:

        - `edebug.el', a source-level debugger for Emacs Lisp,

        - `cl-specs.el', specifications to help `edebug' debug code
          written using David Gillespie's Common Lisp support,

        - `cust-print.el', a customizable package for printing lisp
          objects,

        - `eval-reg.el', a re-implementation of `eval-region' in Emacs
          Lisp, and

        - `isearch.el', Emacs's incremental search minor mode.

   * James R. Larus wrote `mh-e.el', an interface to the MH mail system.

   * Vinicius Jose Latorre wrote the Emacs printing facilities, as well
     as:

        - `ps-print', a package for pretty-printing Emacs buffers to
          PostScript printers,

        - `delim-col.el', a package to arrange text into columns,

        - `ebnf2ps.el', a package that translates EBNF grammar to a
          syntactic chart that can be printed to a PostScript printer.

   * Frederic Lepied contributed `expand.el', which uses the abbrev
     mechanism for inserting programming constructs.

   * Peter Liljenberg wrote `elint.el', a Lint-style code checker for
     Emacs Lisp programs.

   * Lars Lindberg wrote `msb.el', which provides more flexible menus
     for buffer selection, and rewrote `dabbrev.el'.

   * Anders Lindgren wrote `autorevert.el', a package for automatically
     reverting files visited by Emacs that were changed on disk;
     `cwarn.el', a package to highlight suspicious C and C++
     constructs; and `follow.el', a minor mode to synchronize windows
     that show the same buffer.

   * Thomas Link wrote `filesets.el', a package for handling sets of
     files.

   * Dave Love wrote much of the code dealing with Unicode support and
     Latin-N unification.  He added support for many coding systems,
     including those in `code-pages.el' and the various UTF-7 and
     UTF-16 coding systems.  He also wrote:

        - `autoarg-mode', a global minor mode whereby digit keys supply
          prefix arguments, and `autoarg-kp-mode' which redefines the
          keypad numeric keys to digit arguments,

        - `autoconf.el', a mode for editing Autoconf `configure.in'
          files,

        - `cfengine.el', a mode for editing Cfengine files,

        - `elide-head.el', a package for eliding boilerplate text, such
          as copyright notices, from file headers,

        - `hl-line.el', a package that provides a minor mode for
          highlighting the line in the current window on which point is,

        - `latin-8.el' and `latin-9.el', code which sets up
          case-conversion and syntax tables for the ISO Latin-8 and
          Latin-9 character sets,

        - `latin1-disp.el', a package that lets you display ISO 8859
          characters on Latin-1 terminals by setting up appropriate
          display tables,

        - `python.el', a major mode for the Python programming language.

        - `refill.el', a mode for automatic paragraph refilling, akin to
          typical word processors,

        - `smiley-ems.el', a facility for displaying smiley faces, and

        - `tool-bar.el', a mode to control the display of the Emacs
          tool bar.

   * Eric Ludlam wrote the Speedbar package and the following packages:

        - `checkdoc.el', for checking doc strings in Emacs Lisp
          programs,

        - `dframe.el', providing dedicatd frame support modes, and

        - `ezimage.el', a generalized way to place images over text.

   * Alan Mackenzie wrote the integrated AWK support in CC Mode.

   * Christopher J. Madsen wrote `decipher.el', a package for cracking
     simple substitution ciphers.

   * Neil M. Mager wrote `appt.el', functions to notify users of their
     appointments.  It finds appointments recorded in the diary files
     generated by Edward M. Reingold's `calendar' package.

   * Ken Manheimer wrote `allout.el', a mode for manipulating and
     formatting outlines, and `icomplete.el', which provides incremental
     completion feedback in the minibuffer.

   * Bill Mann wrote `perl-mode.el', a mode for editing Perl code.

   * Brian Marick and Daniel LaLiberte wrote `hideif.el', support for
     hiding selected code within C `#ifdef' clauses.

   * Simon Marshall wrote `regexp-opt.el', which generates a regular
     expression from a list of strings.  He also extended `comint.el',
     originally written by Olin Shivers.

   * Bengt Martensson, Marc Shapiro, Mike Newton, Aaron Larson, and
     Stefan Schoef, wrote `bibtex.el', a mode for editing BibTeX
     bibliography files.

   * Charlie Martin wrote `autoinsert.el', which provides automatic
     mode-sensitive insertion of text into new files.

   * Thomas May wrote `blackbox.el', a version of the traditional
     blackbox game.

   * Roland McGrath wrote:

        - `compile.el', a package for running compilations in a buffer,
          and then visiting the locations reported in error messages,

        - `etags.el', a package for jumping to function definitions and
          searching or replacing in all the files mentioned in a `TAGS'
          file,

        - `find-dired.el', for using `dired' commands on output from the
          `find' program, with Sebastian Kremer,

        - `map-ynp.el', a general purpose boolean question-asker,

        - `autoload.el', providing semi-automatic maintenance of
          autoload files, and

        - `upd-copyr.el', providing semi-automatic maintenance of
          copyright notices in source code.

   * David Megginson wrote `derived.el', which allows one to define new
     major modes by inheriting key bindings and commands from existing
     major modes.

   * Will Mengarini wrote `repeat.el', a command to repeat the preceding
     command with its arguments.

   * Wayne Mesard wrote `hscroll.el' which does horizontal scrolling
     automatically.

   * Brad Miller wrote `gnus-gl.el', a Gnus interface for GroupLens.

   * Richard Mlynarik wrote:

        - `cl-indent.el', a package for indenting Common Lisp code,

        - `ebuff-menu.el', an "electric" browser for buffer listings,

        - `ehelp.el', bindings for browsing help screens,

        - `rfc822.el', a parser for E-mail addresses in the RFC-822
          format, used in mail messages and news articles,

        - `terminal.el', a terminal emulator for Emacs subprocesses, and

        - `yow.el', an essential utility (try `M-x yow').

   * Gerd Moellmann was the Emacs maintainer from the beginning of
     Emacs 21 development until the release of 21.1.  He wrote:

        - the new display engine for Emacs 21,

        - the asynchronous timers facility (`atimer.c'),

        - the `ebrowse' C++ browser,

        - `jit-lock.el', the Just-In-Time font-lock support mode,

        - `tooltip.el', a package for displaying tooltips, and

        - `authors.el' package for maintaining the `AUTHORS' files.

   * Stefan Monnier added support for Arch, Subversion, and Meta-CVS to
     VC, and re-wrote much of the Emacs server to use the built-in
     networking primitives.  He also wrote:

        - `PCL-CVS', a directory-level front end to the CVS version
          control system,

        - `reveal.el', a minor mode for automatically revealing
          invisible text,

        - `smerge-mode.el', a minor mode for resolving `diff3'
          conflicts, and

        - `diff-mode.el', a mode for viewing and editing context diffs.

   * Morioka Tomohiko wrote several packages for MIME support in Gnus
     and elsewhere.

   * Sen Nagata wrote `crm.el', a package for reading multiple strings
     with completion, and `rfc2368.el', support for `mailto:' URLs.

   * Erik Naggum wrote the time-conversion functions.  He also wrote
     `disp-table.el', a package for dealing with display tables,
     `latin-4.el' and `latin-5.el', code which sets up case-conversion
     and syntax tables for the ISO Latin-4 and Latin-5 character sets,
     `mailheader.el', a package for parsing email headers, and
     `parse-time.el', a package for parsing time strings.

   * Thomas Neumann and Eric Raymond wrote `makefile.el' (now
     `make-mode.el'), a mode for editing makefiles.

   * Thien-Thi Nguyen and Dan Nicolaescu wrote `hideshow.el', a minor
     mode for selectively displaying blocks of text.

   * Dan Nicolaescu wrote `romanian.el', support for editing Romanian
     text, and `iris-ansi.el', support for running Emacs on SGI's
     `xwsh' and `winterm' terminal emulators.

   * Jurgen Nickelsen wrote `ws-mode.el', providing WordStar emulation.

   * Hrvoje Niksic wrote `savehist.el', for saving the minibuffer
     history between Emacs sessions.

   * Jeff Norden wrote `kermit.el', a package to help the Kermit dialup
     communications program run comfortably in an Emacs shell buffer.

   * Andrew Norman wrote `ange-ftp.el', providing transparent FTP
     support.

   * Alexandre Oliva wrote `gnus-mlspl.el', a group params-based mail
     splitting mechanism.

   * Takaaki Ota wrote `table.el', a package for creating and editing
     embedded text-based tables.

   * Pieter E. J. Pareit wrote `mixal-mode.el', an editing mode for the
     MIX assembly language.

   * David Pearson contributed `quickurl.el', a simple method of
     inserting a URL into the current buffer based on text at point;
     `5x5.el', a game to fill all squares on the field.

   * Jeff Peck wrote:

        - `emacstool.c', support for running Emacs under SunView/Sun
          Windows,

        - `sun.el', key bindings for sunterm keys,

        - `sun-curs.el', cursor definitions for Sun Windows, and

        - `sun-fns.el' and `sun-mouse.el', providing mouse support for
          Sun Windows.

   * Damon Anton Permezel wrote `hanoi.el', an animated demonstration of
     the "Towers of Hanoi" puzzle.

   * William M. Perry wrote `mailcap.el', a MIME media types
     configuration facility, `mwheel.el', a package for supporting
     mouse wheels, and the URL package.

   * Per Persson wrote `gnus-vm.el', the VM interface for Gnus.

   * Jens Petersen wrote `find-func.el', which makes it easy to find
     the source code for an Emacs Lisp function or variable.

   * Daniel Pfeiffer wrote:

        - `conf-mode.el', a major mode for editing configuration files,

        - `copyright.el', a package for updating copyright notices in
          files,

        - `executable.el', a package for executing interpreter scripts,

        - `sh-script.el', a mode for editing shell scripts,

        - `skeleton.el', implementing a concise language for writing
          statement skeletons, and

        - `two-column.el', a minor mode for simultaneous two-column
          editing.

     Daniel also rewrote `apropos.el', originally written by Joe Wells,
     and, together with Jim Blandy, co-authored `wyse50.el', support for
     Wyse 50 terminals.

   * Richard L. Pieri wrote `pop3.el', a Post Office Protocol (RFC
     1460) interface for Emacs.

   * Fred Pierresteguy and Paul Reilly made Emacs work with X Toolkit
     widgets.

   * Christian Plaunt wrote `soundex.el', an implementation of the
     Soundex algorithm for comparing English words by their
     pronunciation.

   * David Ponce wrote:

        - `recentf.el', a package that puts a menu of recently visited
          files in the Emacs menu bar,

        - `ruler-mode.el', a minor mode for displaying a ruler in the
          header line, and

        - `tree-widget.el', a package to display hierarchical data
          structures.

   * Francesco A. Potorti wrote `cmacexp.el', providing a command which
     runs the C preprocessor on a region of a file and displays the
     results.  He also expanded and redesigned the `etags' program.

   * Michael D. Prange and Steven A. Wood wrote `fortran.el', a mode for
     editing FORTRAN code.

   * Mukesh Prasad contributed `vmsproc.el', a facility for running
     asynchronous subprocesses on VMS.

   * Marko Rahamaa wrote `latin-3.el', code which sets up
     case-conversion and syntax tables for the ISO Latin-3 character
     set.

   * Ashwin Ram wrote `refer.el', commands to look up references in
     bibliography files by keyword.

   * Eric S. Raymond wrote:

        - `vc.el', an interface to the RCS and SCCS source code version
          control systems, with Paul Eggert,

        - `gud.el', a package for running source-level debuggers like
          GDB and SDB in Emacs,

        - `asm-mode.el', a mode for editing assembly language code,

        - `AT386.el', terminal support package for IBM's AT keyboards,

        - `cookie1.el', support for "fortune-cookie" programs like
          `yow.el' and `spook.el',

        - `finder.el', a package for finding Emacs Lisp packages by
          keyword and topic,

        - `keyswap.el', code to swap the <BS> and <DEL> keys,

        - `loadhist.el', functions for loading and unloading Emacs
          features,

        - `lisp-mnt.el', functions for working with the special headers
          used in Emacs Lisp library files, and

        - code to set and make use of the `load-history' lisp variable,
          which records the source file from which each lisp function
          loaded into Emacs came.

   * Edward M. Reingold wrote the extensive calendar and diary support
     (try `M-x calendar'), with contributions from Stewart Clamen,
     Nachum Dershowitz, Paul Eggert, Steve Fisk, Michael Kifer, and
     Lara Rios.  Andy Oram contributed to its documentation.  Reingold
     has also contributed to `tex-mode.el', a mode for editing TeX
     files, as have William F. Schelter, Dick King, Stephen Gildea,
     Michael Prange, and Jacob Gore.

   * David Reitter wrote `mailclient.el' which can send mail via the
     system's designated mail client.

   * Alex Rezinsky contributed `which-func.el', a mode that shows the
     name of the current function in the mode line.

   * Rob Riepel contributed `tpu-edt.el' and its associated files,
     providing an emulation of the VMS TPU text editor emulating the
     VMS EDT editor, and `vt-control.el', providing some control
     functions for the DEC VT line of terminals.

   * Nick Roberts wrote `gdb-ui.el', the graphical user interface to
     GDB.

   * Roland B. Roberts contributed much of the VMS support distributed
     with Emacs 19, along with Joseph M. Kelsey, and `vms-pmail.el',
     support for using Emacs within VMS MAIL.

   * John Robinson wrote `bg-mouse.el', support for the mouse on the BBN
     Bitgraph terminal.

   * Danny Roozendaal implemented `handwrite.el', which converts text
     into "handwriting."

   * William Rosenblatt wrote `float.el', implementing a floating-point
     numeric type using Lisp cons cells and integers.

   * Guillermo J. Rozas wrote `scheme.el', a mode for editing Scheme and
     DSSSL code, and `fakemail.c', an interface to the System V mailer.

   * Ivar Rummelhoff provided `winner.el', which records recent window
     configurations so you can move back to them.

   * Jason Rumney has ported the Emacs 21 display engine to MS-Windows,
     and contributed extensively to the MS-Windows port of Emacs.

   * Wolfgang Rupprecht contributed Emacs 19's floating-point support
     (including `float-sup.el' and `floatfns.c'), and `sup-mouse.el',
     support for the Supdup mouse on lisp machines.

   * Kevin Ryde wrote `info-xref.el', a library for checking references
     in Info files.

   * James B. Salem and Brewster Kahle wrote `completion.el', providing
     dynamic word completion.

   * Masahiko Sato wrote `vip.el', an emulation of the VI editor.

   * Holger Schauer wrote `fortune.el', a package for using fortune in
     message signatures.

   * William Schelter wrote `telnet.el', support for `telnet' sessions
     within Emacs.

   * Ralph Schleicher contributed `battery.el', a package for displaying
     laptop computer battery status, and `info-look.el', a package for
     looking up Info documentation for symbols in the buffer.

   * Michael Schmidt and Tom Perrine wrote `modula2.el', a mode for
     editing Modula-2 code, based on work by Mick Jordan and Peter
     Robinson.

   * Ronald S. Schnell wrote `dunnet.el', a text adventure game.

   * Philippe Schnoebelen wrote `gomoku.el', a Go Moku game played
     against Emacs, and `mpuz.el', a multiplication puzzle.

   * Jan Schormann wrote `solitaire.el', an Emacs Lisp implementation of
     the Solitaire game.

   * Alex Schroeder wrote `ansi-color.el', a package for translating
     ANSI color escape sequences to Emacs faces, and `sql.el', a package
     for interactively running an SQL interpreter in an Emacs buffer.

   * Randal Schwartz wrote `pp.el', a pretty-printer for lisp objects.

   * Oliver Seidel wrote `todo-mode.el', a package for maintaining
     `TODO' list files.

   * Manuel Serrano contributed the Flyspell package that does spell
     checking as you type.

   * Hovav Shacham wrote `windmove.el', a set of commands for selecting
     windows based on their geometrical position on the frame.

   * Stanislav Shalunov wrote `uce.el', for responding to unsolicited
     commercial email.

   * Richard Sharman contributed `hilit-chg.el', which uses colors to
     show recent editing changes.

   * Olin Shivers wrote:

        - `comint.el', a library for modes running interactive
          command-line- oriented subprocesses,

        - `cmuscheme.el', for running inferior Scheme processes,

        - `inf-lisp.el', for running inferior Lisp process, and

        - `shell.el', for running inferior shells.

   * Espen Skoglund wrote `pascal.el', a mode for editing Pascal code.

   * Rick Sladkey wrote `backquote.el', a lisp macro for creating
     mostly-constant data.

   * Lynn Slater wrote `help-macro.el', a macro for writing interactive
     help for key bindings.

   * Chris Smith wrote `icon.el', a mode for editing Icon code.

   * David Smith wrote `ielm.el', a mode for interacting with the Emacs
     Lisp interpreter as a subprocess.

   * Paul D. Smith wrote `snmp-mode.el'.

   * William Sommerfeld wrote `scribe.el', a mode for editing Scribe
     files, and `server.el', a package allowing programs to send files
     to an extant Emacs job to be edited.

   * Andre Spiegel made many contributions to the Emacs Version Control
     package, and in particular made it support multiple back ends.

   * Michael Staats wrote `pc-select.el', which rebinds keys for
     selecting regions to follow many other systems.

   * Richard Stallman invented Emacs, and then wrote:

        - `easymenu.el', a facility for defining Emacs menus,

        - `menu-bar.el', the Emacs menu bar support code,

        - `paren.el', a package to make matching parentheses stand out
          in color, and

        - most of the rest of Emacs code.

   * Sam Steingold wrote `gulp.el', a facility for asking package
     maintainers for updated versions of their packages via e-mail, and
     `midnight.el', a package for running a command every midnight.

   * Ake Stenhoff and Lars Lindberg wrote `imenu.el', a framework for
     browsing indices made from buffer contents.

   * Peter Stephenson contributed `vcursor.el', which implements a
     "virtual cursor" that you can move with the keyboard and use for
     copying text.

   * Ken Stevens wrote the initial version of `ispell.el' and maintains
     that package since Ispell 3.1 release.

   * Jonathan Stigelman wrote `hilit19.el', a package providing
     automatic highlighting in source code buffers, mail readers, and
     other contexts.

   * Kim F. Storm made many improvements to the Emacs display engine,
     process support, and networking support. He also wrote:

        - `bindat.el', a package for encoding and decoding binary data.

        - `cua.el', which allows Emacs to emulate the standard CUA key
          bindings.

        - `ido.el', a package for selecting buffers and files quickly.

        - `kmacro.el', the keyboard macro facility.

   * Martin Stjernholm co-authored CC Mode, a major editing mode for C,
     C++, Objective-C, Java, Pike, CORBA IDL, and AWK code.

   * Steve Strassman did not write `spook.el', and even if he did, he
     really didn't mean for you to use it in an anarchistic way.

   * Olaf Sylvester wrote `bs.el', a package for manipulating Emacs
     buffers.

   * Tibor S<imko and Milan Zamazal wrote `slovak.el', support for
     editing text in Slovak language.

   * Naoto Takahashi wrote `utf-8.el', support for encoding and
     decoding UTF-8 data.

   * Luc Teirlinck wrote `help-at-pt.el', providing local help through
     the keyboard.

   * Jean-Philippe Theberge wrote `thumbs.el', a package for viewing
     image files as "thumbnails."

   * Jens T. Berger Thielemann wrote `word-help.el', which is part of
     the basis for `info-look.el'.

   * Spencer Thomas wrote the original `dabbrev.el', providing a command
     which completes the partial word before point, based on other
     nearby words for which it is a prefix.  He also wrote the original
     dumping support.

   * Jim Thompson wrote `ps-print.el', which converts Emacs text to
     PostScript.

   * Tom Tromey and Chris Lindblad wrote `tcl.el', a major mode for
     editing Tcl/Tk source files and running a Tcl interpreter as an
     Emacs subprocess.

   * Eli Tziperman wrote `rmail-spam-filter.el', a spam filter for
     RMAIL.

   * Daiki Ueno wrote `starttls.el', support for Transport Layer
     Security protocol, and the PGG package adding GnuPG and PGP
     support.

   * Masanobu Umeda wrote:

        - GNUS, a feature-full reader for Usenet news,

        - `prolog.el', a mode for editing Prolog code,

        - `rmailsort.el', a package for sorting messages in RMAIL
          folders,

        - `metamail.el', an interface to the Metamail program,

        - `gnus-kill.el', the Kill File mode for Gnus,

        - `gnus-mh.el', an mh-e interface for Gnus,

        - `gnus-msg.el', a mail and post interface for Gnus,

        - `tcp.el', emulation of the `open-network-stream' function for
          some Emacs configurations which lack it, and

        - `timezone.el', providing functions for dealing with time
          zones.

   * Rajesh Vaidheeswarran wrote `whitespace.el', a package that
     detects and cleans up excess whitespace in a file.

   * Neil W. Van Dyke wrote `webjump.el', a "hot links" package.

   * Didier Verna contributed `rect.el', a package of functions for
     operations on rectangle regions of text.

   * Ulrik Vieth implemented `meta-mode.el', for editing MetaFont code.

   * Geoffrey Voelker wrote the Windows NT support.  He also wrote
     `dos-w32.el', functions shared by the MS-DOS and MS-Windows ports
     of Emacs, and `w32-fns.el', MS-Windows specific support functions.

   * Johan Vromans wrote `forms.el' and its associated files, a mode
     for filling in forms.

   * Colin Walters wrote `ibuffer.el', a Dired-like major mode for
     operating on buffers.

   * Barry Warsaw wrote:

        - `assoc.el', a set of utility functions for working with
          association lists,

        - `cc-mode.el', a major mode for editing C, C++, and Java code,
          based on earlier work by Dave Detlefs, Stewart Clamen, and
          Richard Stallman,

        - `elp.el', a new profiler for Emacs Lisp programs.

        - `man.el', a mode for reading UNIX manual pages,

        - `regi.el', providing an AWK-like functionality for use in lisp
          programs,

        - `reporter.el', providing customizable bug reporting for lisp
          packages, and

        - `supercite.el', a minor mode for quoting sections of mail
          messages and news articles.

   * Morten Welinder introduced face support into the MS-DOS port of
     Emacs, and also wrote:

        - `desktop.el', facilities for saving some of Emacs's state
          between sessions,

        - `timer.el', the Emacs facility to run commands at a given
          time or frequency, or when Emacs is idle, and its C-level
          support code,

        - `pc-win.el', the MS-DOS "window-system" support,

        - `internal.el', an "internal terminal" emulator for the MS-DOS
          port of Emacs,

        - `arc-mode.el', the mode for editing compressed archives,

        - `s-region.el', commands for setting the region using the
          shift key and motion commands, and

        - `dos-fns.el', functions for use under MS-DOS.

     He also helped port Emacs to MS-DOS.

   * Joseph Brian Wells wrote:

        - `apropos.el', a command to find commands, functions, and
          variables whose names contain matches for a regular
          expression,

        - `resume.el', support for processing command-line arguments
          after resuming a suspended Emacs job, and

        - `mail-extr.el', a package for extracting names and addresses
          from mail headers, with contributions from Jamie Zawinski.

   * Rodney Whitby and Reto Zimmermann wrote `vhdl-mode.el', a major
     mode for editing VHDL source code.

   * John Wiegley wrote `align.el', a set of commands for aligning text
     according to regular-expression based rules; `timeclock.el', a
     package for keeping track of time spent on projects;
     `pcomplete.el', a programmable completion facility; and `eshell',
     a command shell implemented entirely in Emacs Lisp.

   * Ed Wilkinson wrote `b2m.c', a program to convert mail files from
     RMAIL format to Unix `mbox' format.

   * Mike Williams wrote `mouse-sel.el', providing enhanced mouse
     selection, and `thingatpt.el', a library of functions for finding
     the "thing" (word, line, s-expression) containing point.

   * Bill Wohler wrote the Emacs interface to the MH mail system.

   * Dale R. Worley wrote `emerge.el', a package for interactively
     merging two versions of a file.

   * Francis J. Wright wrote `WoMan', a package for browsing manual
     pages without the `man' command.

   * Tom Wurgler wrote `emacs-lock.el', which makes it harder to exit
     with valuable buffers unsaved.

   * Masatake Yamato wrote `ld-script.el', an editing mode for GNU
     linker scripts, and contributed subword handling in CC mode.

   * Jonathan Yavner wrote `testcover.el', a package for keeping track
     of the testing status of Emacs Lisp code, and the SES spreadsheet
     package.

   * Ryan Yeske wrote `rcirc.el' a simple Internet Relay Chat client.

   * Ilya Zakharevich and Bob Olson contributed `cperl-mode.el', a major
     mode for editing Perl code.  Ilya Zakharevich also wrote `tmm.el',
     a mode for accessing the Emacs menu bar on a text-mode terminal.

   * Milan Zamazal wrote `czech.el', support for editing Czech text,
     `glasses.el', a package for easier reading of source code which
     uses illegible identifier names such as `cantReadThisVariable', and
     `tildify.el', commands for adding hard spaces to text, TeX, and
     SGML/HTML files.

   * Victor Zandy contributed `zone.el', a package for people who like
     to zone out in front of Emacs.

   * Eli Zaretskii made many standard Emacs features work on MS-DOS.
     He also wrote `tty-colors.el', which implements transparent
     mapping of X colors to tty colors, and (together with Kenichi
     Handa) `codepage.el', a package for editing text encoded in
     DOS/Windows code pages.

   * Jamie Zawinski wrote:

        - Emacs 19's optimizing byte compiler, with Hallvard Furuseth,

        - much of the support for faces and X selections,

        - `mailabbrev.el', a package providing automatic expansion of
          mail aliases, and

        - `tar-mode.el', providing simple viewing and editing commands
          for tar files.

   * Andrew Zhilin created the Emacs icons used beginning with Emacs 22.

   * Shenghuo Zhu wrote:

        - `binhex.el', a package for reading and writing binhex files,

        - `mm-partial.el', message/partial support for MIME messages,

        - `rfc1843.el', an HZ decoding package,

        - `uudecode.el', an Emacs Lisp decoder for uuencoded data,

        - `webmail.el', an interface to Web mail.

   * Ian T. Zimmerman wrote `gametree.el'.

   * Neal Ziring and Felix S. T. Wu wrote `vi.el', an emulation of the
     VI text editor.

   * Detlev Zundel wrote `re-builder.el', a package for building regexps
     with visual feedback.


   Others too numerous to mention have reported and fixed bugs, and
added features to many parts of Emacs.  (Many are mentioned in the
`ChangeLog' files which are summarized in the file `AUTHORS' in the
distribution.)  We thank them for their generosity as well.

   This list intended to mention every contributor of a major package or
feature we currently distribute; if you know of someone we have omitted,
please report that as a manual bug.

File: emacs,  Node: Key Index,  Next: Option Index,  Prev: Glossary,  Up: Top

Key (Character) Index
*********************

[index]
* Menu:

* ! (Dired):                             Shell Commands in Dired.
                                                              (line   6)
* " (TeX mode):                          TeX Editing.         (line  28)
* # (Dired):                             Flagging Many Files. (line  38)
* $ (Dired):                             Hiding Subdirectories.
                                                              (line  10)
* % C (Dired):                           Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  33)
* % d (Dired):                           Flagging Many Files. (line  59)
* % g (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line 112)
* % H (Dired):                           Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  34)
* % l (Dired):                           Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  27)
* % m (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line 103)
* % R (Dired):                           Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  32)
* % S (Dired):                           Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  35)
* % u (Dired):                           Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  21)
* & (Dired):                             Flagging Many Files. (line  32)
* * ! (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  49)
* * % (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line 103)
* * * (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  22)
* * / (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  30)
* * ? (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  54)
* * @ (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  26)
* * c (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  81)
* * C-n (Dired):                         Marks vs Flags.      (line  67)
* * C-p (Dired):                         Marks vs Flags.      (line  72)
* * DEL (Dired):                         Marks vs Flags.      (line  44)
* * m (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  17)
* * s (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  35)
* * t (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  76)
* * u (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  40)
* + (Dired):                             Misc Dired Features. (line   6)
* . (Calendar mode):                     Specified Dates.     (line  37)
* . (Dired):                             Flagging Many Files. (line  46)
* . (Rmail):                             Rmail Scrolling.     (line  27)
* / (Rmail):                             Rmail Scrolling.     (line  27)
* < (Calendar mode):                     Scroll Calendar.     (line  28)
* < (Dired):                             Subdirectory Motion. (line  30)
* < (Rmail):                             Rmail Motion.        (line  74)
* <TAB> (Help mode):                     Help Mode.           (line  42)
* = (Dired):                             Comparison in Dired. (line  11)
* > (Calendar mode):                     Scroll Calendar.     (line  28)
* > (Dired):                             Subdirectory Motion. (line  35)
* > (Rmail):                             Rmail Motion.        (line  74)
* ^ (Dired):                             Dired Visiting.      (line  45)
* a (Calendar mode):                     Holidays.            (line  52)
* A (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line 119)
* a (Rmail):                             Rmail Labels.        (line  34)
* AltGr (MS-Windows):                    Windows Keyboard.    (line  78)
* B (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line 114)
* b (Rmail):                             Rmail Basics.        (line  35)
* BACKSPACE:                             Deletion.            (line  43)
* BS:                                    Deletion.            (line  43)
* BS (MS-DOS):                           MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line   6)
* C (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  34)
* c (Rmail):                             Rmail Reply.         (line 104)
* C-/:                                   Undo.                (line  20)
* C-<SPC> C-<SPC>:                       Momentary Mark.      (line  12)
* C-<TAB>:                               File Name Cache.     (line   6)
* C-@:                                   Setting Mark.        (line  71)
* C-\:                                   Select Input Method. (line  28)
* C-]:                                   Quitting.            (line  66)
* C-_:                                   Undo.                (line  20)
* C-_ (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line 120)
* C-a:                                   Moving Point.        (line  15)
* C-a (Calendar mode):                   Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  11)
* C-b:                                   Moving Point.        (line  15)
* C-b (Calendar mode):                   Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  34)
* C-BREAK (MS-DOS):                      MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  12)
* C-c ' (Picture mode):                  Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* C-c . (C mode):                        Custom C Indent.     (line  26)
* C-c . (Picture mode):                  Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* C-c . (Shell mode):                    Shell Ring.          (line  23)
* C-c / (Picture mode):                  Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* C-c / (SGML mode):                     HTML Mode.           (line  52)
* C-c 8 (SGML mode):                     HTML Mode.           (line  57)
* C-c ; (Fortran mode):                  Fortran Comments.    (line  79)
* C-c < (GUD):                           Commands of GUD.     (line  80)
* C-c < (Picture mode):                  Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* C-c <DEL> (C Mode):                    Hungry Delete.       (line  14)
* C-c <DELETE> (C Mode):                 Hungry Delete.       (line  20)
* C-c > (GUD):                           Commands of GUD.     (line  85)
* C-c > (Picture mode):                  Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* C-c ? (SGML mode):                     HTML Mode.           (line  48)
* C-c @ (Outline minor mode):            Outline Mode.        (line  30)
* C-c @ C-h:                             Hideshow.            (line  16)
* C-c @ C-l:                             Hideshow.            (line  16)
* C-c @ C-M-h:                           Hideshow.            (line  16)
* C-c @ C-M-s:                           Hideshow.            (line  16)
* C-c @ C-r:                             Hideshow.            (line  16)
* C-c @ C-s:                             Hideshow.            (line  16)
* C-c [ (Enriched mode):                 Format Indentation.  (line  52)
* C-c \ (Picture mode):                  Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* C-c ] (Enriched mode):                 Format Indentation.  (line  52)
* C-c ^ (Picture mode):                  Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* C-c ` (Picture mode):                  Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* C-c C-<DEL> (C Mode):                  Hungry Delete.       (line  14)
* C-c C-<DELETE> (C Mode):               Hungry Delete.       (line  20)
* C-c C-\ (C mode):                      Other C Commands.    (line  57)
* C-c C-\ (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  78)
* C-c C-a (C mode):                      Electric C.          (line  29)
* C-c C-a (F90 mode):                    Fortran Motion.      (line  28)
* C-c C-a (Mail mode):                   Mail Aliases.        (line  81)
* C-c C-a (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  80)
* C-c C-a (SGML mode):                   HTML Mode.           (line  27)
* C-c C-a (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  43)
* C-c C-b (Outline mode):                Outline Motion.      (line  36)
* C-c C-b (Picture mode):                Insert in Picture.   (line  48)
* C-c C-b (SGML mode):                   HTML Mode.           (line  36)
* C-c C-b (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line 111)
* C-c C-b (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line  46)
* C-c C-c (C mode):                      Multi-Line Comments. (line  14)
* C-c C-c (Edit Abbrevs):                Editing Abbrevs.     (line  42)
* C-c C-c (Edit Tab Stops):              Tab Stops.           (line  10)
* C-c C-c (Mail mode):                   Mail Sending.        (line  16)
* C-c C-c (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  58)
* C-c C-c (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  68)
* C-c C-c (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line 148)
* C-c C-d (C Mode):                      Hungry Delete.       (line  20)
* C-c C-d (Fortran mode):                ForIndent Commands.  (line  29)
* C-c C-d (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  68)
* C-c C-d (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  63)
* C-c C-d (Picture mode):                Basic Picture.       (line  43)
* C-c C-d (SGML mode):                   HTML Mode.           (line  42)
* C-c C-e (C mode):                      Other C Commands.    (line  45)
* C-c C-e (F90 mode):                    Fortran Motion.      (line  21)
* C-c C-e (LaTeX mode):                  LaTeX Editing.       (line  28)
* C-c C-e (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  58)
* C-c C-e (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line 101)
* C-c C-f (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  97)
* C-c C-f (Outline mode):                Outline Motion.      (line  36)
* C-c C-f (Picture mode):                Insert in Picture.   (line  48)
* C-c C-f (SGML mode):                   HTML Mode.           (line  31)
* C-c C-f (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line 105)
* C-c C-f (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line 109)
* C-c C-f C-b (Mail mode):               Header Editing.      (line  32)
* C-c C-f C-c (Mail mode):               Header Editing.      (line  32)
* C-c C-f C-f (Mail mode):               Header Editing.      (line  32)
* C-c C-f C-s (Mail mode):               Header Editing.      (line  32)
* C-c C-f C-t (Mail mode):               Header Editing.      (line  32)
* C-c C-i (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  52)
* C-c C-i (Mail mode):                   Mail Mode Misc.      (line  46)
* C-c C-i (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  76)
* C-c C-j (Term mode):                   Term Mode.           (line  13)
* C-c C-k (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  70)
* C-c C-k (Picture mode):                Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line  27)
* C-c C-k (Term mode):                   Term Mode.           (line  16)
* C-c C-k (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line  77)
* C-c C-l (C mode):                      Electric C.          (line  19)
* C-c C-l (Calendar mode):               General Calendar.    (line  27)
* C-c C-l (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  35)
* C-c C-l (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  70)
* C-c C-l (Shell mode):                  Shell Ring.          (line  26)
* C-c C-l (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line  77)
* C-c C-n (C mode):                      Motion in C.         (line  35)
* C-c C-n (Fortran mode):                Fortran Motion.      (line  11)
* C-c C-n (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  47)
* C-c C-n (Outline mode):                Outline Motion.      (line  29)
* C-c C-n (SGML mode):                   HTML Mode.           (line  12)
* C-c C-n (Shell mode):                  Shell History Copying.
                                                              (line   9)
* C-c C-o (LaTeX mode):                  LaTeX Editing.       (line  17)
* C-c C-o (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  92)
* C-c C-o (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  83)
* C-c C-p (C mode):                      Motion in C.         (line  30)
* C-c C-p (Fortran mode):                Fortran Motion.      (line  15)
* C-c C-p (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  56)
* C-c C-p (Outline mode):                Outline Motion.      (line  29)
* C-c C-p (Shell mode):                  Shell History Copying.
                                                              (line   6)
* C-c C-p (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line  46)
* C-c C-q (C mode):                      C Indent.            (line   9)
* C-c C-q (Mail mode):                   Citing Mail.         (line  41)
* C-c C-q (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  88)
* C-c C-q (Term mode):                   Paging in Term.      (line   9)
* C-c C-q (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line  46)
* C-c C-r (Fortran mode):                Fortran Columns.     (line  23)
* C-c C-r (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  62)
* C-c C-r (Mail mode):                   Citing Mail.         (line  36)
* C-c C-r (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  96)
* C-c C-r (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line  87)
* C-c C-s (C mode):                      Other C Commands.    (line  76)
* C-c C-s (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  41)
* C-c C-s (Mail mode):                   Mail Sending.        (line  16)
* C-c C-s (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  63)
* C-c C-s (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  89)
* C-c C-t (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  74)
* C-c C-t (Mail mode):                   Mail Mode Misc.      (line  21)
* C-c C-t (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  80)
* C-c C-t (SGML mode):                   HTML Mode.           (line  16)
* C-c C-u (C mode):                      Motion in C.         (line  20)
* C-c C-u (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  90)
* C-c C-u (Outline mode):                Outline Motion.      (line  36)
* C-c C-u (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  60)
* C-c C-v (SGML mode):                   HTML Mode.           (line  62)
* C-c C-v (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line  46)
* C-c C-w (Fortran mode):                Fortran Columns.     (line  42)
* C-c C-w (Mail mode):                   Mail Mode Misc.      (line  24)
* C-c C-w (Picture mode):                Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line  27)
* C-c C-w (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  65)
* C-c C-x:                               Foldout.             (line  39)
* C-c C-x (Picture mode):                Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line  38)
* C-c C-x (Shell mode):                  Shell Ring.          (line  20)
* C-c C-y (Mail mode):                   Citing Mail.         (line  20)
* C-c C-y (Picture mode):                Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line  38)
* C-c C-z:                               Foldout.             (line  16)
* C-c C-z (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  73)
* C-c RET (Shell mode):                  Shell History Copying.
                                                              (line  12)
* C-c TAB (Picture mode):                Tabs in Picture.     (line  25)
* C-c TAB (SGML mode):                   HTML Mode.           (line  66)
* C-c TAB (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line 138)
* C-c { (TeX mode):                      TeX Editing.         (line  52)
* C-c } (TeX mode):                      TeX Editing.         (line  52)
* C-d:                                   Deletion.            (line  34)
* C-d (Rmail):                           Rmail Deletion.      (line  31)
* C-d (Shell mode):                      Shell Mode.          (line  37)
* C-Down-Mouse-1:                        Buffer Menus.        (line  16)
* C-e:                                   Moving Point.        (line  15)
* C-e (Calendar mode):                   Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  12)
* C-f:                                   Moving Point.        (line  15)
* C-f (Calendar mode):                   Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  34)
* C-g:                                   Quitting.            (line  30)
* C-g (MS-DOS):                          MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  12)
* C-h:                                   Help.                (line   6)
* C-h .:                                 Help Echo.           (line  15)
* C-h a:                                 Apropos.             (line  31)
* C-h b:                                 Misc Help.           (line  42)
* C-h C:                                 Coding Systems.      (line  43)
* C-h c:                                 Key Help.            (line   6)
* C-h C-\:                               Select Input Method. (line  14)
* C-h C-c:                               Help Files.          (line  12)
* C-h C-d:                               Help Files.          (line  12)
* C-h C-e:                               Help Files.          (line  12)
* C-h C-f:                               Help Files.          (line  12)
* C-h C-h:                               Help.                (line  13)
* C-h C-n:                               Help Files.          (line  12)
* C-h C-p:                               Help Files.          (line  12)
* C-h C-t:                               Help Files.          (line  12)
* C-h C-w:                               Help Files.          (line  12)
* C-h d:                                 Apropos.             (line  81)
* C-h e:                                 Misc Help.           (line  33)
* C-h F:                                 Name Help.           (line  55)
* C-h f:                                 Name Help.           (line   6)
* C-h h:                                 International Chars. (line  17)
* C-h I:                                 Select Input Method. (line  14)
* C-h i:                                 Misc Help.           (line   6)
* C-h K:                                 Key Help.            (line  16)
* C-h k:                                 Key Help.            (line  12)
* C-h L:                                 Language Environments.
                                                              (line  74)
* C-h l:                                 Misc Help.           (line  28)
* C-h m:                                 Misc Help.           (line  37)
* C-h p:                                 Library Keywords.    (line   6)
* C-h s:                                 Syntax.              (line  18)
* C-h S <1>:                             Info Lookup.         (line   6)
* C-h S:                                 Misc Help.           (line  22)
* C-h t:                                 Basic.               (line   6)
* C-h v:                                 Name Help.           (line  40)
* C-h w:                                 Key Help.            (line  25)
* C-j:                                   Basic Indent.        (line  30)
* C-j (and major modes):                 Major Modes.         (line   6)
* C-j (MS-DOS):                          MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  31)
* C-j (TeX mode):                        TeX Editing.         (line  59)
* C-k:                                   Killing by Lines.    (line  12)
* C-k (Gnus):                            Summary of Gnus.     (line  40)
* C-l:                                   Scrolling.           (line  46)
* C-M-%:                                 Query Replace.       (line  24)
* C-M-.:                                 Find Tag.            (line  76)
* C-M-/:                                 Dynamic Abbrevs.     (line  12)
* C-M-<SPC>:                             Expressions.         (line  68)
* C-M-@:                                 Expressions.         (line  68)
* C-M-\:                                 Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  37)
* C-M-a:                                 Moving by Defuns.    (line  19)
* C-M-b:                                 Expressions.         (line  37)
* C-M-c:                                 Recursive Edit.      (line  12)
* C-M-d:                                 Moving by Parens.    (line  37)
* C-M-d (Dired):                         Subdirectory Motion. (line  26)
* C-M-e:                                 Moving by Defuns.    (line  19)
* C-M-f:                                 Expressions.         (line  37)
* C-M-h:                                 Moving by Defuns.    (line  19)
* C-M-h (C mode):                        Moving by Defuns.    (line  32)
* C-M-j:                                 Multi-Line Comments. (line   6)
* C-M-j (Fortran mode):                  ForIndent Commands.  (line  24)
* C-M-k:                                 Expressions.         (line  54)
* C-M-l:                                 Scrolling.           (line 103)
* C-M-l (Rmail):                         Rmail Make Summary.  (line  37)
* C-M-l (Shell mode):                    Shell Mode.          (line  96)
* C-M-n:                                 Moving by Parens.    (line  25)
* C-M-n (Dired):                         Subdirectory Motion. (line  15)
* C-M-n (Fortran mode):                  Fortran Motion.      (line  33)
* C-M-n (Rmail):                         Rmail Labels.        (line  42)
* C-M-o:                                 Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  17)
* C-M-p:                                 Moving by Parens.    (line  25)
* C-M-p (Dired):                         Subdirectory Motion. (line  19)
* C-M-p (Fortran mode):                  Fortran Motion.      (line  41)
* C-M-p (Rmail):                         Rmail Labels.        (line  42)
* C-M-q:                                 Multi-line Indent.   (line  25)
* C-M-q (C mode):                        C Indent.            (line  13)
* C-M-q (Fortran mode):                  ForIndent Commands.  (line  20)
* C-M-r:                                 Regexp Search.       (line  12)
* C-M-r (Rmail):                         Rmail Make Summary.  (line  41)
* C-M-s:                                 Regexp Search.       (line  12)
* C-M-s (Rmail):                         Rmail Make Summary.  (line  50)
* C-M-t:                                 Expressions.         (line  58)
* C-M-t (Rmail):                         Rmail Make Summary.  (line  46)
* C-M-u:                                 Moving by Parens.    (line  30)
* C-M-u (Dired):                         Subdirectory Motion. (line  23)
* C-M-v:                                 Other Window.        (line  34)
* C-M-w:                                 Appending Kills.     (line  38)
* C-M-x (Emacs-Lisp mode):               Lisp Eval.           (line  44)
* C-M-x (Lisp mode):                     External Lisp.       (line  31)
* C-Mouse-1:                             Menu Mouse Clicks.   (line  10)
* C-Mouse-2:                             Menu Mouse Clicks.   (line  16)
* C-mouse-2 (mode line):                 Mode Line Mouse.     (line  31)
* C-Mouse-2 (scroll bar) <1>:            Mode Line Mouse.     (line  34)
* C-Mouse-2 (scroll bar):                Split Window.        (line  32)
* C-Mouse-3:                             Menu Mouse Clicks.   (line  20)
* C-Mouse-3 (when menu bar is disabled): Menu Bars.           (line  13)
* C-n:                                   Moving Point.        (line  15)
* C-n (Calendar mode):                   Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  34)
* C-n (Dired):                           Dired Navigation.    (line   6)
* C-n (Gnus Group mode):                 Summary of Gnus.     (line  80)
* C-n (Gnus Summary mode):               Summary of Gnus.     (line  80)
* C-o:                                   Blank Lines.         (line  16)
* C-o (Dired):                           Dired Visiting.      (line  27)
* C-o (Occur mode):                      Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  20)
* C-o (Rmail):                           Rmail Output.        (line  20)
* C-p:                                   Moving Point.        (line  15)
* C-p (Calendar mode):                   Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  34)
* C-p (Dired):                           Dired Navigation.    (line   6)
* C-p (Gnus Group mode):                 Summary of Gnus.     (line  80)
* C-p (Gnus Summary mode):               Summary of Gnus.     (line  80)
* C-q:                                   Inserting Text.      (line  54)
* C-r:                                   Repeat Isearch.      (line  39)
* C-s:                                   Basic Isearch.       (line   6)
* C-S-backspace:                         Killing by Lines.    (line  38)
* C-S-Mouse-3 (FFAP):                    FFAP.                (line  68)
* C-SPC:                                 Setting Mark.        (line  31)
* C-t:                                   Transpose.           (line  18)
* C-t d (Image-Dired):                   Image-Dired.         (line  10)
* C-u:                                   Arguments.           (line  29)
* C-u C-@:                               Mark Ring.           (line   6)
* C-u C-c C-w (Fortran mode):            Fortran Columns.     (line  47)
* C-u C-SPC:                             Mark Ring.           (line   6)
* C-u C-x C-x:                           Momentary Mark.      (line  18)
* C-u C-x u:                             Undo.                (line  52)
* C-u M-;:                               Comment Commands.    (line  52)
* C-u TAB:                               Multi-line Indent.   (line  37)
* C-v:                                   Scrolling.           (line  52)
* C-v (Calendar mode):                   Scroll Calendar.     (line  34)
* C-w:                                   Other Kill Commands. (line   6)
* C-x #:                                 Emacs Server.        (line  31)
* C-x $:                                 Selective Display.   (line   6)
* C-x (:                                 Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  35)
* C-x ):                                 Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  35)
* C-x +:                                 Change Window.       (line  70)
* C-x -:                                 Change Window.       (line  65)
* C-x .:                                 Fill Prefix.         (line  27)
* C-x 0:                                 Change Window.       (line  35)
* C-x 1:                                 Change Window.       (line  46)
* C-x 2:                                 Split Window.        (line  17)
* C-x 3:                                 Split Window.        (line  23)
* C-x 4:                                 Pop Up Window.       (line   6)
* C-x 4 .:                               Find Tag.            (line  56)
* C-x 4 0:                               Change Window.       (line  43)
* C-x 4 a:                               Change Log.          (line  13)
* C-x 4 b:                               Select Buffer.       (line  40)
* C-x 4 b (Iswitchb mode):               Iswitchb.            (line   6)
* C-x 4 c:                               Indirect Buffers.    (line  19)
* C-x 4 C-o (Iswitchb mode):             Iswitchb.            (line   6)
* C-x 4 d:                               Dired Enter.         (line  25)
* C-x 4 f:                               Visiting.            (line 158)
* C-x 4 f (FFAP):                        FFAP.                (line  40)
* C-x 4 m:                               Sending Mail.        (line  27)
* C-x 5:                                 Creating Frames.     (line   6)
* C-x 5 .:                               Find Tag.            (line  56)
* C-x 5 0:                               Frame Commands.      (line  18)
* C-x 5 1:                               Frame Commands.      (line  27)
* C-x 5 2:                               Creating Frames.     (line  17)
* C-x 5 b:                               Select Buffer.       (line  48)
* C-x 5 b (Iswitchb mode):               Iswitchb.            (line   6)
* C-x 5 d:                               Dired Enter.         (line  25)
* C-x 5 f:                               Visiting.            (line 166)
* C-x 5 f (FFAP):                        FFAP.                (line  50)
* C-x 5 m:                               Sending Mail.        (line  27)
* C-x 5 o:                               Frame Commands.      (line  22)
* C-x 5 r:                               Creating Frames.     (line  42)
* C-x 6 1:                               Two-Column.          (line  60)
* C-x 6 2:                               Two-Column.          (line  12)
* C-x 6 b:                               Two-Column.          (line  35)
* C-x 6 d:                               Two-Column.          (line  65)
* C-x 6 RET:                             Two-Column.          (line  55)
* C-x 6 s:                               Two-Column.          (line  22)
* C-x 8:                                 Unibyte Mode.        (line  61)
* C-x ;:                                 Options for Comments.
                                                              (line   6)
* C-x <:                                 Horizontal Scrolling.
                                                              (line  21)
* C-x <LEFT>:                            Select Buffer.       (line  34)
* C-x <RET> F:                           File Name Coding.    (line  13)
* C-x <RIGHT>:                           Select Buffer.       (line  34)
* C-x =:                                 Position Info.       (line  53)
* C-x >:                                 Horizontal Scrolling.
                                                              (line  21)
* C-x [:                                 Pages.               (line  29)
* C-x [ (Calendar mode):                 Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  43)
* C-x ]:                                 Pages.               (line  29)
* C-x ] (Calendar mode):                 Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  43)
* C-x ^:                                 Change Window.       (line  51)
* C-x `:                                 Compilation Mode.    (line  54)
* C-x a g:                               Defining Abbrevs.    (line  31)
* C-x a i g:                             Defining Abbrevs.    (line  49)
* C-x a i l:                             Defining Abbrevs.    (line  49)
* C-x a l:                               Defining Abbrevs.    (line  43)
* C-x b:                                 Select Buffer.       (line  28)
* C-x b (Iswitchb mode):                 Iswitchb.            (line   6)
* C-x C-<SPC>:                           Global Mark Ring.    (line  17)
* C-x C-a (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  28)
* C-x C-a C-j (GUD):                     Commands of GUD.     (line 104)
* C-x C-a C-w (GUD):                     Watch Expressions.   (line   6)
* C-x C-b:                               List Buffers.        (line   9)
* C-x C-c:                               Exiting.             (line  53)
* C-x C-d:                               Directories.         (line  26)
* C-x C-e:                               Lisp Eval.           (line  58)
* C-x C-f:                               Visiting.            (line  55)
* C-x C-f (FFAP):                        FFAP.                (line  23)
* C-x C-k b:                             Save Keyboard Macro. (line  28)
* C-x C-k C-a:                           Keyboard Macro Counter.
                                                              (line  52)
* C-x C-k C-c:                           Keyboard Macro Counter.
                                                              (line  44)
* C-x C-k C-e:                           Edit Keyboard Macro. (line  16)
* C-x C-k C-f:                           Keyboard Macro Counter.
                                                              (line  58)
* C-x C-k C-i:                           Keyboard Macro Counter.
                                                              (line  27)
* C-x C-k C-k:                           Keyboard Macro Ring. (line  34)
* C-x C-k C-n:                           Keyboard Macro Ring. (line  44)
* C-x C-k C-p:                           Keyboard Macro Ring. (line  44)
* C-x C-k e:                             Edit Keyboard Macro. (line  22)
* C-x C-k l:                             Edit Keyboard Macro. (line  27)
* C-x C-k n:                             Save Keyboard Macro. (line  17)
* C-x C-k r:                             Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line 119)
* C-x C-k RET:                           Edit Keyboard Macro. (line  16)
* C-x C-k SPC:                           Keyboard Macro Step-Edit.
                                                              (line   6)
* C-x C-l:                               Case.                (line  47)
* C-x C-n:                               Moving Point.        (line  93)
* C-x C-o:                               Blank Lines.         (line  16)
* C-x C-p:                               Pages.               (line  35)
* C-x C-q:                               Misc Buffer.         (line  18)
* C-x C-q (Version Control):             Basic VC Editing.    (line  16)
* C-x C-r:                               Visiting.            (line 145)
* C-x C-r (FFAP):                        FFAP.                (line  27)
* C-x C-s:                               Save Commands.       (line  26)
* C-x C-t:                               Transpose.           (line  31)
* C-x C-u:                               Case.                (line  47)
* C-x C-v:                               Visiting.            (line 149)
* C-x C-v (FFAP):                        FFAP.                (line  30)
* C-x C-w:                               Save Commands.       (line  98)
* C-x C-x:                               Setting Mark.        (line  48)
* C-x C-z:                               External Lisp.       (line  12)
* C-x d:                                 Dired Enter.         (line   6)
* C-x d (FFAP):                          FFAP.                (line  33)
* C-x DEL:                               Sentences.           (line  33)
* C-x e:                                 Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  35)
* C-x ESC ESC:                           Repetition.          (line  20)
* C-x f:                                 Fill Commands.       (line  49)
* C-x h:                                 Marking Objects.     (line  36)
* C-x i:                                 Misc File Ops.       (line  22)
* C-x k:                                 Kill Buffer.         (line  18)
* C-x l:                                 Pages.               (line  51)
* C-x m:                                 Sending Mail.        (line  27)
* C-x n d:                               Narrowing.           (line  41)
* C-x n n:                               Narrowing.           (line  36)
* C-x n p:                               Narrowing.           (line  41)
* C-x n w:                               Narrowing.           (line  46)
* C-x o:                                 Other Window.        (line  20)
* C-x q:                                 Keyboard Macro Query.
                                                              (line  10)
* C-x r +:                               RegNumbers.          (line  14)
* C-x r b:                               Bookmarks.           (line  27)
* C-x r c:                               Rectangles.          (line  91)
* C-x r d:                               Rectangles.          (line  61)
* C-x r f:                               RegConfig.           (line   6)
* C-x r i:                               RegText.             (line  23)
* C-x r j:                               RegPos.              (line  20)
* C-x r k:                               Rectangles.          (line  61)
* C-x r l:                               Bookmarks.           (line  34)
* C-x r m:                               Bookmarks.           (line  27)
* C-x r n:                               RegNumbers.          (line  11)
* C-x r o:                               Rectangles.          (line  91)
* C-x r r:                               RegRect.             (line  10)
* C-x r s:                               RegText.             (line  23)
* C-x r SPC:                             RegPos.              (line  16)
* C-x r t:                               Rectangles.          (line 103)
* C-x r w:                               RegConfig.           (line   6)
* C-x r y:                               Rectangles.          (line  75)
* C-x RET:                               International Chars. (line  28)
* C-x RET c:                             Text Coding.         (line  36)
* C-x RET C-\:                           Select Input Method. (line  22)
* C-x RET f:                             Text Coding.         (line  23)
* C-x RET k:                             Terminal Coding.     (line  27)
* C-x RET p:                             Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  32)
* C-x RET r:                             Text Coding.         (line  67)
* C-x RET t:                             Terminal Coding.     (line  12)
* C-x RET X:                             Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  24)
* C-x RET x:                             Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  24)
* C-x s:                                 Save Commands.       (line  39)
* C-x SPC:                               Commands of GUD.     (line  26)
* C-x TAB:                               Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  37)
* C-x TAB (Enriched mode):               Format Indentation.  (line  15)
* C-x u:                                 Undo.                (line  20)
* C-x v =:                               Old Versions.        (line  31)
* C-x v a:                               Change Logs and VC.  (line  11)
* C-x v b:                               Local Version Control.
                                                              (line  74)
* C-x v c:                               VC Undo.             (line  24)
* C-x v d:                               VC Dired Mode.       (line  11)
* C-x v g:                               Old Versions.        (line  64)
* C-x v h:                               Version Headers.     (line  29)
* C-x v i:                               Registering.         (line   6)
* C-x v l:                               VC Status.           (line   9)
* C-x v m:                               Merging.             (line  16)
* C-x v r:                               Making Snapshots.    (line  14)
* C-x v s:                               Making Snapshots.    (line   9)
* C-x v u:                               VC Undo.             (line  14)
* C-x v v:                               Basic VC Editing.    (line  12)
* C-x v ~:                               Old Versions.        (line  24)
* C-x w b:                               Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  53)
* C-x w h:                               Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  24)
* C-x w i:                               Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  64)
* C-x w l:                               Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  49)
* C-x w r:                               Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  37)
* C-x z:                                 Repeating.           (line  12)
* C-x }:                                 Change Window.       (line  51)
* C-y:                                   Kill Ring.           (line  12)
* C-z:                                   Exiting.             (line  30)
* C-z (X windows):                       Frame Commands.      (line   9)
* d (Calendar mode):                     Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  35)
* D (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  48)
* d (Dired):                             Dired Deletion.      (line  22)
* D (GDB breakpoints buffer):            Breakpoints Buffer.  (line  19)
* D (GDB speedbar):                      Watch Expressions.   (line  25)
* d (Rmail):                             Rmail Deletion.      (line  31)
* DEL:                                   Deletion.            (line  34)
* DEL (and major modes):                 Major Modes.         (line   6)
* DEL (Dired):                           Dired Deletion.      (line  28)
* DEL (Gnus):                            Summary of Gnus.     (line  66)
* DEL (MS-DOS):                          MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line   6)
* DEL (programming modes):               Program Modes.       (line  31)
* DEL (Rmail):                           Rmail Scrolling.     (line  23)
* DELETE:                                Deletion.            (line  43)
* DELETE (and mouse selection):          Mouse Commands.      (line  12)
* DOWN:                                  Moving Point.        (line  15)
* e (Dired):                             Dired Visiting.      (line  18)
* e (Rmail):                             Rmail Editing.       (line  15)
* ESC ESC ESC:                           Quitting.            (line  74)
* f (Dired):                             Dired Visiting.      (line  12)
* f (Rmail):                             Rmail Reply.         (line  73)
* F1:                                    Help.                (line   6)
* F10:                                   Menu Bar.            (line  10)
* F10 (MS-Windows):                      Windows Keyboard.    (line  17)
* F2 1:                                  Two-Column.          (line  60)
* F2 2:                                  Two-Column.          (line  12)
* F2 b:                                  Two-Column.          (line  35)
* F2 d:                                  Two-Column.          (line  65)
* F2 RET:                                Two-Column.          (line  55)
* F2 s:                                  Two-Column.          (line  22)
* F3:                                    Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  35)
* F4:                                    Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  35)
* g (Dired):                             Dired Updating.      (line  29)
* G (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  81)
* g (Rmail):                             Rmail Files.         (line  55)
* g CHAR (Calendar mode):                From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* g D (Calendar mode):                   Specified Dates.     (line  29)
* g d (Calendar mode):                   Specified Dates.     (line  24)
* g m (Calendar mode):                   Mayan Calendar.      (line  42)
* g w (Calendar mode):                   Specified Dates.     (line  29)
* h (Calendar mode):                     Holidays.            (line  33)
* H (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  64)
* h (Rmail):                             Rmail Make Summary.  (line  32)
* Help:                                  Help.                (line   6)
* i (Dired):                             Subdirectories in Dired.
                                                              (line  18)
* i (Rmail):                             Rmail Files.         (line  25)
* i a (Calendar mode):                   Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  29)
* i b (Calendar mode):                   Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  53)
* i c (Calendar mode):                   Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  58)
* i d (Calendar mode):                   Adding to Diary.     (line  24)
* i m (Calendar mode):                   Adding to Diary.     (line  29)
* i w (Calendar mode):                   Adding to Diary.     (line  29)
* i y (Calendar mode):                   Adding to Diary.     (line  29)
* INSERT:                                Minor Modes.         (line  87)
* j (Dired):                             Dired Navigation.    (line  16)
* j (Rmail):                             Rmail Motion.        (line  74)
* k (Dired):                             Dired Updating.      (line  43)
* k (Rmail):                             Rmail Labels.        (line  34)
* l (Dired):                             Dired Updating.      (line  34)
* L (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line 110)
* l (Gnus Group mode):                   Summary of Gnus.     (line  29)
* L (Gnus Group mode):                   Summary of Gnus.     (line  25)
* l (Rmail):                             Rmail Make Summary.  (line  37)
* LEFT:                                  Moving Point.        (line  15)
* m (Calendar mode):                     Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  49)
* M (Calendar mode):                     Lunar Phases.        (line  19)
* M (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  76)
* m (Dired):                             Marks vs Flags.      (line  17)
* m (Rmail):                             Rmail Reply.         (line  98)
* M-!:                                   Single Shell.        (line   6)
* M-$:                                   Spelling.            (line  64)
* M-$ (Dired):                           Hiding Subdirectories.
                                                              (line  15)
* M-%:                                   Query Replace.       (line  14)
* M-':                                   Expanding Abbrevs.   (line  32)
* M-*:                                   Find Tag.            (line  67)
* M-,:                                   Tags Search.         (line  31)
* M--:                                   Arguments.           (line  15)
* M-- M-c:                               Fixing Case.         (line  15)
* M-- M-l:                               Fixing Case.         (line  15)
* M-- M-u:                               Fixing Case.         (line  15)
* M-.:                                   Find Tag.            (line  35)
* M-/:                                   Dynamic Abbrevs.     (line  12)
* M-1:                                   Arguments.           (line  15)
* M-;:                                   Comment Commands.    (line  28)
* M-<:                                   Moving Point.        (line  15)
* M-< (Calendar mode):                   Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  21)
* M-<colon>:                             Lisp Eval.           (line  38)
* M-=:                                   Position Info.       (line  49)
* M-= (Calendar mode):                   Counting Days.       (line  10)
* M-= (Dired):                           Comparison in Dired. (line  18)
* M->:                                   Moving Point.        (line  15)
* M-> (Calendar mode):                   Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  24)
* M-? (Nroff mode):                      Nroff Mode.          (line  14)
* M-? (Shell mode):                      Shell Mode.          (line  32)
* M-@:                                   Words.               (line  61)
* M-\:                                   Deletion.            (line  70)
* M-^:                                   Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  24)
* M-^ (Fortran mode):                    ForIndent Commands.  (line  29)
* M-`:                                   Menu Bar.            (line  10)
* M-a:                                   Sentences.           (line  22)
* M-a (C mode):                          Motion in C.         (line  40)
* M-a (Calendar mode):                   Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  15)
* M-b:                                   Words.               (line  32)
* M-c:                                   Case.                (line  24)
* M-d:                                   Words.               (line  41)
* M-DEL:                                 Words.               (line  50)
* M-DEL (Dired):                         Marks vs Flags.      (line  54)
* M-Drag-Mouse-1:                        Secondary Selection. (line  10)
* M-e:                                   Sentences.           (line  22)
* M-e (C mode):                          Motion in C.         (line  49)
* M-e (Calendar mode):                   Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  18)
* M-f:                                   Words.               (line  32)
* M-g M-n:                               Compilation Mode.    (line  54)
* M-g n:                                 Compilation Mode.    (line  54)
* M-h:                                   Paragraphs.          (line  36)
* M-i:                                   Tab Stops.           (line   6)
* M-j:                                   Multi-Line Comments. (line   6)
* M-j b (Enriched mode):                 Format Justification.
                                                              (line  48)
* M-j c (Enriched mode):                 Format Justification.
                                                              (line  51)
* M-j l (Enriched mode):                 Format Justification.
                                                              (line  44)
* M-j r (Enriched mode):                 Format Justification.
                                                              (line  45)
* M-j u (Enriched mode):                 Format Justification.
                                                              (line  55)
* M-k:                                   Sentences.           (line  33)
* M-l:                                   Case.                (line  24)
* M-m:                                   Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line   6)
* M-m (Rmail):                           Rmail Reply.         (line  62)
* M-Mouse-1:                             Secondary Selection. (line  26)
* M-Mouse-2:                             Secondary Selection. (line  36)
* M-Mouse-3:                             Secondary Selection. (line  30)
* M-n (minibuffer history):              Minibuffer History.  (line  30)
* M-n (Nroff mode):                      Nroff Mode.          (line  14)
* M-n (Rmail):                           Rmail Motion.        (line  47)
* M-n (Shell mode):                      Shell Ring.          (line  10)
* M-o b (Enriched mode):                 Format Faces.        (line  18)
* M-o d (Enriched mode):                 Format Faces.        (line  15)
* M-o i (Enriched mode):                 Format Faces.        (line  22)
* M-o l (Enriched mode):                 Format Faces.        (line  26)
* M-o o (Enriched mode):                 Format Faces.        (line  34)
* M-o u (Enriched mode):                 Format Faces.        (line  30)
* M-p (minibuffer history):              Minibuffer History.  (line  30)
* M-p (Nroff mode):                      Nroff Mode.          (line  14)
* M-p (Rmail):                           Rmail Motion.        (line  47)
* M-p (Shell mode):                      Shell Ring.          (line   6)
* M-q:                                   Fill Commands.       (line  21)
* M-q (C mode):                          Other C Commands.    (line  39)
* M-q (Fortran mode):                    ForIndent Commands.  (line  34)
* M-r:                                   Moving Point.        (line  15)
* M-r (minibuffer history):              Minibuffer History.  (line  48)
* M-r (Shell mode):                      Shell Ring.          (line  14)
* M-S (Enriched mode):                   Format Justification.
                                                              (line  51)
* M-s (Gnus Summary mode):               Summary of Gnus.     (line  90)
* M-s (minibuffer history):              Minibuffer History.  (line  48)
* M-s (Rmail):                           Rmail Motion.        (line  60)
* M-s (Shell mode):                      Shell Ring.          (line  14)
* M-s (Text mode):                       Fill Commands.       (line  44)
* M-SPC:                                 Deletion.            (line  70)
* M-t:                                   Transpose.           (line  31)
* M-TAB:                                 Symbol Completion.   (line  10)
* M-TAB (customization buffer):          Changing a Variable. (line  49)
* M-TAB (Mail mode):                     Header Editing.      (line  39)
* M-TAB (Picture mode):                  Tabs in Picture.     (line   6)
* M-TAB (Text mode):                     Text Mode.           (line  36)
* M-u:                                   Case.                (line  24)
* M-v:                                   Scrolling.           (line  52)
* M-v (Calendar mode):                   Scroll Calendar.     (line  34)
* M-w:                                   Kill Ring.           (line  28)
* M-x:                                   M-x.                 (line  17)
* M-y:                                   Earlier Kills.       (line   6)
* M-z:                                   Other Kill Commands. (line  34)
* M-{:                                   Paragraphs.          (line   6)
* M-{ (Calendar mode):                   Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  43)
* M-{ (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  72)
* M-|:                                   Single Shell.        (line  30)
* M-}:                                   Paragraphs.          (line   6)
* M-} (Calendar mode):                   Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  43)
* M-} (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  67)
* M-~:                                   Save Commands.       (line  74)
* Mouse-1:                               Mouse Commands.      (line  18)
* Mouse-1 (mode line):                   Mode Line Mouse.     (line  16)
* Mouse-1 (scroll bar):                  Mode Line Mouse.     (line  34)
* Mouse-1 (selection):                   Mouse References.    (line   6)
* Mouse-2:                               Mouse Commands.      (line  18)
* Mouse-2 (GDB breakpoints buffer):      Breakpoints Buffer.  (line  26)
* Mouse-2 (mode line):                   Mode Line Mouse.     (line  23)
* Mouse-2 (selection):                   Mouse References.    (line   6)
* Mouse-3:                               Mouse Commands.      (line  18)
* Mouse-3 (mode line):                   Mode Line Mouse.     (line  26)
* n (Gnus):                              Summary of Gnus.     (line  72)
* n (Rmail):                             Rmail Motion.        (line  47)
* NEXT:                                  Scrolling.           (line  52)
* o (Calendar mode):                     Specified Dates.     (line  34)
* O (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  85)
* o (Dired):                             Dired Visiting.      (line  21)
* o (Occur mode):                        Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  20)
* o (Rmail):                             Rmail Output.        (line  20)
* p (Calendar mode):                     To Other Calendar.   (line  11)
* P (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  99)
* p (Gnus):                              Summary of Gnus.     (line  76)
* p (Rmail):                             Rmail Motion.        (line  47)
* p d (Calendar mode):                   General Calendar.    (line  21)
* PAGEDOWN:                              Scrolling.           (line  52)
* PAGEUP:                                Scrolling.           (line  52)
* PRIOR:                                 Scrolling.           (line  52)
* q (Calendar mode):                     General Calendar.    (line  36)
* Q (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line 127)
* q (Gnus Group mode):                   Summary of Gnus.     (line  18)
* q (Rmail summary):                     Rmail Summary Edit.  (line  69)
* Q (Rmail summary):                     Rmail Summary Edit.  (line  69)
* q (Rmail):                             Rmail Basics.        (line  35)
* R (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  55)
* r (Rmail):                             Rmail Reply.         (line  33)
* RET:                                   Inserting Text.      (line  38)
* RET (Dired):                           Dired Visiting.      (line  18)
* RET (GDB breakpoints buffer):          Breakpoints Buffer.  (line  22)
* RET (GDB speedbar):                    Watch Expressions.   (line  28)
* RET (Occur mode):                      Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  20)
* RET (Shell mode):                      Shell Mode.          (line  13)
* RIGHT:                                 Moving Point.        (line  15)
* s (Calendar mode):                     Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  60)
* S (Calendar mode):                     Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  22)
* s (Dired):                             Dired Updating.      (line  59)
* S (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  70)
* s (Gnus Summary mode):                 Summary of Gnus.     (line  85)
* s (Rmail):                             Rmail Basics.        (line  28)
* S-<TAB> (Help mode):                   Help Mode.           (line  42)
* S-Mouse-1:                             Frame Parameters.    (line   6)
* S-Mouse-2:                             Hideshow.            (line  16)
* S-Mouse-3 (FFAP):                      FFAP.                (line  64)
* S-TAB (customization buffer):          Changing a Variable. (line 103)
* SPC:                                   Completion Commands. (line  28)
* SPC (Calendar mode):                   General Calendar.    (line  31)
* SPC (Dired):                           Dired Navigation.    (line  11)
* SPC (GDB breakpoints buffer):          Breakpoints Buffer.  (line  12)
* SPC (Gnus):                            Summary of Gnus.     (line  49)
* SPC (Rmail):                           Rmail Scrolling.     (line  23)
* t (Calendar mode):                     Writing Calendar Files.
                                                              (line  24)
* T (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  94)
* t (Dired):                             Marks vs Flags.      (line  76)
* t (Rmail):                             Rmail Display.       (line  23)
* TAB:                                   Indentation.         (line  70)
* TAB (and major modes):                 Major Modes.         (line   6)
* TAB (completion):                      Completion Example.  (line   6)
* TAB (customization buffer):            Changing a Variable. (line 103)
* TAB (GUD):                             Commands of GUD.     (line 113)
* TAB (programming modes):               Basic Indent.        (line  16)
* TAB (Shell mode):                      Shell Mode.          (line  20)
* TAB (Text mode):                       Text Mode.           (line  15)
* u (Calendar mode):                     Holidays.            (line  40)
* u (Dired deletion):                    Dired Deletion.      (line  28)
* U (Dired):                             Marks vs Flags.      (line  49)
* u (Dired):                             Marks vs Flags.      (line  40)
* u (Gnus Group mode):                   Summary of Gnus.     (line  33)
* u (Rmail):                             Rmail Deletion.      (line  45)
* UP:                                    Moving Point.        (line  15)
* v (Dired):                             Dired Visiting.      (line  38)
* w (Dired):                             Misc Dired Features. (line  10)
* w (Rmail):                             Rmail Output.        (line  37)
* x (Calendar mode):                     Holidays.            (line  40)
* X (Dired):                             Shell Commands in Dired.
                                                              (line   6)
* x (Dired):                             Dired Deletion.      (line  36)
* x (Rmail):                             Rmail Deletion.      (line  45)
* Z (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line 106)
* ~ (Dired):                             Flagging Many Files. (line  42)

File: emacs,  Node: Option Index,  Next: Command Index,  Prev: Key Index,  Up: Top

Command-Line Options Index
**************************

[index]
* Menu:

* +LINENUM:                              Action Arguments.    (line  18)
* --background-color:                    Colors.              (line  29)
* --basic-display:                       Misc X.              (line  25)
* --batch:                               Initial Options.     (line  35)
* --border-color:                        Colors.              (line  33)
* --border-width:                        Borders X.           (line  20)
* --color:                               Colors.              (line  51)
* --cursor-color:                        Colors.              (line  37)
* --debug-init:                          Initial Options.     (line 101)
* --directory:                           Action Arguments.    (line  37)
* --display:                             Initial Options.     (line  24)
* --eval:                                Action Arguments.    (line  47)
* --execute:                             Action Arguments.    (line  48)
* --file:                                Action Arguments.    (line   9)
* --find-file:                           Action Arguments.    (line  10)
* --font:                                Font X.              (line  13)
* --foreground-color:                    Colors.              (line  23)
* --fullheight:                          Window Size X.       (line  22)
* --fullscreen:                          Window Size X.       (line  18)
* --fullwidth:                           Window Size X.       (line  26)
* --funcall:                             Action Arguments.    (line  41)
* --geometry:                            Window Size X.       (line  11)
* --help:                                Action Arguments.    (line  58)
* --horizontal-scroll-bars:              Misc X.              (line   8)
* --iconic:                              Icons X.             (line  17)
* --insert:                              Action Arguments.    (line  51)
* --internal-border:                     Borders X.           (line  15)
* --kill:                                Action Arguments.    (line  55)
* --line-spacing:                        Misc X.              (line  17)
* --load:                                Action Arguments.    (line  26)
* --mouse-color:                         Colors.              (line  42)
* --multibyte:                           Initial Options.     (line 115)
* --name:                                Resources.           (line  65)
* --no-bitmap-icon:                      Icons X.             (line  14)
* --no-blinking-cursor:                  Misc X.              (line  21)
* --no-desktop:                          Initial Options.     (line  94)
* --no-init-file:                        Initial Options.     (line  70)
* --no-multibyte:                        Initial Options.     (line 106)
* --no-site-file:                        Initial Options.     (line  77)
* --no-splash:                           Initial Options.     (line  87)
* --no-unibyte:                          Initial Options.     (line 116)
* --no-window-system:                    Initial Options.     (line  29)
* --quick:                               Initial Options.     (line  83)
* --reverse-video:                       Colors.              (line  48)
* --script:                              Initial Options.     (line  56)
* --terminal:                            Initial Options.     (line  19)
* --title:                               Title X.             (line  17)
* --unibyte:                             Initial Options.     (line 105)
* --user:                                Initial Options.     (line  98)
* --version:                             Action Arguments.    (line  62)
* --vertical-scroll-bars:                Misc X.              (line  13)
* --visit:                               Action Arguments.    (line  11)
* --xrm:                                 Resources.           (line  74)
* -bd:                                   Colors.              (line  32)
* -bg:                                   Colors.              (line  28)
* -bw:                                   Borders X.           (line  19)
* -cr:                                   Colors.              (line  36)
* -D:                                    Misc X.              (line  24)
* -d:                                    Initial Options.     (line  23)
* -f:                                    Action Arguments.    (line  40)
* -fg:                                   Colors.              (line  22)
* -fh:                                   Window Size X.       (line  21)
* -fn:                                   Font X.              (line  12)
* -fs:                                   Window Size X.       (line  17)
* -fw:                                   Window Size X.       (line  25)
* -g:                                    Window Size X.       (line  10)
* -hb:                                   Misc X.              (line   7)
* -ib:                                   Borders X.           (line  14)
* -L:                                    Action Arguments.    (line  36)
* -l:                                    Action Arguments.    (line  25)
* -lsp:                                  Misc X.              (line  16)
* -ms:                                   Colors.              (line  41)
* -nbc:                                  Misc X.              (line  20)
* -nbi:                                  Icons X.             (line  13)
* -nw:                                   Initial Options.     (line  28)
* -Q:                                    Initial Options.     (line  82)
* -q:                                    Initial Options.     (line  69)
* -r:                                    Colors.              (line  46)
* -rv:                                   Colors.              (line  47)
* -T:                                    Title X.             (line  16)
* -t:                                    Initial Options.     (line  18)
* -u:                                    Initial Options.     (line  97)
* -vb:                                   Misc X.              (line  12)

File: emacs,  Node: Command Index,  Next: Variable Index,  Prev: Option Index,  Up: Top

Command and Function Index
**************************

[index]
* Menu:

* 2C-associate-buffer:                   Two-Column.          (line  35)
* 2C-dissociate:                         Two-Column.          (line  65)
* 2C-merge:                              Two-Column.          (line  60)
* 2C-newline:                            Two-Column.          (line  55)
* 2C-split:                              Two-Column.          (line  22)
* 2C-two-columns:                        Two-Column.          (line  12)
* 5x5:                                   Amusements.          (line  13)
* abbrev-mode:                           Abbrev Concepts.     (line  13)
* abbrev-prefix-mark:                    Expanding Abbrevs.   (line  32)
* abort-recursive-edit:                  Quitting.            (line  66)
* add-change-log-entry-other-window:     Change Log.          (line  13)
* add-global-abbrev:                     Defining Abbrevs.    (line  31)
* add-hook:                              Hooks.               (line  37)
* add-mode-abbrev:                       Defining Abbrevs.    (line  43)
* add-name-to-file:                      Misc File Ops.       (line  56)
* add-untranslated-filesystem:           Text and Binary.     (line  50)
* american-calendar:                     Date Formats.        (line  43)
* append-next-kill:                      Appending Kills.     (line  38)
* append-to-buffer:                      Accumulating Text.   (line   6)
* append-to-file:                        Accumulating Text.   (line   6)
* append-to-register:                    RegText.             (line  28)
* apply-macro-to-region-lines:           Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line 119)
* appt-activate:                         Appointments.        (line  21)
* appt-add:                              Appointments.        (line  52)
* appt-delete:                           Appointments.        (line  52)
* apropos:                               Apropos.             (line  72)
* apropos-command:                       Apropos.             (line  31)
* apropos-documentation:                 Apropos.             (line  81)
* apropos-value:                         Apropos.             (line  84)
* apropos-variable:                      Apropos.             (line  77)
* ask-user-about-lock:                   Interlocking.        (line  18)
* auto-compression-mode:                 Compressed Files.    (line  17)
* auto-fill-mode:                        Auto Fill.           (line  17)
* auto-lower-mode:                       Frame Parameters.    (line  25)
* auto-raise-mode:                       Frame Parameters.    (line  15)
* auto-revert-mode:                      Reverting.           (line  38)
* auto-revert-tail-mode:                 Reverting.           (line  38)
* auto-save-mode:                        Auto Save Control.   (line   6)
* back-to-indentation:                   Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line   6)
* backward-char:                         Moving Point.        (line  15)
* backward-kill-sentence:                Sentences.           (line  33)
* backward-kill-word:                    Words.               (line  50)
* backward-list:                         Moving by Parens.    (line  25)
* backward-page:                         Pages.               (line  29)
* backward-paragraph:                    Paragraphs.          (line   6)
* backward-sentence:                     Sentences.           (line  22)
* backward-sexp:                         Expressions.         (line  37)
* backward-text-line:                    Nroff Mode.          (line  14)
* backward-up-list:                      Moving by Parens.    (line  30)
* backward-word:                         Words.               (line  32)
* balance-windows:                       Change Window.       (line  70)
* beginning-of-buffer:                   Moving Point.        (line  15)
* beginning-of-defun:                    Moving by Defuns.    (line  19)
* binary-overwrite-mode:                 Minor Modes.         (line  92)
* blackbox:                              Amusements.          (line  13)
* blink-cursor-mode:                     Cursor Display.      (line   6)
* bookmark-delete:                       Bookmarks.           (line  70)
* bookmark-insert:                       Bookmarks.           (line  77)
* bookmark-insert-location:              Bookmarks.           (line  73)
* bookmark-jump:                         Bookmarks.           (line  19)
* bookmark-load:                         Bookmarks.           (line  61)
* bookmark-save:                         Bookmarks.           (line  25)
* bookmark-set:                          Bookmarks.           (line  16)
* bookmark-write:                        Bookmarks.           (line  67)
* browse-url <1>:                        Browse-URL.          (line   6)
* browse-url:                            Help Mode.           (line  38)
* browse-url-at-mouse:                   Browse-URL.          (line   6)
* browse-url-at-point:                   Browse-URL.          (line   6)
* bs-show:                               Buffer Menus.        (line   6)
* buffer-menu:                           Several Buffers.     (line  18)
* buffer-menu-other-window:              Several Buffers.     (line  18)
* c-backslash-region:                    Other C Commands.    (line  57)
* c-backward-conditional:                Motion in C.         (line  30)
* c-beginning-of-defun:                  Motion in C.         (line  11)
* c-beginning-of-statement:              Motion in C.         (line  40)
* c-context-line-break:                  Other C Commands.    (line  19)
* c-electric-backspace:                  Program Modes.       (line  31)
* c-end-of-defun:                        Motion in C.         (line  11)
* c-end-of-statement:                    Motion in C.         (line  49)
* c-fill-paragraph:                      Other C Commands.    (line  39)
* c-forward-conditional:                 Motion in C.         (line  35)
* c-hungry-delete-backwards:             Hungry Delete.       (line  14)
* c-hungry-delete-forward:               Hungry Delete.       (line  20)
* c-indent-command <1>:                  C Indent.            (line  18)
* c-indent-command:                      Basic Indent.        (line  16)
* c-indent-defun:                        C Indent.            (line   9)
* c-indent-exp:                          C Indent.            (line  13)
* c-macro-expand:                        Other C Commands.    (line  45)
* c-mark-function:                       Moving by Defuns.    (line  32)
* c-set-style:                           Custom C Indent.     (line  26)
* c-show-syntactic-information:          Other C Commands.    (line  76)
* c-subword-mode:                        Other C Commands.    (line   8)
* c-toggle-auto-newline:                 Electric C.          (line  29)
* c-toggle-electric-state:               Electric C.          (line  19)
* c-toggle-hungry-state:                 Hungry Delete.       (line  30)
* c-up-conditional:                      Motion in C.         (line  20)
* calendar:                              Calendar/Diary.      (line   6)
* calendar-backward-day:                 Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  34)
* calendar-backward-month:               Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  43)
* calendar-backward-week:                Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  34)
* calendar-beginning-of-month:           Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  15)
* calendar-beginning-of-week:            Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  11)
* calendar-beginning-of-year:            Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  21)
* calendar-count-days-region:            Counting Days.       (line  10)
* calendar-cursor-holidays:              Holidays.            (line  33)
* calendar-end-of-month:                 Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  18)
* calendar-end-of-week:                  Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  12)
* calendar-end-of-year:                  Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  24)
* calendar-forward-day:                  Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  34)
* calendar-forward-month:                Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  43)
* calendar-forward-week:                 Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  34)
* calendar-forward-year:                 Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  43)
* calendar-goto-astro-day-number:        From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-goto-chinese-date:            From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-goto-coptic-date:             From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-goto-date:                    Specified Dates.     (line  24)
* calendar-goto-day-of-year:             Specified Dates.     (line  29)
* calendar-goto-ethiopic-date:           From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-goto-french-date:             From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-goto-hebrew-date:             From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-goto-islamic-date:            From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-goto-iso-date:                From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-goto-iso-week <1>:            From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-goto-iso-week:                Specified Dates.     (line  29)
* calendar-goto-julian-date:             From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-goto-mayan-long-count-date:   Mayan Calendar.      (line  42)
* calendar-goto-persian-date:            From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-goto-today:                   Specified Dates.     (line  37)
* calendar-mark-today:                   Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  34)
* calendar-next-calendar-round-date:     Mayan Calendar.      (line  64)
* calendar-next-haab-date:               Mayan Calendar.      (line  56)
* calendar-next-tzolkin-date:            Mayan Calendar.      (line  48)
* calendar-other-month:                  Specified Dates.     (line  34)
* calendar-phases-of-moon:               Lunar Phases.        (line  19)
* calendar-previous-haab-date:           Mayan Calendar.      (line  56)
* calendar-previous-tzolkin-date:        Mayan Calendar.      (line  48)
* calendar-print-astro-day-number:       To Other Calendar.   (line  19)
* calendar-print-chinese-date:           To Other Calendar.   (line  35)
* calendar-print-coptic-date:            To Other Calendar.   (line  39)
* calendar-print-day-of-year:            General Calendar.    (line  21)
* calendar-print-ethiopic-date:          To Other Calendar.   (line  43)
* calendar-print-french-date:            To Other Calendar.   (line  31)
* calendar-print-hebrew-date:            To Other Calendar.   (line  23)
* calendar-print-islamic-date:           To Other Calendar.   (line  27)
* calendar-print-iso-date:               To Other Calendar.   (line  11)
* calendar-print-julian-date:            To Other Calendar.   (line  15)
* calendar-print-mayan-date:             To Other Calendar.   (line  51)
* calendar-print-persian-date:           To Other Calendar.   (line  47)
* calendar-star-date:                    Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  29)
* calendar-sunrise-sunset:               Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  22)
* calendar-unmark:                       Holidays.            (line  40)
* capitalize-word:                       Case.                (line  24)
* cd:                                    File Names.          (line  29)
* center-line:                           Fill Commands.       (line  44)
* change-log-merge:                      Change Log.          (line  44)
* change-log-mode:                       Change Log.          (line  38)
* check-parens:                          Parentheses.         (line   6)
* choose-completion:                     Completion Commands. (line  52)
* clean-buffer-list:                     Kill Buffer.         (line  38)
* clear-rectangle:                       Rectangles.          (line  91)
* clone-indirect-buffer:                 Indirect Buffers.    (line  12)
* clone-indirect-buffer-other-window:    Indirect Buffers.    (line  19)
* codepage-setup:                        MS-DOS and MULE.     (line 116)
* column-number-mode:                    Optional Mode Line.  (line  26)
* comint-bol-or-process-mark:            Shell Mode.          (line  43)
* comint-continue-subjob:                Shell Mode.          (line 131)
* comint-copy-old-input:                 Shell History Copying.
                                                              (line  12)
* comint-delchar-or-maybe-eof:           Shell Mode.          (line  37)
* comint-delete-output:                  Shell Mode.          (line  83)
* comint-dynamic-complete:               Shell Mode.          (line  20)
* comint-dynamic-list-filename...:       Shell Mode.          (line  32)
* comint-dynamic-list-input-ring:        Shell Ring.          (line  26)
* comint-get-next-from-history:          Shell Ring.          (line  20)
* comint-input-previous-argument:        Shell Ring.          (line  23)
* comint-interrupt-subjob:               Shell Mode.          (line  68)
* comint-kill-input:                     Shell Mode.          (line  60)
* comint-magic-space:                    History References.  (line  17)
* comint-next-input:                     Shell Ring.          (line  10)
* comint-next-matching-input:            Shell Ring.          (line  14)
* comint-next-prompt:                    Shell History Copying.
                                                              (line   9)
* comint-previous-input:                 Shell Ring.          (line   6)
* comint-previous-matching-input:        Shell Ring.          (line  14)
* comint-previous-prompt:                Shell History Copying.
                                                              (line   6)
* comint-quit-subjob:                    Shell Mode.          (line  78)
* comint-run:                            Shell Mode.          (line 161)
* comint-send-input:                     Shell Mode.          (line  13)
* comint-show-maximum-output:            Shell Mode.          (line 101)
* comint-show-output:                    Shell Mode.          (line  96)
* comint-stop-subjob:                    Shell Mode.          (line  73)
* comint-strip-ctrl-m:                   Shell Mode.          (line 135)
* comint-truncate-buffer:                Shell Mode.          (line 144)
* comint-write-output:                   Shell Mode.          (line  89)
* comment-dwim:                          Comment Commands.    (line  28)
* comment-indent-new-line:               Multi-Line Comments. (line   6)
* comment-kill:                          Comment Commands.    (line  52)
* comment-region:                        Multi-Line Comments. (line  14)
* comment-set-column:                    Options for Comments.
                                                              (line   6)
* compare-windows:                       Comparing Files.     (line  17)
* compilation-next-error:                Compilation Mode.    (line 101)
* compilation-next-file:                 Compilation Mode.    (line 101)
* compilation-previous-error:            Compilation Mode.    (line 101)
* compilation-previous-file:             Compilation Mode.    (line 101)
* compile:                               Compilation.         (line  22)
* compile (MS-DOS):                      MS-DOS Processes.    (line   6)
* compile-goto-error:                    Compilation Mode.    (line  48)
* complete-symbol:                       Symbol Completion.   (line  25)
* compose-mail:                          Sending Mail.        (line  27)
* compose-mail-other-frame:              Sending Mail.        (line  27)
* compose-mail-other-window:             Sending Mail.        (line  27)
* copy-file:                             Misc File Ops.       (line  63)
* copy-rectangle-to-register:            RegRect.             (line  10)
* copy-to-buffer:                        Accumulating Text.   (line   6)
* copy-to-register:                      RegText.             (line  23)
* count-lines-page:                      Pages.               (line  51)
* count-lines-region:                    Position Info.       (line  49)
* count-text-lines:                      Nroff Mode.          (line  14)
* cpp-highlight-buffer:                  Other C Commands.    (line  67)
* create-fontset-from-fontset-spec:      Defining Fontsets.   (line  94)
* crisp-mode:                            Emulation.           (line  10)
* cua-mode:                              CUA Bindings.        (line   6)
* customize:                             Easy Customization.  (line  13)
* customize-apropos:                     Specific Customization.
                                                              (line  56)
* customize-browse:                      Browsing Custom.     (line   6)
* customize-changed:                     Specific Customization.
                                                              (line  63)
* customize-create-theme:                Custom Themes.       (line  11)
* customize-face:                        Specific Customization.
                                                              (line  46)
* customize-group:                       Specific Customization.
                                                              (line  50)
* customize-option:                      Specific Customization.
                                                              (line  36)
* customize-saved:                       Specific Customization.
                                                              (line  71)
* customize-unsaved:                     Specific Customization.
                                                              (line  71)
* cwarn-mode:                            Other C Commands.    (line  82)
* dabbrev-completion:                    Dynamic Abbrevs.     (line  12)
* dabbrev-expand:                        Dynamic Abbrevs.     (line  12)
* dbx:                                   Starting GUD.        (line  15)
* debug_print:                           Checklist.           (line 222)
* decipher:                              Amusements.          (line  20)
* default-value:                         Locals.              (line  70)
* define-abbrevs:                        Saving Abbrevs.      (line  47)
* define-global-abbrev:                  Defining Abbrevs.    (line  56)
* define-key:                            Local Keymaps.       (line  39)
* define-mail-abbrev:                    Mail Aliases.        (line  74)
* define-mail-alias:                     Mail Aliases.        (line  46)
* define-mode-abbrev:                    Defining Abbrevs.    (line  56)
* delete-backward-char:                  Deletion.            (line   6)
* delete-blank-lines:                    Blank Lines.         (line  16)
* delete-char:                           Deletion.            (line   6)
* delete-file:                           Misc File Ops.       (line  38)
* delete-frame:                          Frame Commands.      (line  18)
* delete-horizontal-space:               Deletion.            (line  70)
* delete-indentation:                    Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  24)
* delete-matching-lines:                 Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  12)
* delete-non-matching-lines:             Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  12)
* delete-other-frames:                   Frame Commands.      (line  27)
* delete-other-windows:                  Change Window.       (line  46)
* delete-rectangle:                      Rectangles.          (line  61)
* delete-selection-mode:                 Mouse Commands.      (line  99)
* delete-trailing-whitespace:            Useless Whitespace.  (line  24)
* delete-whitespace-rectangle:           Rectangles.          (line  97)
* delete-window:                         Change Window.       (line  35)
* describe-bindings:                     Misc Help.           (line  42)
* describe-categories:                   Regexp Backslash.    (line 140)
* describe-character-set:                Charsets.            (line  21)
* describe-coding-system:                Coding Systems.      (line  43)
* describe-copying:                      Help Files.          (line  12)
* describe-distribution:                 Help Files.          (line  12)
* describe-function:                     Name Help.           (line   6)
* describe-gnu-project:                  Help Files.          (line  12)
* describe-input-method:                 Select Input Method. (line  14)
* describe-key:                          Key Help.            (line  12)
* describe-key-briefly:                  Key Help.            (line   6)
* describe-language-environment:         Language Environments.
                                                              (line  74)
* describe-mode:                         Misc Help.           (line  37)
* describe-no-warranty:                  Help Files.          (line  12)
* describe-syntax:                       Syntax.              (line  18)
* describe-text-properties:              Editing Format Info. (line  25)
* describe-variable:                     Name Help.           (line  40)
* desktop-change-dir:                    Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line  20)
* desktop-clear:                         Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line  41)
* desktop-revert:                        Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line  20)
* desktop-save:                          Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line  11)
* diary:                                 Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  71)
* diary-anniversary <1>:                 Sexp Diary Entries.  (line  13)
* diary-anniversary:                     Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  35)
* diary-astro-day-number:                Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 114)
* diary-block:                           Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  47)
* diary-cyclic <1>:                      Sexp Diary Entries.  (line  32)
* diary-cyclic:                          Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  63)
* diary-date:                            Sexp Diary Entries.  (line  51)
* diary-day-of-year:                     Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 114)
* diary-float <1>:                       Sexp Diary Entries.  (line  63)
* diary-float:                           Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  84)
* diary-french-date:                     Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 114)
* diary-hebrew-date:                     Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 114)
* diary-islamic-date:                    Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 114)
* diary-iso-date:                        Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 114)
* diary-julian-date:                     Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 114)
* diary-mail-entries:                    Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  81)
* diary-mayan-date:                      Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 114)
* diary-omer:                            Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 164)
* diary-parasha:                         Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 164)
* diary-phases-of-moon:                  Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 114)
* diary-remind:                          Sexp Diary Entries.  (line  45)
* diary-rosh-hodesh:                     Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 164)
* diary-sabbath-candles:                 Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 164)
* diary-show-all-entries:                Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  60)
* diary-sunrise-sunset:                  Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 114)
* diary-view-entries:                    Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  35)
* diary-yahrzeit:                        Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 164)
* diff:                                  Comparing Files.     (line   6)
* diff-backup:                           Comparing Files.     (line  13)
* diff-mode:                             Diff Mode.           (line   6)
* digit-argument:                        Arguments.           (line  15)
* dired:                                 Dired Enter.         (line   6)
* dired-at-point:                        FFAP.                (line   6)
* dired-backup-diff:                     Comparison in Dired. (line  18)
* dired-change-marks:                    Marks vs Flags.      (line  81)
* dired-clean-directory:                 Flagging Many Files. (line  46)
* dired-compare-directories:             Misc Dired Features. (line  27)
* dired-copy-filename-as-kill:           Misc Dired Features. (line  10)
* dired-create-directory:                Misc Dired Features. (line   6)
* dired-diff:                            Comparison in Dired. (line  11)
* dired-display-file:                    Dired Visiting.      (line  27)
* dired-do-byte-compile:                 Operating on Files.  (line 114)
* dired-do-chgrp:                        Operating on Files.  (line  81)
* dired-do-chmod:                        Operating on Files.  (line  76)
* dired-do-chown:                        Operating on Files.  (line  85)
* dired-do-compress:                     Operating on Files.  (line 106)
* dired-do-copy:                         Operating on Files.  (line  34)
* dired-do-copy-regexp:                  Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  33)
* dired-do-delete:                       Operating on Files.  (line  48)
* dired-do-flagged-delete:               Dired Deletion.      (line  36)
* dired-do-hardlink:                     Operating on Files.  (line  64)
* dired-do-hardlink-regexp:              Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  34)
* dired-do-kill-lines:                   Dired Updating.      (line  43)
* dired-do-load:                         Operating on Files.  (line 110)
* dired-do-print:                        Operating on Files.  (line  99)
* dired-do-query-replace-regexp:         Operating on Files.  (line 127)
* dired-do-redisplay:                    Dired Updating.      (line  34)
* dired-do-rename:                       Operating on Files.  (line  55)
* dired-do-rename-regexp:                Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  32)
* dired-do-search:                       Operating on Files.  (line 119)
* dired-do-shell-command:                Shell Commands in Dired.
                                                              (line   6)
* dired-do-symlink:                      Operating on Files.  (line  70)
* dired-do-symlink-regexp:               Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  35)
* dired-do-touch:                        Operating on Files.  (line  94)
* dired-downcase:                        Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  27)
* dired-find-file:                       Dired Visiting.      (line  12)
* dired-find-file-other-window:          Dired Visiting.      (line  21)
* dired-flag-auto-save-files:            Flagging Many Files. (line  38)
* dired-flag-backup-files:               Flagging Many Files. (line  42)
* dired-flag-file-deletion:              Dired Deletion.      (line  22)
* dired-flag-files-regexp:               Flagging Many Files. (line  59)
* dired-flag-garbage-files:              Flagging Many Files. (line  32)
* dired-goto-file:                       Dired Navigation.    (line  16)
* dired-hide-all:                        Hiding Subdirectories.
                                                              (line  15)
* dired-hide-subdir:                     Hiding Subdirectories.
                                                              (line  10)
* dired-mark:                            Marks vs Flags.      (line  17)
* dired-mark-directories:                Marks vs Flags.      (line  30)
* dired-mark-executables:                Marks vs Flags.      (line  22)
* dired-mark-files-containing-regexp:    Marks vs Flags.      (line 112)
* dired-mark-files-regexp:               Marks vs Flags.      (line 103)
* dired-mark-subdir-files:               Marks vs Flags.      (line  35)
* dired-mark-symlinks:                   Marks vs Flags.      (line  26)
* dired-maybe-insert-subdir:             Subdirectories in Dired.
                                                              (line  18)
* dired-mouse-find-file-other-window:    Dired Visiting.      (line  33)
* dired-next-dirline:                    Subdirectory Motion. (line  35)
* dired-next-marked-file:                Marks vs Flags.      (line  67)
* dired-next-subdir:                     Subdirectory Motion. (line  15)
* dired-other-frame:                     Dired Enter.         (line  25)
* dired-other-window:                    Dired Enter.         (line  25)
* dired-prev-dirline:                    Subdirectory Motion. (line  30)
* dired-prev-marked-file:                Marks vs Flags.      (line  72)
* dired-prev-subdir:                     Subdirectory Motion. (line  19)
* dired-sort-toggle-or-edit:             Dired Updating.      (line  59)
* dired-toggle-marks:                    Marks vs Flags.      (line  76)
* dired-tree-down:                       Subdirectory Motion. (line  26)
* dired-tree-up:                         Subdirectory Motion. (line  23)
* dired-undo:                            Marks vs Flags.      (line 120)
* dired-unmark:                          Marks vs Flags.      (line  40)
* dired-unmark-all-files:                Marks vs Flags.      (line  54)
* dired-unmark-all-marks:                Marks vs Flags.      (line  49)
* dired-unmark-backward:                 Marks vs Flags.      (line  44)
* dired-up-directory:                    Dired Visiting.      (line  45)
* dired-upcase:                          Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  21)
* dired-view-file:                       Dired Visiting.      (line  38)
* dirs:                                  Directory Tracking.  (line  20)
* dirtrack-mode:                         Directory Tracking.  (line  25)
* disable-command:                       Disabling.           (line  33)
* disable-theme:                         Custom Themes.       (line  47)
* display-local-help:                    Help Echo.           (line  15)
* display-time:                          Optional Mode Line.  (line  50)
* dissociated-press:                     Dissociated Press.   (line   6)
* do-applescript:                        Mac Functions.       (line   6)
* do-auto-save:                          Auto Save Control.   (line  37)
* doctex-mode:                           TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* doctor:                                Total Frustration.   (line  13)
* down-list:                             Moving by Parens.    (line  37)
* downcase-region:                       Case.                (line  47)
* downcase-word:                         Case.                (line  24)
* dunnet:                                Amusements.          (line  23)
* edit-abbrevs:                          Editing Abbrevs.     (line  42)
* edit-kbd-macro:                        Edit Keyboard Macro. (line  22)
* edit-picture:                          Picture Mode.        (line   6)
* edit-tab-stops:                        Tab Stops.           (line  10)
* edit-tab-stops-note-changes:           Tab Stops.           (line  10)
* edt-emulation-off:                     Emulation.           (line  18)
* edt-emulation-on:                      Emulation.           (line  18)
* eldoc-mode:                            Lisp Doc.            (line  16)
* electric-nroff-mode:                   Nroff Mode.          (line  25)
* emacs-lisp-mode:                       Lisp Eval.           (line   6)
* emacs-version:                         Understanding Bug Reporting.
                                                              (line   6)
* emerge-auto-advance-mode:              Submodes of Emerge.  (line  31)
* emerge-buffers:                        Overview of Emerge.  (line  15)
* emerge-buffers-with-ancestor:          Overview of Emerge.  (line  18)
* emerge-files:                          Overview of Emerge.  (line   9)
* emerge-files-with-ancestor:            Overview of Emerge.  (line  12)
* emerge-skip-prefers-mode:              Submodes of Emerge.  (line  31)
* enable-command:                        Disabling.           (line  33)
* enable-theme:                          Custom Themes.       (line  47)
* end-of-buffer:                         Moving Point.        (line  15)
* end-of-defun:                          Moving by Defuns.    (line  19)
* enlarge-window:                        Change Window.       (line  51)
* enlarge-window-horizontally:           Change Window.       (line  51)
* enriched-mode:                         Requesting Formatted Text.
                                                              (line  11)
* european-calendar:                     Date Formats.        (line  43)
* eval-buffer:                           Lisp Eval.           (line  73)
* eval-defun:                            Lisp Eval.           (line  44)
* eval-expression:                       Lisp Eval.           (line  38)
* eval-last-sexp:                        Lisp Eval.           (line  58)
* eval-region:                           Lisp Eval.           (line  73)
* exchange-point-and-mark:               Setting Mark.        (line  48)
* execute-extended-command:              M-x.                 (line  57)
* exit-calendar:                         General Calendar.    (line  36)
* exit-recursive-edit:                   Recursive Edit.      (line  12)
* expand-abbrev:                         Expanding Abbrevs.   (line  26)
* expand-mail-aliases:                   Mail Aliases.        (line  62)
* expand-region-abbrevs:                 Expanding Abbrevs.   (line  59)
* f90-beginning-of-block:                Fortran Motion.      (line  41)
* f90-end-of-block:                      Fortran Motion.      (line  33)
* f90-mode:                              Fortran.             (line  19)
* f90-next-block:                        Fortran Motion.      (line  21)
* f90-next-statement:                    Fortran Motion.      (line  11)
* f90-previous-block:                    Fortran Motion.      (line  28)
* f90-previous-statement:                Fortran Motion.      (line  15)
* facemenu-remove-all:                   Editing Format Info. (line  21)
* facemenu-remove-face-props:            Editing Format Info. (line  17)
* facemenu-set-background:               Format Colors.       (line  27)
* facemenu-set-bold:                     Format Faces.        (line  18)
* facemenu-set-bold-italic:              Format Faces.        (line  26)
* facemenu-set-default:                  Format Faces.        (line  15)
* facemenu-set-face:                     Format Faces.        (line  34)
* facemenu-set-foreground:               Format Colors.       (line  27)
* facemenu-set-italic:                   Format Faces.        (line  22)
* facemenu-set-underline:                Format Faces.        (line  30)
* fancy-diary-display:                   Fancy Diary Display. (line  11)
* ff-find-related-file:                  Other C Commands.    (line 104)
* ffap:                                  FFAP.                (line   6)
* ffap-menu:                             FFAP.                (line   6)
* ffap-mode:                             FFAP.                (line  18)
* ffap-next:                             FFAP.                (line   6)
* file-cache-add-directory:              File Name Cache.     (line  17)
* file-cache-minibuffer-complete:        File Name Cache.     (line   6)
* file-name-shadow-mode:                 Minibuffer File.     (line  28)
* filesets-add-buffer:                   Filesets.            (line  13)
* filesets-init:                         Filesets.            (line   6)
* filesets-remove-buffer:                Filesets.            (line  13)
* fill-individual-paragraphs:            Fill Prefix.         (line  63)
* fill-nonuniform-paragraphs:            Fill Prefix.         (line  70)
* fill-paragraph:                        Fill Commands.       (line  21)
* fill-region:                           Fill Commands.       (line  26)
* fill-region-as-paragraph:              Fill Commands.       (line  29)
* find-alternate-file:                   Visiting.            (line 149)
* find-dired:                            Dired and Find.      (line  27)
* find-file:                             Visiting.            (line  55)
* find-file-at-point:                    FFAP.                (line   6)
* find-file-literally:                   Visiting.            (line 171)
* find-file-other-frame:                 Visiting.            (line 166)
* find-file-other-window:                Visiting.            (line 158)
* find-file-read-only:                   Visiting.            (line 145)
* find-file-read-only-other-frame:       Creating Frames.     (line  42)
* find-grep:                             Grep Searching.      (line  51)
* find-grep-dired:                       Dired and Find.      (line  17)
* find-name-dired:                       Dired and Find.      (line   9)
* find-tag:                              Find Tag.            (line  35)
* find-tag-other-frame:                  Find Tag.            (line  56)
* find-tag-other-window:                 Find Tag.            (line  56)
* find-tag-regexp:                       Find Tag.            (line  76)
* finder-by-keyword:                     Library Keywords.    (line   6)
* flush-lines:                           Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  12)
* flyspell-mode:                         Spelling.            (line  44)
* flyspell-prog-mode:                    Spelling.            (line  56)
* foldout-exit-fold:                     Foldout.             (line  39)
* foldout-zoom-subtree:                  Foldout.             (line  16)
* follow-mode:                           Follow Mode.         (line   6)
* font-lock-add-keywords:                Font Lock.           (line  85)
* font-lock-mode:                        Font Lock.           (line  15)
* font-lock-remove-keywords:             Font Lock.           (line  95)
* format-find-file:                      Forcing Enriched Mode.
                                                              (line  28)
* fortran-beginning-of-block:            Fortran Motion.      (line  41)
* fortran-column-ruler:                  Fortran Columns.     (line  23)
* fortran-comment-region:                Fortran Comments.    (line  79)
* fortran-end-of-block:                  Fortran Motion.      (line  33)
* fortran-indent-comment:                Fortran Comments.    (line  27)
* fortran-indent-subprogram:             ForIndent Commands.  (line  20)
* fortran-join-line:                     ForIndent Commands.  (line  29)
* fortran-mode:                          Fortran.             (line  19)
* fortran-next-statement:                Fortran Motion.      (line  11)
* fortran-previous-statement:            Fortran Motion.      (line  15)
* fortran-split-line:                    ForIndent Commands.  (line  24)
* fortran-strip-sequence-nos:            Fortran Columns.     (line  52)
* fortran-window-create:                 Fortran Columns.     (line  47)
* fortran-window-create-momentarily:     Fortran Columns.     (line  42)
* fortune-to-signature:                  Mail Amusements.     (line  24)
* forward-char:                          Moving Point.        (line  15)
* forward-list:                          Moving by Parens.    (line  25)
* forward-page:                          Pages.               (line  29)
* forward-paragraph:                     Paragraphs.          (line   6)
* forward-sentence:                      Sentences.           (line  22)
* forward-sexp:                          Expressions.         (line  37)
* forward-text-line:                     Nroff Mode.          (line  14)
* forward-word:                          Words.               (line  32)
* frame-configuration-to-register:       RegConfig.           (line   6)
* fringe-mode:                           Fringes.             (line  24)
* gdb:                                   Starting GUD.        (line  10)
* gdb-delete-breakpoint:                 Breakpoints Buffer.  (line  19)
* gdb-edit-value:                        Watch Expressions.   (line  28)
* gdb-frames-select:                     Stack Buffer.        (line  10)
* gdb-goto-breakpoint:                   Breakpoints Buffer.  (line  22)
* gdb-many-windows:                      GDB-UI Layout.       (line  31)
* gdb-restore-windows:                   GDB-UI Layout.       (line  27)
* gdb-threads-select:                    Other GDB-UI Buffers.
                                                              (line  46)
* gdb-toggle-breakpoint:                 Breakpoints Buffer.  (line  12)
* gdb-var-delete:                        Watch Expressions.   (line  25)
* getenv:                                Environment.         (line  19)
* glasses-mode:                          Glasses.             (line   6)
* global-auto-revert-mode:               Reverting.           (line  38)
* global-cwarn-mode:                     Other C Commands.    (line  82)
* global-font-lock-mode:                 Font Lock.           (line  20)
* global-hl-line-mode:                   Cursor Display.      (line  34)
* global-set-key:                        Rebinding.           (line  12)
* global-unset-key:                      Rebinding.           (line  12)
* gnus:                                  Gnus.                (line  13)
* gnus-group-exit:                       Summary of Gnus.     (line  18)
* gnus-group-kill-group:                 Summary of Gnus.     (line  40)
* gnus-group-list-all-groups:            Summary of Gnus.     (line  25)
* gnus-group-list-groups:                Summary of Gnus.     (line  29)
* gnus-group-next-group:                 Summary of Gnus.     (line  80)
* gnus-group-next-unread-group:          Summary of Gnus.     (line  72)
* gnus-group-prev-group:                 Summary of Gnus.     (line  80)
* gnus-group-prev-unread-group:          Summary of Gnus.     (line  76)
* gnus-group-read-group:                 Summary of Gnus.     (line  49)
* gnus-group-unsubscribe-current-group:  Summary of Gnus.     (line  33)
* gnus-summary-isearch-article:          Summary of Gnus.     (line  85)
* gnus-summary-next-subject:             Summary of Gnus.     (line  80)
* gnus-summary-next-unread-article:      Summary of Gnus.     (line  72)
* gnus-summary-prev-page:                Summary of Gnus.     (line  70)
* gnus-summary-prev-subject:             Summary of Gnus.     (line  80)
* gnus-summary-prev-unread-article:      Summary of Gnus.     (line  76)
* gnus-summary-search-article-forward:   Summary of Gnus.     (line  90)
* gomoku:                                Amusements.          (line   6)
* goto-address:                          Goto-address.        (line   6)
* goto-char:                             Moving Point.        (line  15)
* goto-line:                             Moving Point.        (line  15)
* grep:                                  Grep Searching.      (line  27)
* grep (MS-DOS):                         MS-DOS Processes.    (line   6)
* grep-find:                             Grep Searching.      (line  51)
* gud-cont:                              Commands of GUD.     (line  63)
* gud-def:                               GUD Customization.   (line  18)
* gud-down:                              Commands of GUD.     (line  86)
* gud-finish:                            Commands of GUD.     (line  98)
* gud-gdb-complete-command:              Commands of GUD.     (line 113)
* gud-jump:                              Commands of GUD.     (line 104)
* gud-next:                              Commands of GUD.     (line  48)
* gud-print:                             Commands of GUD.     (line  57)
* gud-refresh:                           Commands of GUD.     (line  36)
* gud-remove:                            Commands of GUD.     (line  69)
* gud-step:                              Commands of GUD.     (line  42)
* gud-stepi:                             Commands of GUD.     (line  53)
* gud-tbreak:                            Commands of GUD.     (line  75)
* gud-until:                             Commands of GUD.     (line  91)
* gud-up:                                Commands of GUD.     (line  81)
* gud-watch:                             Watch Expressions.   (line   6)
* handwrite:                             PostScript.          (line  54)
* hanoi:                                 Amusements.          (line   6)
* help-command:                          Help.                (line   6)
* help-for-help:                         Help.                (line  13)
* help-next-ref:                         Help Mode.           (line  42)
* help-previous-ref:                     Help Mode.           (line  42)
* help-with-tutorial:                    Basic.               (line   6)
* hi-lock-find-patterns:                 Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  64)
* hi-lock-mode:                          Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  10)
* hi-lock-write-interactive-patterns:    Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  53)
* hide-body:                             Outline Visibility.  (line  80)
* hide-entry:                            Outline Visibility.  (line  58)
* hide-ifdef-mode:                       Other C Commands.    (line  99)
* hide-leaves:                           Outline Visibility.  (line  70)
* hide-other:                            Outline Visibility.  (line  92)
* hide-sublevels:                        Outline Visibility.  (line  88)
* hide-subtree:                          Outline Visibility.  (line  63)
* highlight-changes-mode:                Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line   6)
* highlight-lines-matching-regexp:       Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  49)
* highlight-regexp:                      Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  24)
* hl-line-mode:                          Cursor Display.      (line  34)
* holidays:                              Holidays.            (line  57)
* how-many:                              Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  12)
* hs-hide-all:                           Hideshow.            (line  16)
* hs-hide-block:                         Hideshow.            (line  16)
* hs-hide-level:                         Hideshow.            (line  16)
* hs-minor-mode:                         Hideshow.            (line   6)
* hs-show-all:                           Hideshow.            (line  16)
* hs-show-block:                         Hideshow.            (line  16)
* hs-show-region:                        Hideshow.            (line  16)
* icalendar-export-file, icalendar-export-region: Importing Diary.
                                                              (line  43)
* icalendar-import-buffer:               Importing Diary.     (line  26)
* icalendar-import-file:                 Importing Diary.     (line  33)
* icomplete-mode:                        Completion Options.  (line  49)
* iconify-or-deiconify-frame <1>:        Frame Commands.      (line   9)
* iconify-or-deiconify-frame:            Exiting.             (line  30)
* ielm:                                  Lisp Interaction.    (line  25)
* image-dired-display-thumbs:            Image-Dired.         (line  10)
* image-mode:                            File Conveniences.   (line  20)
* image-toggle-display:                  File Conveniences.   (line  20)
* imenu:                                 Imenu.               (line  11)
* imenu-add-menubar-index:               Imenu.               (line  16)
* include-other-diary-files:             Fancy Diary Display. (line  52)
* increase-left-margin:                  Format Indentation.  (line  15)
* increment-register:                    RegNumbers.          (line  14)
* indent-code-rigidly:                   Multi-line Indent.   (line  47)
* indent-for-tab-command:                Basic Indent.        (line  16)
* indent-line-function:                  Basic Indent.        (line  16)
* indent-pp-sexp:                        Multi-line Indent.   (line  25)
* indent-region:                         Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  37)
* indent-relative:                       Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  50)
* indent-rigidly:                        Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  37)
* info:                                  Misc Help.           (line   6)
* Info-goto-emacs-command-node:          Name Help.           (line  55)
* Info-goto-emacs-key-command-node:      Key Help.            (line  16)
* info-lookup-file:                      Info Lookup.         (line   6)
* info-lookup-symbol <1>:                Info Lookup.         (line   6)
* info-lookup-symbol:                    Misc Help.           (line  22)
* insert-abbrevs:                        Saving Abbrevs.      (line  47)
* insert-anniversary-diary-entry:        Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  29)
* insert-block-diary-entry:              Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  53)
* insert-cyclic-diary-entry:             Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  58)
* insert-diary-entry:                    Adding to Diary.     (line  24)
* insert-file:                           Misc File Ops.       (line  22)
* insert-file-literally:                 Misc File Ops.       (line  26)
* insert-hebrew-diary-entry:             Hebrew/Islamic Entries.
                                                              (line  71)
* insert-islamic-diary-entry:            Hebrew/Islamic Entries.
                                                              (line  71)
* insert-kbd-macro:                      Save Keyboard Macro. (line  46)
* insert-monthly-diary-entry:            Adding to Diary.     (line  29)
* insert-monthly-hebrew-diary-entry:     Hebrew/Islamic Entries.
                                                              (line  71)
* insert-monthly-islamic-diary-entry:    Hebrew/Islamic Entries.
                                                              (line  71)
* insert-register:                       RegText.             (line  23)
* insert-weekly-diary-entry:             Adding to Diary.     (line  29)
* insert-yearly-diary-entry:             Adding to Diary.     (line  29)
* insert-yearly-hebrew-diary-entry:      Hebrew/Islamic Entries.
                                                              (line  71)
* insert-yearly-islamic-diary-entry:     Hebrew/Islamic Entries.
                                                              (line  71)
* inverse-add-global-abbrev:             Defining Abbrevs.    (line  49)
* inverse-add-mode-abbrev:               Defining Abbrevs.    (line  49)
* isearch-backward:                      Repeat Isearch.      (line  39)
* isearch-backward-regexp:               Regexp Search.       (line  12)
* isearch-forward:                       Basic Isearch.       (line   6)
* isearch-forward-regexp:                Regexp Search.       (line  12)
* isearch-toggle-input-method:           Non-ASCII Isearch.   (line  15)
* isearch-toggle-specified-input-method: Non-ASCII Isearch.   (line  15)
* iso-gtex2iso:                          TeX Misc.            (line  11)
* iso-iso2gtex:                          TeX Misc.            (line  11)
* iso-iso2tex:                           TeX Misc.            (line  11)
* iso-tex2iso:                           TeX Misc.            (line  11)
* ispell:                                Spelling.            (line  75)
* ispell-buffer:                         Spelling.            (line  69)
* ispell-complete-word:                  Spelling.            (line 155)
* ispell-kill-ispell:                    Spelling.            (line 164)
* ispell-message:                        Mail Mode Misc.      (line  39)
* ispell-region:                         Spelling.            (line  69)
* ispell-word:                           Spelling.            (line  64)
* iswitchb-mode:                         Iswitchb.            (line   6)
* jdb:                                   Starting GUD.        (line  41)
* jump-to-register:                      RegPos.              (line  20)
* just-one-space:                        Deletion.            (line  70)
* kbd-macro-query:                       Keyboard Macro Query.
                                                              (line  10)
* keep-lines:                            Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  12)
* keyboard-escape-quit:                  Quitting.            (line  74)
* keyboard-quit:                         Quitting.            (line  46)
* kill-all-abbrevs:                      Defining Abbrevs.    (line  65)
* kill-buffer:                           Kill Buffer.         (line  18)
* kill-buffer-and-window:                Change Window.       (line  43)
* kill-compilation:                      Compilation.         (line  69)
* kill-line:                             Killing by Lines.    (line  12)
* kill-local-variable:                   Locals.              (line  51)
* kill-rectangle:                        Rectangles.          (line  61)
* kill-region:                           Other Kill Commands. (line   6)
* kill-ring-save:                        Kill Ring.           (line  28)
* kill-sentence:                         Sentences.           (line  33)
* kill-sexp:                             Expressions.         (line  54)
* kill-some-buffers:                     Kill Buffer.         (line  18)
* kill-whole-line:                       Killing by Lines.    (line  38)
* kill-word:                             Words.               (line  41)
* kmacro-add-counter:                    Keyboard Macro Counter.
                                                              (line  52)
* kmacro-bind-to-key:                    Save Keyboard Macro. (line  28)
* kmacro-cycle-ring-next:                Keyboard Macro Ring. (line  44)
* kmacro-cycle-ring-previous:            Keyboard Macro Ring. (line  44)
* kmacro-edit-lossage:                   Edit Keyboard Macro. (line  27)
* kmacro-edit-macro:                     Edit Keyboard Macro. (line  16)
* kmacro-end-and-call-macro:             Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  35)
* kmacro-end-macro:                      Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  35)
* kmacro-end-or-call-macro-repeat:       Keyboard Macro Ring. (line  34)
* kmacro-insert-counter:                 Keyboard Macro Counter.
                                                              (line  27)
* kmacro-name-last-macro:                Save Keyboard Macro. (line  17)
* kmacro-set-counter:                    Keyboard Macro Counter.
                                                              (line  44)
* kmacro-set-format:                     Keyboard Macro Counter.
                                                              (line  58)
* kmacro-start-macro:                    Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  35)
* kmacro-step-edit-macro:                Keyboard Macro Step-Edit.
                                                              (line   6)
* latex-mode:                            TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* lgrep:                                 Grep Searching.      (line  57)
* life:                                  Amusements.          (line  30)
* line-number-mode:                      Optional Mode Line.  (line  21)
* lisp-complete-symbol:                  Symbol Completion.   (line  36)
* lisp-eval-defun:                       External Lisp.       (line  31)
* lisp-interaction-mode:                 Lisp Interaction.    (line  18)
* lisp-mode:                             External Lisp.       (line  27)
* list-abbrevs:                          Editing Abbrevs.     (line  13)
* list-bookmarks:                        Bookmarks.           (line  22)
* list-buffers:                          List Buffers.        (line   9)
* list-calendar-holidays:                Holidays.            (line  52)
* list-charset-chars:                    Charsets.            (line  21)
* list-coding-systems:                   Coding Systems.      (line  51)
* list-colors-display:                   Colors.              (line   6)
* list-command-history:                  Repetition.          (line  12)
* list-directory:                        Directories.         (line  26)
* list-faces-display:                    Standard Faces.      (line   6)
* list-hebrew-diary-entries:             Hebrew/Islamic Entries.
                                                              (line  13)
* list-holidays:                         Holidays.            (line  69)
* list-input-methods:                    Select Input Method. (line  76)
* list-islamic-diary-entries:            Hebrew/Islamic Entries.
                                                              (line  18)
* list-matching-lines:                   Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  12)
* list-tags:                             List Tags.           (line  12)
* list-yahrzeit-dates:                   From Other Calendar. (line  61)
* lm:                                    Amusements.          (line  26)
* load:                                  Lisp Libraries.      (line  22)
* load-file:                             Lisp Libraries.      (line  16)
* load-library:                          Lisp Libraries.      (line  22)
* load-theme:                            Custom Themes.       (line  47)
* local-set-key:                         Rebinding.           (line  12)
* local-unset-key:                       Rebinding.           (line  12)
* locate:                                Dired and Find.      (line  38)
* locate-with-filter:                    Dired and Find.      (line  38)
* log-edit-insert-changelog:             Log Buffer.          (line  14)
* longlines-auto-wrap:                   Longlines.           (line  19)
* longlines-mode:                        Longlines.           (line  11)
* longlines-show-hard-newlines:          Longlines.           (line  32)
* lpr-buffer:                            Printing.            (line  26)
* lpr-region:                            Printing.            (line  26)
* mac-file-name-to-posix:                Mac Functions.       (line   9)
* mac-get-file-creator:                  Mac Functions.       (line  15)
* mac-get-file-type:                     Mac Functions.       (line  15)
* mac-get-preference:                    Mac Functions.       (line  19)
* mac-set-file-creator:                  Mac Functions.       (line  15)
* mac-set-file-type:                     Mac Functions.       (line  15)
* mail-attach-file:                      Mail Mode Misc.      (line  46)
* mail-bcc:                              Header Editing.      (line  32)
* mail-cc:                               Header Editing.      (line  32)
* mail-complete:                         Header Editing.      (line  39)
* mail-fcc:                              Header Editing.      (line  32)
* mail-fill-yanked-message:              Citing Mail.         (line  41)
* mail-interactive-insert-alias:         Mail Aliases.        (line  81)
* mail-send:                             Mail Sending.        (line  16)
* mail-send-and-exit:                    Mail Sending.        (line  16)
* mail-signature:                        Mail Mode Misc.      (line  24)
* mail-subject:                          Header Editing.      (line  32)
* mail-text:                             Mail Mode Misc.      (line  21)
* mail-to:                               Header Editing.      (line  32)
* mail-yank-original:                    Citing Mail.         (line  20)
* mail-yank-region:                      Citing Mail.         (line  36)
* make-frame-command:                    Creating Frames.     (line  17)
* make-frame-on-display:                 Multiple Displays.   (line  11)
* make-indirect-buffer:                  Indirect Buffers.    (line  10)
* make-local-variable:                   Locals.              (line  22)
* make-symbolic-link:                    Misc File Ops.       (line  66)
* make-variable-buffer-local:            Locals.              (line  27)
* Man-fontify-manpage:                   Man Page.            (line  42)
* manual-entry:                          Man Page.            (line  12)
* mark-calendar-holidays:                Holidays.            (line  40)
* mark-defun:                            Moving by Defuns.    (line  19)
* mark-diary-entries:                    Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  49)
* mark-hebrew-diary-entries:             Hebrew/Islamic Entries.
                                                              (line  13)
* mark-included-diary-files:             Fancy Diary Display. (line  52)
* mark-islamic-diary-entries:            Hebrew/Islamic Entries.
                                                              (line  18)
* mark-page:                             Pages.               (line  35)
* mark-paragraph:                        Paragraphs.          (line  36)
* mark-sexp:                             Expressions.         (line  68)
* mark-whole-buffer:                     Marking Objects.     (line  36)
* mark-word:                             Words.               (line  61)
* menu-bar-enable-clipboard:             Clipboard.           (line   6)
* menu-bar-mode:                         Menu Bars.           (line   6)
* menu-bar-open:                         Menu Bar.            (line  10)
* minibuffer-complete:                   Completion Commands. (line  10)
* minibuffer-complete-word:              Completion Commands. (line  28)
* mode, thumbs:                          File Conveniences.   (line  28)
* mode25:                                MS-DOS Display.      (line  43)
* mode4350:                              MS-DOS Display.      (line  43)
* modify-face:                           Face Customization.  (line  55)
* morse-region:                          Amusements.          (line  32)
* mouse-avoidance-mode:                  Mouse Avoidance.     (line  32)
* mouse-buffer-menu:                     Buffer Menus.        (line  16)
* mouse-choose-completion:               Completion Commands. (line  38)
* mouse-save-then-click:                 Mouse Commands.      (line  18)
* mouse-secondary-save-then-kill:        Secondary Selection. (line  30)
* mouse-set-point:                       Mouse Commands.      (line  18)
* mouse-set-region:                      Mouse Commands.      (line  18)
* mouse-set-secondary:                   Secondary Selection. (line  10)
* mouse-start-secondary:                 Secondary Selection. (line  26)
* mouse-wheel-mode:                      Wheeled Mice.        (line   6)
* mouse-yank-at-click:                   Mouse Commands.      (line  18)
* mouse-yank-secondary:                  Secondary Selection. (line  36)
* move-beginning-of-line:                Moving Point.        (line  15)
* move-end-of-line:                      Moving Point.        (line  15)
* move-to-window-line:                   Moving Point.        (line  15)
* mpuz:                                  Amusements.          (line  13)
* msb-mode:                              Buffer Menus.        (line  16)
* msdos-set-mouse-buttons:               MS-DOS Mouse.        (line  18)
* multi-occur:                           Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  12)
* multi-occur-in-matching-buffers:       Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  12)
* narrow-to-defun:                       Narrowing.           (line  41)
* narrow-to-page:                        Narrowing.           (line  41)
* narrow-to-region:                      Narrowing.           (line  36)
* negative-argument:                     Arguments.           (line  15)
* newline:                               Inserting Text.      (line  91)
* newline-and-indent:                    Basic Indent.        (line  30)
* next-buffer:                           Select Buffer.       (line  34)
* next-completion:                       Completion Commands. (line  58)
* next-error:                            Compilation Mode.    (line  54)
* next-error-follow-minor-mode:          Compilation Mode.    (line 108)
* next-history-element:                  Minibuffer History.  (line  30)
* next-line:                             Moving Point.        (line  15)
* next-matching-history-element:         Minibuffer History.  (line  48)
* normal-erase-is-backspace-mode <1>:    DEL Does Not Delete. (line  39)
* normal-erase-is-backspace-mode:        Deletion.            (line  62)
* normal-mode:                           Choosing Modes.      (line 103)
* not-modified:                          Save Commands.       (line  74)
* nroff-mode:                            Nroff Mode.          (line   6)
* number-to-register:                    RegNumbers.          (line  11)
* occur:                                 Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  12)
* open-dribble-file:                     Checklist.           (line  80)
* open-line:                             Blank Lines.         (line  16)
* open-rectangle:                        Rectangles.          (line  91)
* open-termscript:                       Checklist.           (line  89)
* other-frame:                           Frame Commands.      (line  22)
* other-window:                          Other Window.        (line  20)
* outline-backward-same-level:           Outline Motion.      (line  36)
* outline-forward-same-level:            Outline Motion.      (line  36)
* outline-minor-mode:                    Outline Mode.        (line   6)
* outline-mode:                          Outline Mode.        (line   6)
* outline-next-visible-heading:          Outline Motion.      (line  29)
* outline-previous-visible-heading:      Outline Motion.      (line  29)
* outline-up-heading:                    Outline Motion.      (line  36)
* overwrite-mode:                        Minor Modes.         (line  87)
* paragraph-indent-minor-mode:           Text Mode.           (line  26)
* paragraph-indent-text-mode:            Text Mode.           (line  26)
* partial-completion-mode:               Completion Options.  (line  27)
* pdb:                                   Starting GUD.        (line  44)
* perldb:                                Starting GUD.        (line  37)
* phases-of-moon:                        Lunar Phases.        (line  23)
* picture-backward-clear-column:         Basic Picture.       (line  27)
* picture-backward-column:               Basic Picture.       (line   6)
* picture-clear-column:                  Basic Picture.       (line  27)
* picture-clear-line:                    Basic Picture.       (line  27)
* picture-clear-rectangle:               Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line  27)
* picture-clear-rectangle-to-register:   Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line  27)
* picture-forward-column:                Basic Picture.       (line   6)
* picture-motion:                        Insert in Picture.   (line  48)
* picture-motion-reverse:                Insert in Picture.   (line  48)
* picture-move-down:                     Basic Picture.       (line   6)
* picture-move-up:                       Basic Picture.       (line   6)
* picture-movement-down:                 Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* picture-movement-left:                 Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* picture-movement-ne:                   Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* picture-movement-nw:                   Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* picture-movement-right:                Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* picture-movement-se:                   Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* picture-movement-sw:                   Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* picture-movement-up:                   Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* picture-newline:                       Basic Picture.       (line  20)
* picture-open-line:                     Basic Picture.       (line  37)
* picture-set-tab-stops:                 Tabs in Picture.     (line  25)
* picture-tab:                           Tabs in Picture.     (line  20)
* picture-tab-search:                    Tabs in Picture.     (line   6)
* picture-yank-rectangle:                Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line  38)
* picture-yank-rectangle-from-register:  Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line  38)
* plain-tex-mode:                        TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* point-to-register:                     RegPos.              (line  16)
* pong:                                  Amusements.          (line  35)
* pop-global-mark:                       Global Mark Ring.    (line  17)
* pop-tag-mark:                          Find Tag.            (line  67)
* posix-file-name-to-mac:                Mac Functions.       (line   9)
* pr-interface:                          Printing Package.    (line  15)
* prefer-coding-system:                  Recognize Coding.    (line  31)
* prepend-to-buffer:                     Accumulating Text.   (line   6)
* prepend-to-register:                   RegText.             (line  28)
* previous-buffer:                       Select Buffer.       (line  34)
* previous-completion:                   Completion Commands. (line  63)
* previous-history-element:              Minibuffer History.  (line  30)
* previous-line:                         Moving Point.        (line  15)
* previous-matching-history-element:     Minibuffer History.  (line  48)
* print-buffer:                          Printing.            (line  26)
* print-buffer (MS-DOS):                 Windows Printing.    (line  66)
* print-diary-entries:                   Diary Customizing.   (line  26)
* print-region:                          Printing.            (line  26)
* print-region (MS-DOS):                 Windows Printing.    (line  66)
* ps-print-buffer:                       PostScript.          (line  39)
* ps-print-buffer (MS-DOS):              Windows Printing.    (line  86)
* ps-print-buffer-with-faces:            PostScript.          (line  39)
* ps-print-region:                       PostScript.          (line  39)
* ps-print-region-with-faces:            PostScript.          (line  39)
* ps-spool-buffer:                       PostScript.          (line  50)
* ps-spool-buffer (MS-DOS):              Windows Printing.    (line  86)
* ps-spool-buffer-with-faces:            PostScript.          (line  50)
* ps-spool-region:                       PostScript.          (line  50)
* ps-spool-region-with-faces:            PostScript.          (line  50)
* pwd:                                   File Names.          (line  29)
* quail-set-keyboard-layout:             Select Input Method. (line  64)
* quail-show-key:                        Select Input Method. (line  70)
* query-replace:                         Query Replace.       (line  14)
* query-replace-regexp:                  Query Replace.       (line  24)
* quietly-read-abbrev-file:              Saving Abbrevs.      (line  30)
* quoted-insert:                         Inserting Text.      (line  54)
* re-search-backward:                    Regexp Search.       (line  49)
* re-search-forward:                     Regexp Search.       (line  49)
* read-abbrev-file:                      Saving Abbrevs.      (line  30)
* recenter:                              Scrolling.           (line  46)
* recentf-edit-list:                     File Conveniences.   (line  10)
* recentf-mode:                          File Conveniences.   (line  10)
* recentf-save-list:                     File Conveniences.   (line  10)
* recode-file-name:                      File Name Coding.    (line  35)
* recode-region:                         Text Coding.         (line  71)
* recompile:                             Compilation.         (line  58)
* recover-file:                          Recover.             (line   6)
* recover-session:                       Recover.             (line  22)
* redraw-calendar:                       General Calendar.    (line  27)
* remove-hook:                           Hooks.               (line  69)
* remove-untranslated-filesystem:        Text and Binary.     (line  71)
* rename-buffer:                         Misc Buffer.         (line  35)
* rename-file:                           Misc File Ops.       (line  42)
* rename-uniquely:                       Misc Buffer.         (line  40)
* repeat:                                Repeating.           (line  12)
* repeat-complex-command:                Repetition.          (line  20)
* replace-regexp:                        Regexp Replace.      (line   6)
* replace-string:                        Unconditional Replace.
                                                              (line   6)
* report-emacs-bug:                      Checklist.           (line  27)
* reposition-window:                     Scrolling.           (line 103)
* reveal-mode:                           Outline Visibility.  (line  97)
* revert-buffer:                         Reverting.           (line   6)
* revert-buffer (Dired):                 Dired Updating.      (line  29)
* revert-buffer-with-coding-system:      Text Coding.         (line  67)
* rgrep:                                 Grep Searching.      (line  57)
* rmail:                                 Rmail.               (line   6)
* rmail-add-label:                       Rmail Labels.        (line  34)
* rmail-beginning-of-message:            Rmail Scrolling.     (line  27)
* rmail-bury:                            Rmail Basics.        (line  35)
* rmail-continue:                        Rmail Reply.         (line 104)
* rmail-delete-backward:                 Rmail Deletion.      (line  31)
* rmail-delete-forward:                  Rmail Deletion.      (line  31)
* rmail-edit-current-message:            Rmail Editing.       (line  15)
* rmail-end-of-message:                  Rmail Scrolling.     (line  27)
* rmail-expunge:                         Rmail Deletion.      (line  45)
* rmail-expunge-and-save:                Rmail Basics.        (line  28)
* rmail-first-message:                   Rmail Motion.        (line  74)
* rmail-forward:                         Rmail Reply.         (line  73)
* rmail-get-new-mail:                    Rmail Files.         (line  55)
* rmail-input:                           Rmail Files.         (line  25)
* rmail-kill-label:                      Rmail Labels.        (line  34)
* rmail-last-message:                    Rmail Motion.        (line  74)
* rmail-mail:                            Rmail Reply.         (line  98)
* rmail-mode:                            Rmail.               (line   6)
* rmail-next-labeled-message:            Rmail Labels.        (line  42)
* rmail-next-message:                    Rmail Motion.        (line  47)
* rmail-next-undeleted-message:          Rmail Motion.        (line  47)
* rmail-output:                          Rmail Output.        (line  20)
* rmail-output-body-to-file:             Rmail Output.        (line  37)
* rmail-output-to-rmail-file:            Rmail Output.        (line  20)
* rmail-previous-labeled-message:        Rmail Labels.        (line  42)
* rmail-previous-message:                Rmail Motion.        (line  47)
* rmail-previous-undeleted-message:      Rmail Motion.        (line  47)
* rmail-quit:                            Rmail Basics.        (line  35)
* rmail-redecode-body:                   Rmail Coding.        (line  24)
* rmail-reply:                           Rmail Reply.         (line  33)
* rmail-resend:                          Rmail Reply.         (line  91)
* rmail-retry-failure:                   Rmail Reply.         (line  62)
* rmail-search:                          Rmail Motion.        (line  60)
* rmail-show-message:                    Rmail Motion.        (line  74)
* rmail-sort-by-author:                  Rmail Sorting.       (line  12)
* rmail-sort-by-correspondent:           Rmail Sorting.       (line  18)
* rmail-sort-by-date:                    Rmail Sorting.       (line   6)
* rmail-sort-by-keywords:                Rmail Sorting.       (line  25)
* rmail-sort-by-lines:                   Rmail Sorting.       (line  22)
* rmail-sort-by-recipient:               Rmail Sorting.       (line  15)
* rmail-sort-by-subject:                 Rmail Sorting.       (line   9)
* rmail-summary:                         Rmail Make Summary.  (line  32)
* rmail-summary-by-labels:               Rmail Make Summary.  (line  37)
* rmail-summary-by-recipients:           Rmail Make Summary.  (line  41)
* rmail-summary-by-regexp:               Rmail Make Summary.  (line  50)
* rmail-summary-by-topic:                Rmail Make Summary.  (line  46)
* rmail-summary-quit:                    Rmail Summary Edit.  (line  69)
* rmail-summary-wipe:                    Rmail Summary Edit.  (line  69)
* rmail-toggle-header:                   Rmail Display.       (line  23)
* rmail-undelete-previous-message:       Rmail Deletion.      (line  45)
* rot13-other-window:                    Rmail Rot13.         (line  12)
* run-lisp:                              External Lisp.       (line  12)
* save-buffer:                           Save Commands.       (line  26)
* save-buffers-kill-emacs:               Exiting.             (line  53)
* save-some-buffers:                     Save Commands.       (line  39)
* scroll-all-mode:                       Emulation.           (line  10)
* scroll-bar-mode:                       Scroll Bars.         (line  27)
* scroll-calendar-left:                  Scroll Calendar.     (line  28)
* scroll-calendar-left-three-months:     Scroll Calendar.     (line  34)
* scroll-calendar-right:                 Scroll Calendar.     (line  28)
* scroll-calendar-right-three-months:    Scroll Calendar.     (line  34)
* scroll-down:                           Scrolling.           (line  52)
* scroll-left:                           Horizontal Scrolling.
                                                              (line  21)
* scroll-other-window:                   Other Window.        (line  34)
* scroll-right:                          Horizontal Scrolling.
                                                              (line  21)
* scroll-up:                             Scrolling.           (line  52)
* sdb:                                   Starting GUD.        (line  25)
* search-backward:                       Nonincremental Search.
                                                              (line  28)
* search-forward:                        Nonincremental Search.
                                                              (line  28)
* select-frame-by-name:                  Non-Window Terminals.
                                                              (line  19)
* self-insert:                           Inserting Text.      (line  91)
* send-invisible:                        Shell Mode.          (line 119)
* server-edit:                           Emacs Server.        (line  31)
* server-start:                          Emacs Server.        (line  19)
* set-buffer-file-coding-system:         Text Coding.         (line  23)
* set-buffer-process-coding-system:      Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  32)
* set-face-background:                   Faces.               (line  38)
* set-face-foreground:                   Faces.               (line  38)
* set-file-name-coding-system:           File Name Coding.    (line  13)
* set-fill-column:                       Fill Commands.       (line  49)
* set-fill-prefix:                       Fill Prefix.         (line  27)
* set-frame-name:                        Non-Window Terminals.
                                                              (line  19)
* set-fringe-style:                      Fringes.             (line  24)
* set-goal-column:                       Moving Point.        (line  93)
* set-input-method:                      Select Input Method. (line  22)
* set-justification-center:              Format Justification.
                                                              (line  51)
* set-justification-full:                Format Justification.
                                                              (line  48)
* set-justification-left:                Format Justification.
                                                              (line  44)
* set-justification-none:                Format Justification.
                                                              (line  55)
* set-justification-right:               Format Justification.
                                                              (line  45)
* set-keyboard-coding-system:            Terminal Coding.     (line  27)
* set-language-environment:              Language Environments.
                                                              (line  20)
* set-left-margin:                       Format Indentation.  (line  52)
* set-locale-environment:                Language Environments.
                                                              (line  45)
* set-mark-command:                      Setting Mark.        (line  31)
* set-next-selection-coding-system:      Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  24)
* set-right-margin:                      Format Indentation.  (line  52)
* set-rmail-inbox-list:                  Rmail Files.         (line  45)
* set-selection-coding-system:           Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  24)
* set-selective-display:                 Selective Display.   (line   6)
* set-terminal-coding-system:            Terminal Coding.     (line  12)
* set-variable:                          Examining.           (line  41)
* set-visited-file-name:                 Save Commands.       (line  90)
* setenv:                                Environment.         (line  19)
* setq-default:                          Locals.              (line  57)
* sgml-attributes:                       HTML Mode.           (line  27)
* sgml-close-tag:                        HTML Mode.           (line  52)
* sgml-delete-tag:                       HTML Mode.           (line  42)
* sgml-name-8bit-mode:                   HTML Mode.           (line  57)
* sgml-name-char:                        HTML Mode.           (line  12)
* sgml-skip-tag-backward:                HTML Mode.           (line  36)
* sgml-skip-tag-forward:                 HTML Mode.           (line  31)
* sgml-tag:                              HTML Mode.           (line  16)
* sgml-tag-help:                         HTML Mode.           (line  48)
* sgml-tags-invisible:                   HTML Mode.           (line  66)
* sgml-validate:                         HTML Mode.           (line  62)
* shadow-initialize:                     File Shadowing.      (line   6)
* shell:                                 Interactive Shell.   (line   6)
* shell-backward-command:                Shell Mode.          (line 111)
* shell-command:                         Single Shell.        (line   6)
* shell-command-on-region:               Single Shell.        (line  30)
* shell-forward-command:                 Shell Mode.          (line 105)
* shell-pushd-dextract:                  Shell Options.       (line  47)
* shell-pushd-dunique:                   Shell Options.       (line  47)
* shell-pushd-tohome:                    Shell Options.       (line  47)
* show-all:                              Outline Visibility.  (line  80)
* show-branches:                         Outline Visibility.  (line  70)
* show-children:                         Outline Visibility.  (line  76)
* show-entry:                            Outline Visibility.  (line  58)
* show-paren-mode:                       Matching.            (line  33)
* show-subtree:                          Outline Visibility.  (line  63)
* shrink-window-if-larger-than-buffer:   Change Window.       (line  65)
* simple-diary-display:                  Fancy Diary Display. (line   6)
* size-indication-mode:                  Optional Mode Line.  (line   6)
* slitex-mode:                           TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* smerge-mode:                           Comparing Files.     (line  37)
* snake:                                 Amusements.          (line  46)
* solitaire:                             Amusements.          (line  38)
* sort-columns:                          Sorting.             (line  96)
* sort-diary-entries:                    Fancy Diary Display. (line  35)
* sort-fields:                           Sorting.             (line  22)
* sort-lines:                            Sorting.             (line  22)
* sort-numeric-fields:                   Sorting.             (line  22)
* sort-pages:                            Sorting.             (line  22)
* sort-paragraphs:                       Sorting.             (line  22)
* split-line:                            Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  17)
* split-window-horizontally:             Split Window.        (line  23)
* split-window-vertically:               Split Window.        (line  17)
* spook:                                 Mail Amusements.     (line   6)
* standard-display-8bit:                 Unibyte Mode.        (line  33)
* string-insert-rectangle:               Rectangles.          (line 109)
* string-rectangle:                      Rectangles.          (line 103)
* studlify-region:                       Amusements.          (line  41)
* substitute-in-file-name:               File Names.          (line  83)
* substitute-key-definition:             Init Examples.       (line 125)
* sunrise-sunset:                        Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  22)
* suspend-emacs:                         Exiting.             (line  38)
* switch-to-buffer:                      Select Buffer.       (line  28)
* switch-to-buffer-other-frame:          Select Buffer.       (line  48)
* switch-to-buffer-other-window:         Select Buffer.       (line  40)
* switch-to-completions:                 Completion Commands. (line  44)
* tab-to-tab-stop:                       Tab Stops.           (line   6)
* tabify:                                Just Spaces.         (line  17)
* table-backward-cell:                   Cell Commands.       (line   6)
* table-capture:                         Table Conversion.    (line   6)
* table-delete-row:                      Row Commands.        (line  14)
* table-fixed-width-mode:                Fixed Width Mode.    (line   6)
* table-forward-cell:                    Cell Commands.       (line   6)
* table-generate-source:                 Table Misc.          (line  10)
* table-heighten-cell:                   Cell Commands.       (line  40)
* table-insert:                          Table Creation.      (line   6)
* table-insert-column:                   Column Commands.     (line   6)
* table-insert-row:                      Row Commands.        (line   6)
* table-insert-sequence:                 Table Misc.          (line   6)
* table-justify:                         Cell Justification.  (line  10)
* table-narrow-cell:                     Cell Commands.       (line  47)
* table-query-dimension:                 Measuring Tables.    (line   6)
* table-recognize:                       Table Recognition.   (line   6)
* table-recognize-cell:                  Table Recognition.   (line  30)
* table-recognize-region:                Table Recognition.   (line  20)
* table-recognize-table:                 Table Recognition.   (line  24)
* table-release:                         Table Conversion.    (line  34)
* table-shorten-cell:                    Cell Commands.       (line  41)
* table-span-cell:                       Cell Commands.       (line  13)
* table-split-cell:                      Cell Commands.       (line  18)
* table-split-cell-horizontally:         Cell Commands.       (line  28)
* table-split-cell-vertically:           Cell Commands.       (line  24)
* table-unrecognize:                     Table Recognition.   (line   6)
* table-unrecognize-cell:                Table Recognition.   (line  33)
* table-unrecognize-region:              Table Recognition.   (line  21)
* table-unrecognize-table:               Table Recognition.   (line  27)
* table-widen-cell:                      Cell Commands.       (line  44)
* tags-apropos:                          List Tags.           (line  22)
* tags-loop-continue:                    Tags Search.         (line  31)
* tags-query-replace:                    Tags Search.         (line  36)
* tags-search:                           Tags Search.         (line  25)
* term:                                  Terminal emulator.   (line   6)
* term-char-mode:                        Term Mode.           (line  13)
* term-line-mode:                        Term Mode.           (line  16)
* term-pager-toggle:                     Paging in Term.      (line   9)
* tetris:                                Amusements.          (line  46)
* tex-bibtex-file:                       TeX Print.           (line 138)
* tex-buffer:                            TeX Print.           (line  46)
* tex-close-latex-block:                 LaTeX Editing.       (line  28)
* tex-compile:                           TeX Print.           (line 148)
* tex-file:                              TeX Print.           (line 109)
* tex-insert-braces:                     TeX Editing.         (line  52)
* tex-insert-quote:                      TeX Editing.         (line  28)
* tex-kill-job:                          TeX Print.           (line  77)
* tex-latex-block:                       LaTeX Editing.       (line  17)
* tex-mode:                              TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* tex-print:                             TeX Print.           (line  46)
* tex-recenter-output-buffer:            TeX Print.           (line  77)
* tex-region:                            TeX Print.           (line  87)
* tex-show-print-queue:                  TeX Print.           (line  46)
* tex-terminate-paragraph:               TeX Editing.         (line  59)
* tex-validate-region:                   TeX Editing.         (line  59)
* tex-view:                              TeX Print.           (line  46)
* text-mode:                             Text Mode.           (line   6)
* thumbs-mode:                           File Conveniences.   (line  28)
* time-stamp:                            Time Stamps.         (line  17)
* timeclock-change:                      Time Intervals.      (line   9)
* timeclock-in:                          Time Intervals.      (line   9)
* timeclock-modeline-display:            Time Intervals.      (line  20)
* timeclock-out:                         Time Intervals.      (line   9)
* timeclock-reread-log:                  Time Intervals.      (line  32)
* timeclock-when-to-leave:               Time Intervals.      (line   9)
* timeclock-workday-remaining:           Time Intervals.      (line   9)
* tmm-menubar:                           Menu Bar.            (line  10)
* toggle-debug-on-error:                 Checklist.           (line 162)
* toggle-enable-multibyte-characters:    Enabling Multibyte.  (line  40)
* toggle-gdb-all-registers:              Other GDB-UI Buffers.
                                                              (line  31)
* toggle-input-method:                   Select Input Method. (line  28)
* toggle-read-only:                      Misc Buffer.         (line  25)
* toggle-scroll-bar:                     Scroll Bars.         (line  40)
* toggle-truncate-lines:                 Line Truncation.     (line  14)
* tool-bar-mode:                         Tool Bars.           (line  19)
* tooltip-mode:                          Tooltips.            (line  15)
* top-level:                             Quitting.            (line  84)
* tpu-edt-on:                            Emulation.           (line  28)
* transient-mark-mode:                   Transient Mark.      (line  27)
* transpose-chars:                       Transpose.           (line  18)
* transpose-lines:                       Transpose.           (line  31)
* transpose-sexps:                       Expressions.         (line  58)
* transpose-words:                       Transpose.           (line  31)
* tty-suppress-bold-inverse-default-colors: Display Custom.   (line  50)
* turn-on-font-lock:                     Font Lock.           (line  30)
* undigestify-rmail-message:             Rmail Digest.        (line  15)
* undo:                                  Undo.                (line  20)
* undo-only:                             Undo.                (line  43)
* unexpand-abbrev:                       Expanding Abbrevs.   (line  50)
* unforward-rmail-message:               Rmail Reply.         (line  81)
* unhighlight-regexp:                    Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  37)
* unify-8859-on-decoding-mode:           Coding Systems.      (line 116)
* universal-argument:                    Arguments.           (line  29)
* universal-coding-system-argument:      Text Coding.         (line  36)
* unmorse-region:                        Amusements.          (line  32)
* unrmail:                               Out of Rmail.        (line   6)
* untabify:                              Just Spaces.         (line  17)
* up-list:                               TeX Editing.         (line  52)
* upcase-region:                         Case.                (line  47)
* upcase-word:                           Case.                (line  24)
* vc-annotate:                           Old Versions.        (line  64)
* vc-cancel-version:                     VC Undo.             (line  24)
* vc-create-snapshot:                    Making Snapshots.    (line   9)
* vc-diff:                               Old Versions.        (line  31)
* vc-directory:                          VC Dired Mode.       (line  11)
* vc-dired-mark-locked:                  VC Dired Commands.   (line  25)
* vc-dired-toggle-terse-mode:            VC Dired Commands.   (line  25)
* vc-insert-headers:                     Version Headers.     (line  29)
* vc-merge:                              Merging.             (line  16)
* vc-next-action:                        Basic VC Editing.    (line  12)
* vc-print-log:                          VC Status.           (line   9)
* vc-register:                           Registering.         (line   6)
* vc-rename-file:                        Renaming and VC.     (line   6)
* vc-retrieve-snapshot:                  Making Snapshots.    (line  14)
* vc-revert-buffer:                      VC Undo.             (line  14)
* vc-switch-backend:                     Local Version Control.
                                                              (line  74)
* vc-toggle-read-only:                   Basic VC Editing.    (line  16)
* vc-update-change-log:                  Change Logs and VC.  (line  11)
* vc-version-other-window:               Old Versions.        (line  24)
* vi-mode:                               Emulation.           (line  40)
* view-buffer:                           Misc Buffer.         (line  52)
* view-echo-area-messages:               Misc Help.           (line  33)
* view-emacs-FAQ:                        Help Files.          (line  12)
* view-emacs-news:                       Help Files.          (line  12)
* view-emacs-problems:                   Help Files.          (line  12)
* view-emacs-todo:                       Help Files.          (line  12)
* view-file:                             Misc File Ops.       (line   9)
* view-hello-file:                       International Chars. (line  17)
* view-lossage:                          Misc Help.           (line  28)
* view-register:                         Registers.           (line  12)
* vip-mode:                              Emulation.           (line  53)
* viper-mode:                            Emulation.           (line  32)
* visit-tags-table:                      Select Tags Table.   (line   6)
* w32-shell-execute:                     Windows Processes.   (line  57)
* wdired-change-to-wdired-mode:          Wdired.              (line   6)
* wdired-finish-edit:                    Wdired.              (line  12)
* what-cursor-position:                  Position Info.       (line  53)
* what-line:                             Position Info.       (line  38)
* what-page:                             Position Info.       (line  38)
* where-is:                              Key Help.            (line  25)
* which-function-mode:                   Which Function.      (line   9)
* widen:                                 Narrowing.           (line  46)
* widget-backward:                       Changing a Variable. (line 103)
* widget-complete:                       Changing a Variable. (line  49)
* widget-forward:                        Changing a Variable. (line 103)
* windmove-default-keybindings:          Window Convenience.  (line  14)
* windmove-right:                        Window Convenience.  (line  14)
* window-configuration-to-register:      RegConfig.           (line   6)
* winner-mode:                           Window Convenience.  (line   6)
* woman:                                 Man Page.            (line  46)
* word-search-backward:                  Word Search.         (line  39)
* word-search-forward:                   Word Search.         (line  39)
* wordstar-mode:                         Emulation.           (line  68)
* write-abbrev-file:                     Saving Abbrevs.      (line  24)
* write-file:                            Save Commands.       (line  98)
* write-region:                          Misc File Ops.       (line  31)
* xdb:                                   Starting GUD.        (line  21)
* yank:                                  Kill Ring.           (line  12)
* yank-pop:                              Earlier Kills.       (line   6)
* yank-rectangle:                        Rectangles.          (line  75)
* yow:                                   Amusements.          (line   6)
* zap-to-char:                           Other Kill Commands. (line  34)
* zone:                                  Amusements.          (line  54)

File: emacs,  Node: Variable Index,  Next: Concept Index,  Prev: Command Index,  Up: Top

Variable Index
**************

[index]
* Menu:

* abbrev-all-caps:                       Expanding Abbrevs.   (line  14)
* abbrev-file-name:                      Saving Abbrevs.      (line  30)
* abbrev-mode:                           Abbrev Concepts.     (line  13)
* adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp:       Adaptive Fill.       (line  31)
* adaptive-fill-function:                Adaptive Fill.       (line  52)
* adaptive-fill-mode:                    Adaptive Fill.       (line  46)
* adaptive-fill-regexp:                  Adaptive Fill.       (line  46)
* add-log-always-start-new-record:       Change Log.          (line  28)
* add-log-keep-changes-together:         Change Log.          (line  24)
* all-christian-calendar-holidays:       Holiday Customizing. (line  22)
* all-hebrew-calendar-holidays:          Holiday Customizing. (line  22)
* all-islamic-calendar-holidays:         Holiday Customizing. (line  22)
* ange-ftp-default-user:                 Remote Files.        (line  46)
* ange-ftp-gateway-host:                 Remote Files.        (line  58)
* ange-ftp-generate-anonymous-password:  Remote Files.        (line  50)
* ange-ftp-make-backup-files:            Remote Files.        (line  39)
* ange-ftp-smart-gateway:                Remote Files.        (line  58)
* appt-audible:                          Appointments.        (line   6)
* appt-delete-window-function:           Appointments.        (line  15)
* appt-disp-window-function:             Appointments.        (line  15)
* appt-display-diary:                    Appointments.        (line  45)
* appt-display-duration:                 Appointments.        (line  15)
* appt-display-format:                   Appointments.        (line   6)
* appt-display-mode-line:                Appointments.        (line   6)
* appt-message-warning-time:             Appointments.        (line  34)
* apropos-do-all:                        Apropos.             (line  89)
* apropos-documentation-sort-by-scores:  Apropos.             (line  97)
* apropos-sort-by-scores:                Apropos.             (line  92)
* auto-coding-alist:                     Recognize Coding.    (line  85)
* auto-coding-functions:                 Recognize Coding.    (line  85)
* auto-coding-regexp-alist:              Recognize Coding.    (line  85)
* auto-compression-mode:                 Compressed Files.    (line  17)
* auto-hscroll-mode:                     Horizontal Scrolling.
                                                              (line  52)
* auto-mode-alist:                       Choosing Modes.      (line  15)
* auto-mode-case-fold:                   Choosing Modes.      (line  71)
* auto-revert-check-vc-info:             VC Mode Line.        (line  17)
* auto-revert-interval:                  Reverting.           (line  54)
* auto-save-default:                     Auto Save Control.   (line   6)
* auto-save-file-name-transforms:        Auto Save Files.     (line  27)
* auto-save-interval:                    Auto Save Control.   (line  15)
* auto-save-list-file-prefix:            Recover.             (line  37)
* auto-save-timeout:                     Auto Save Control.   (line  22)
* auto-save-visited-file-name:           Auto Save Files.     (line  41)
* backup-by-copying:                     Backup Copying.      (line  27)
* backup-by-copying-when-linked:         Backup Copying.      (line  27)
* backup-by-copying-when-mismatch:       Backup Copying.      (line  27)
* backup-by-copying-when-privileged-mismatch: Backup Copying. (line  27)
* backup-directory-alist:                Backup Names.        (line  10)
* backup-enable-predicate:               Backup.              (line  25)
* baud-rate:                             Display Custom.      (line  23)
* bdf-directory-list:                    PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  62)
* blink-cursor-alist:                    Cursor Display.      (line   6)
* blink-matching-delay:                  Matching.            (line  17)
* blink-matching-paren:                  Matching.            (line  17)
* blink-matching-paren-distance:         Matching.            (line  17)
* bookmark-save-flag:                    Bookmarks.           (line  47)
* bookmark-search-size:                  Bookmarks.           (line  53)
* browse-url-browser-function:           Browse-URL.          (line  20)
* buffer-file-coding-system:             Output Coding.       (line   6)
* buffer-read-only:                      Misc Buffer.         (line  18)
* buffer-stale-function:                 Supporting additional buffers.
                                                              (line  16)
* c-default-style:                       Custom C Indent.     (line  33)
* c-hungry-delete-key:                   Hungry Delete.       (line  34)
* c-mode-hook:                           Program Modes.       (line  45)
* c-tab-always-indent:                   C Indent.            (line  21)
* cal-html-css-default:                  Writing Calendar Files.
                                                              (line  16)
* calendar-date-display-form:            Date Display Format. (line   6)
* calendar-daylight-savings-ends:        Daylight Saving.     (line  13)
* calendar-daylight-savings-ends-time:   Daylight Saving.     (line  52)
* calendar-daylight-savings-starts:      Daylight Saving.     (line  13)
* calendar-daylight-time-offset:         Daylight Saving.     (line  48)
* calendar-daylight-time-zone-name:      Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  53)
* calendar-holiday-marker:               Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line   6)
* calendar-holidays:                     Holiday Customizing. (line   6)
* calendar-latitude:                     Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  41)
* calendar-load-hook:                    Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  14)
* calendar-location-name:                Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  41)
* calendar-longitude:                    Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  41)
* calendar-move-hook:                    Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  45)
* calendar-standard-time-zone-name:      Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  53)
* calendar-time-display-form:            Time Display Format. (line   6)
* calendar-time-zone:                    Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  53)
* calendar-today-marker:                 Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  36)
* calendar-week-start-day:               Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  33)
* cannot-suspend:                        Exiting.             (line  48)
* case-fold-search:                      Search Case.         (line  23)
* case-replace:                          Replacement and Case.
                                                              (line  12)
* change-log-version-info-enabled:       Change Log.          (line  32)
* change-log-version-number-regexp-list: Change Log.          (line  32)
* change-major-mode-with-file-name:      Choosing Modes.      (line 109)
* christian-holidays:                    Holiday Customizing. (line   6)
* coding:                                Specify Coding.      (line  12)
* colon-double-space:                    Fill Commands.       (line  71)
* comint-completion-addsuffix:           Shell Options.       (line  33)
* comint-completion-autolist:            Shell Options.       (line  33)
* comint-completion-fignore:             Shell Mode.          (line  25)
* comint-completion-recexact:            Shell Options.       (line  33)
* comint-input-autoexpand:               History References.  (line  17)
* comint-input-ignoredups:               Shell Options.       (line  27)
* comint-move-point-for-output:          Shell Options.       (line  16)
* comint-prompt-read-only:               Shell Options.       (line  24)
* comint-prompt-regexp:                  Shell Prompts.       (line   6)
* comint-scroll-show-maximum-output:     Shell Options.       (line  10)
* comint-scroll-to-bottom-on-input:      Shell Options.       (line   6)
* comint-use-prompt-regexp:              Shell Prompts.       (line   6)
* command-history:                       Repetition.          (line  47)
* command-line-args:                     Emacs Invocation.    (line  41)
* comment-column:                        Options for Comments.
                                                              (line   6)
* comment-end:                           Options for Comments.
                                                              (line  31)
* comment-indent-function:               Options for Comments.
                                                              (line  54)
* comment-multi-line:                    Options for Comments.
                                                              (line  44)
* comment-padding:                       Options for Comments.
                                                              (line  38)
* comment-start:                         Options for Comments.
                                                              (line  31)
* comment-start-skip:                    Options for Comments.
                                                              (line  20)
* compare-ignore-case:                   Comparing Files.     (line  31)
* compare-ignore-whitespace:             Comparing Files.     (line  31)
* compilation-environment:               Compilation.         (line  97)
* compilation-error-regexp-alist:        Compilation Mode.    (line  93)
* compilation-scroll-output:             Compilation.         (line  54)
* compilation-skip-threshold:            Compilation Mode.    (line  71)
* compile-command:                       Compilation.         (line  29)
* completion-auto-help:                  Completion Options.  (line  23)
* completion-ignored-extensions:         Completion Options.  (line   6)
* confirm-kill-emacs:                    Exiting.             (line  62)
* crisp-override-meta-x:                 Emulation.           (line  10)
* ctl-arrow:                             Text Display.        (line  24)
* ctl-x-4-map:                           Prefix Keymaps.      (line  35)
* ctl-x-map:                             Prefix Keymaps.      (line  27)
* cua-enable-cua-keys:                   CUA Bindings.        (line   6)
* cua-mode:                              CUA Bindings.        (line   6)
* current-input-method:                  Select Input Method. (line  22)
* current-language-environment:          Language Environments.
                                                              (line  20)
* cursor-in-non-selected-windows:        Cursor Display.      (line  21)
* custom-buffer-done-function:           Changing a Variable. (line 160)
* custom-enabled-themes:                 Custom Themes.       (line  35)
* custom-file:                           Saving Customizations.
                                                              (line  10)
* custom-theme-directory:                Custom Themes.       (line  20)
* dabbrev-abbrev-char-regexp:            Dabbrev Customization.
                                                              (line  35)
* dabbrev-abbrev-skip-leading-regexp:    Dabbrev Customization.
                                                              (line  43)
* dabbrev-case-fold-search:              Dabbrev Customization.
                                                              (line  10)
* dabbrev-case-replace:                  Dabbrev Customization.
                                                              (line  17)
* dabbrev-check-all-buffers:             Dynamic Abbrevs.     (line  31)
* dabbrev-ignored-buffer-regexps:        Dynamic Abbrevs.     (line  34)
* dabbrev-limit:                         Dynamic Abbrevs.     (line  21)
* dbx-mode-hook:                         GUD Customization.   (line   6)
* default-buffer-file-coding-system:     Text Coding.         (line  60)
* default-case-fold-search:              Search Case.         (line  23)
* default-directory:                     File Names.          (line  21)
* default-enable-multibyte-characters:   Enabling Multibyte.  (line  33)
* default-indicate-buffer-boundaries:    Displaying Boundaries.
                                                              (line  30)
* default-indicate-empty-lines:          Useless Whitespace.  (line  29)
* default-input-method:                  Select Input Method. (line  41)
* default-justification:                 Format Justification.
                                                              (line  65)
* default-major-mode:                    Choosing Modes.      (line  96)
* default-tab-width:                     Text Display.        (line  46)
* delete-auto-save-files:                Auto Save Files.     (line  46)
* delete-old-versions:                   Backup Deletion.     (line  21)
* desktop-clear-preserve-buffers-regexp: Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line  41)
* desktop-globals-to-clear:              Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line  41)
* desktop-restore-eager:                 Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line  35)
* desktop-save-mode:                     Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line  11)
* diary-date-forms:                      Diary Customizing.   (line  36)
* diary-display-hook:                    Fancy Diary Display. (line   6)
* diary-entry-marker:                    Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line   6)
* diary-file:                            Format of Diary File.
                                                              (line   6)
* diary-list-include-blanks:             Fancy Diary Display. (line  26)
* diary-mail-days:                       Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  81)
* diary-outlook-formats:                 Importing Diary.     (line   9)
* diff-switches:                         Comparing Files.     (line   6)
* directory-free-space-args:             Directories.         (line  50)
* directory-free-space-program:          Directories.         (line  50)
* dired-chown-program:                   Operating on Files.  (line  90)
* dired-copy-preserve-time:              Operating on Files.  (line  39)
* dired-dwim-target:                     Operating on Files.  (line  25)
* dired-garbage-files-regexp:            Flagging Many Files. (line  32)
* dired-kept-versions:                   Flagging Many Files. (line  46)
* dired-listing-switches:                Dired Enter.         (line   6)
* dired-listing-switches (MS-DOS):       MS-DOS Processes.    (line  44)
* dired-recursive-copies:                Operating on Files.  (line  43)
* dired-recursive-deletes:               Dired Deletion.      (line  47)
* display-buffer-reuse-frames:           Select Buffer.       (line  51)
* display-time-24hr-format:              Optional Mode Line.  (line  58)
* display-time-mail-directory:           Optional Mode Line.  (line  64)
* display-time-mail-face:                Optional Mode Line.  (line  64)
* display-time-mail-file:                Optional Mode Line.  (line  64)
* display-time-use-mail-icon:            Optional Mode Line.  (line  64)
* dnd-open-file-other-window:            Drag and Drop.       (line  13)
* dos-codepage:                          MS-DOS and MULE.     (line  48)
* dos-display-scancodes:                 MS-DOS Mouse.        (line  49)
* dos-hyper-key:                         MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  20)
* dos-keypad-mode:                       MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  31)
* dos-printer:                           MS-DOS Printing.     (line  27)
* dos-ps-printer:                        MS-DOS Printing.     (line  27)
* dos-super-key:                         MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  20)
* dos-unsupported-character-glyph:       MS-DOS and MULE.     (line 109)
* double-click-fuzz:                     Mouse Buttons.       (line  74)
* double-click-time:                     Mouse Buttons.       (line  68)
* echo-keystrokes:                       Display Custom.      (line  17)
* emacs-lisp-mode-hook:                  Program Modes.       (line  45)
* emerge-combine-versions-template:      Combining in Emerge. (line  16)
* emerge-startup-hook:                   Fine Points of Emerge.
                                                              (line  20)
* enable-character-translation:          Coding Systems.      (line 126)
* enable-local-eval:                     Safe File Variables. (line  46)
* enable-local-variables:                Safe File Variables. (line  38)
* enable-multibyte-characters:           Enabling Multibyte.  (line  33)
* enable-recursive-minibuffers:          Minibuffer Edit.     (line  47)
* enriched-translations:                 Requesting Formatted Text.
                                                              (line  27)
* eol-mnemonic-dos:                      Optional Mode Line.  (line  92)
* eol-mnemonic-mac:                      Optional Mode Line.  (line  92)
* eol-mnemonic-undecided:                Optional Mode Line.  (line  92)
* eol-mnemonic-unix:                     Optional Mode Line.  (line  92)
* esc-map:                               Prefix Keymaps.      (line  32)
* european-calendar-style:               Date Formats.        (line  43)
* eval-expression-debug-on-error:        Lisp Eval.           (line  82)
* eval-expression-print-length:          Lisp Eval.           (line  82)
* eval-expression-print-level:           Lisp Eval.           (line  82)
* even-window-heights:                   Select Buffer.       (line  40)
* exit-language-environment-hook:        Language Environments.
                                                              (line  93)
* explicit-shell-file-name:              Interactive Shell.   (line  32)
* ff-related-file-alist:                 Other C Commands.    (line 104)
* file-coding-system-alist:              Recognize Coding.    (line  43)
* file-name-buffer-file-type-alist:      Text and Binary.     (line  81)
* file-name-coding-system:               File Name Coding.    (line   9)
* file-name-handler-alist:               Remote Files.        (line  69)
* fill-column:                           Fill Commands.       (line  49)
* fill-nobreak-predicate:                Fill Commands.       (line  74)
* fill-prefix:                           Fill Prefix.         (line  79)
* find-file-existing-other-name:         File Aliases.        (line  15)
* find-file-hook:                        Visiting.            (line 181)
* find-file-not-found-functions:         Visiting.            (line 181)
* find-file-run-dired:                   Visiting.            (line 118)
* find-file-suppress-same-file-warnings: File Aliases.        (line  15)
* find-file-visit-truename:              File Aliases.        (line  27)
* find-file-wildcards:                   Visiting.            (line 130)
* find-ls-option:                        Dired and Find.      (line  33)
* find-tag-marker-ring-length:           Find Tag.            (line  67)
* focus-follows-mouse:                   Frame Commands.      (line  29)
* foldout-mouse-modifiers:               Foldout.             (line  79)
* font-lock-beginning-of-syntax-function: Font Lock.          (line  63)
* font-lock-maximum-decoration:          Font Lock.           (line  47)
* font-lock-maximum-size:                Font Lock.           (line  58)
* fortran-analyze-depth:                 ForIndent Cont.      (line  17)
* fortran-break-before-delimiters:       Fortran Autofill.    (line  14)
* fortran-check-all-num...:              ForIndent Vars.      (line   6)
* fortran-column-ruler-fixed:            Fortran Columns.     (line  35)
* fortran-column-ruler-tabs:             Fortran Columns.     (line  35)
* fortran-comment-indent-char:           Fortran Comments.    (line  63)
* fortran-comment-indent-style:          Fortran Comments.    (line  46)
* fortran-comment-line-extra-indent:     Fortran Comments.    (line  46)
* fortran-comment-line-start:            Fortran Comments.    (line  11)
* fortran-comment-region:                Fortran Comments.    (line  79)
* fortran-continuation-indent:           ForIndent Vars.      (line   6)
* fortran-continuation-string:           ForIndent Cont.      (line   6)
* fortran-directive-re:                  Fortran Comments.    (line  68)
* fortran-do-indent:                     ForIndent Vars.      (line   6)
* fortran-electric-line-number:          ForIndent Num.       (line  18)
* fortran-if-indent:                     ForIndent Vars.      (line   6)
* fortran-line-number-indent:            ForIndent Num.       (line  10)
* fortran-minimum-statement-indent...:   ForIndent Vars.      (line   6)
* fortran-structure-indent:              ForIndent Vars.      (line   6)
* fortran-tab-mode-default:              ForIndent Cont.      (line  17)
* gdb-delete-out-of-scope:               Watch Expressions.   (line  39)
* gdb-many-windows:                      GDB-UI Layout.       (line   6)
* gdb-mode-hook:                         GUD Customization.   (line   6)
* gdb-show-changed-values:               Watch Expressions.   (line  33)
* gdb-speedbar-auto-raise:               Watch Expressions.   (line  50)
* gdb-use-colon-colon-notation:          Watch Expressions.   (line  45)
* gdb-use-separate-io-buffer:            Other GDB-UI Buffers.
                                                              (line   7)
* general-holidays:                      Holiday Customizing. (line  14)
* global-cwarn-mode:                     Other C Commands.    (line  82)
* global-font-lock-mode:                 Font Lock.           (line  20)
* grep-regexp-alist:                     Compilation Mode.    (line  93)
* gud-gdb-command-name:                  GDB Graphical Interface.
                                                              (line  18)
* gud-tooltip-echo-area:                 Debugger Operation.  (line  26)
* gud-tooltip-mode:                      Debugger Operation.  (line  26)
* gud-xdb-directories:                   Starting GUD.        (line  21)
* hebrew-holidays:                       Holiday Customizing. (line   6)
* help-at-pt-display-when-idle:          Help Echo.           (line  15)
* help-map:                              Prefix Keymaps.      (line  30)
* hi-lock-exclude-modes:                 Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  83)
* hi-lock-file-patterns-policy:          Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  72)
* highlight-nonselected-windows:         Transient Mark.      (line  78)
* history-delete-duplicates:             Minibuffer History.  (line  75)
* history-length:                        Minibuffer History.  (line  70)
* holidays-in-diary-buffer:              Diary Customizing.   (line   6)
* hourglass-delay:                       Display Custom.      (line  35)
* hs-hide-comments-when-hiding-all:      Hideshow.            (line  38)
* hs-isearch-open:                       Hideshow.            (line  38)
* hs-special-modes-alist:                Hideshow.            (line  38)
* hscroll-margin:                        Horizontal Scrolling.
                                                              (line  39)
* hscroll-step:                          Horizontal Scrolling.
                                                              (line  45)
* image-dired-external-viewer:           Image-Dired.         (line  32)
* imenu-auto-rescan:                     Imenu.               (line  25)
* imenu-sort-function:                   Imenu.               (line  31)
* indent-tabs-mode:                      Just Spaces.         (line   6)
* indent-tabs-mode (Fortran mode):       ForIndent Cont.      (line  17)
* indicate-buffer-boundaries:            Displaying Boundaries.
                                                              (line   6)
* indicate-empty-lines:                  Useless Whitespace.  (line  29)
* inferior-lisp-program:                 External Lisp.       (line  12)
* inhibit-eol-conversion:                Recognize Coding.    (line  56)
* inhibit-iso-escape-detection:          Recognize Coding.    (line  66)
* inhibit-splash-screen:                 Initial Options.     (line  87)
* inhibit-startup-buffer-menu:           Action Arguments.    (line  12)
* initial-calendar-window-hook:          Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  18)
* initial-major-mode:                    Entering Emacs.      (line  18)
* input-method-highlight-flag:           Input Methods.       (line  91)
* input-method-verbose-flag:             Input Methods.       (line  91)
* insert-default-directory:              File Names.          (line  43)
* interpreter-mode-alist:                Choosing Modes.      (line  78)
* inverse-video:                         Display Custom.      (line   9)
* isearch-lazy-highlight:                Highlight Isearch.   (line   6)
* isearch-mode-map:                      Special Isearch.     (line  25)
* isearch-resume-in-command-history:     Repetition.          (line  40)
* islamic-holidays:                      Holiday Customizing. (line   6)
* ispell-complete-word-dict:             Spelling.            (line 178)
* ispell-dictionary:                     Spelling.            (line 170)
* jdb-mode-hook:                         GUD Customization.   (line   6)
* kept-new-versions:                     Backup Deletion.     (line  11)
* kept-old-versions:                     Backup Deletion.     (line  11)
* keyboard-coding-system:                Terminal Coding.     (line  27)
* kill-buffer-hook:                      Kill Buffer.         (line  34)
* kill-read-only-ok:                     Killing.             (line  32)
* kill-ring:                             Earlier Kills.       (line  51)
* kill-ring-max:                         Earlier Kills.       (line  48)
* kill-whole-line:                       Killing by Lines.    (line  34)
* kmacro-ring-max:                       Keyboard Macro Ring. (line  56)
* large-file-warning-threshold:          Visiting.            (line  77)
* latex-block-names:                     LaTeX Editing.       (line  17)
* latex-mode-hook:                       TeX Misc.            (line   6)
* latex-run-command:                     TeX Print.           (line  61)
* latin1-display:                        Undisplayable Characters.
                                                              (line  20)
* line-number-display-limit:             Optional Mode Line.  (line  39)
* line-number-display-limit-width:       Optional Mode Line.  (line  44)
* lisp-body-indent:                      Lisp Indent.         (line  22)
* lisp-indent-offset:                    Lisp Indent.         (line  17)
* lisp-interaction-mode-hook:            Program Modes.       (line  45)
* lisp-mode-hook:                        Program Modes.       (line  45)
* list-diary-entries-hook:               Fancy Diary Display. (line  52)
* list-directory-brief-switches:         Directories.         (line  43)
* list-directory-verbose-switches:       Directories.         (line  43)
* load-dangerous-libraries:              Lisp Libraries.      (line  61)
* load-path:                             Lisp Libraries.      (line  45)
* local-holidays:                        Holiday Customizing. (line  18)
* locale-charset-language-names:         Language Environments.
                                                              (line  45)
* locale-coding-system:                  Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  46)
* locale-language-names:                 Language Environments.
                                                              (line  45)
* locale-preferred-coding-systems:       Language Environments.
                                                              (line  62)
* locate-command:                        Dired and Find.      (line  38)
* lpr-add-switches:                      Printing.            (line  38)
* lpr-command (MS-DOS):                  Windows Printing.    (line  78)
* lpr-commands:                          Printing.            (line  38)
* lpr-headers-switches:                  Printing.            (line  38)
* lpr-headers-switches (MS-DOS):         Windows Printing.    (line  66)
* lpr-switches:                          Printing.            (line  26)
* lpr-switches (MS-DOS):                 Windows Printing.    (line  78)
* ls-lisp-dirs-first:                    ls in Lisp.          (line  35)
* ls-lisp-emulation:                     ls in Lisp.          (line  50)
* ls-lisp-format-time-list:              ls in Lisp.          (line  87)
* ls-lisp-ignore-case:                   ls in Lisp.          (line  29)
* ls-lisp-support-shell-wildcards:       ls in Lisp.          (line  82)
* ls-lisp-use-insert-directory-program:  ls in Lisp.          (line  22)
* ls-lisp-use-localized-time-format:     ls in Lisp.          (line 105)
* ls-lisp-verbosity:                     ls in Lisp.          (line  40)
* mac-allow-anti-aliasing:               Mac Font Specs.      (line  80)
* mac-command-modifier:                  Mac Input.           (line   6)
* mac-control-modifier:                  Mac Input.           (line   6)
* mac-emulate-three-button-mouse:        Mac Input.           (line  32)
* mac-function-modifier:                 Mac Input.           (line   6)
* mac-option-modifier:                   Mac Input.           (line   6)
* mac-pass-command-to-system:            Mac Input.           (line  27)
* mac-pass-control-to-system:            Mac Input.           (line  27)
* mac-wheel-button-is-mouse-2:           Mac Input.           (line  39)
* magic-mode-alist:                      Choosing Modes.      (line  36)
* mail-abbrevs:                          Mail Aliases.        (line  74)
* mail-aliases:                          Mail Aliases.        (line  53)
* mail-archive-file-name:                Mail Headers.        (line  50)
* mail-default-directory:                Sending Mail.        (line  51)
* mail-default-headers:                  Mail Headers.        (line 119)
* mail-default-reply-to:                 Mail Headers.        (line  71)
* mail-from-style:                       Mail Headers.        (line 101)
* mail-mode-hook:                        Mail Mode Misc.      (line  53)
* mail-personal-alias-file:              Mail Aliases.        (line  59)
* mail-self-blind:                       Mail Headers.        (line  37)
* mail-setup-hook:                       Mail Mode Misc.      (line  53)
* mail-signature:                        Mail Mode Misc.      (line  24)
* mail-user-agent:                       Mail Methods.        (line  14)
* mail-yank-prefix:                      Citing Mail.         (line  30)
* make-backup-file-name-function:        Backup Names.        (line  10)
* make-backup-files:                     Backup.              (line   6)
* Man-fontify-manpage-flag:              Man Page.            (line  37)
* Man-switches:                          Man Page.            (line  31)
* mark-diary-entries-hook:               Fancy Diary Display. (line  52)
* mark-diary-entries-in-calendar:        Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  49)
* mark-even-if-inactive:                 Transient Mark.      (line  86)
* mark-holidays-in-calendar:             Holidays.            (line  40)
* mark-ring:                             Mark Ring.           (line  43)
* mark-ring-max:                         Mark Ring.           (line  38)
* max-mini-window-height:                Minibuffer Edit.     (line  35)
* menu-bar-mode:                         Menu Bars.           (line   6)
* message-log-max:                       Echo Area.           (line  49)
* midnight-hook:                         Kill Buffer.         (line  47)
* midnight-mode:                         Kill Buffer.         (line  47)
* minibuffer-local-completion-map:       Minibuffer Maps.     (line   6)
* minibuffer-local-filename-completion-map: Minibuffer Maps.  (line   6)
* minibuffer-local-map:                  Minibuffer Maps.     (line   6)
* minibuffer-local-must-match-filename-map: Minibuffer Maps.  (line   6)
* minibuffer-local-must-match-map:       Minibuffer Maps.     (line   6)
* minibuffer-local-ns-map:               Minibuffer Maps.     (line   6)
* minibuffer-prompt-properties:          Standard Faces.      (line 136)
* mode-line-in-non-selected-windows:     Optional Mode Line.  (line  88)
* mode-require-final-newline:            Customize Save.      (line  16)
* mode-specific-map:                     Prefix Keymaps.      (line  37)
* mouse-1-click-follows-link:            Mouse References.    (line  39)
* mouse-1-click-in-non-selected-windows: Mouse References.    (line  28)
* mouse-autoselect-window:               Other Window.        (line  46)
* mouse-avoidance-mode:                  Mouse Avoidance.     (line   6)
* mouse-drag-copy-region:                Mouse Commands.      (line  46)
* mouse-highlight:                       Mouse References.    (line  33)
* mouse-scroll-min-lines:                Mouse Commands.      (line  38)
* mouse-wheel-follow-mouse:              Wheeled Mice.        (line  14)
* mouse-wheel-progressive-speed:         Wheeled Mice.        (line  14)
* mouse-wheel-scroll-amount:             Wheeled Mice.        (line  14)
* mouse-yank-at-point:                   Mouse Commands.      (line  92)
* next-error-highlight:                  Compilation Mode.    (line  54)
* next-line-add-newlines:                Moving Point.        (line 108)
* next-screen-context-lines:             Scrolling.           (line  59)
* no-redraw-on-reenter:                  Display Custom.      (line  55)
* nobreak-char-display:                  Text Display.        (line  37)
* nongregorian-diary-listing-hook:       Hebrew/Islamic Entries.
                                                              (line  13)
* nongregorian-diary-marking-hook:       Hebrew/Islamic Entries.
                                                              (line  13)
* normal-erase-is-backspace:             DEL Does Not Delete. (line  52)
* nroff-mode-hook:                       Nroff Mode.          (line  38)
* number-of-diary-entries:               Diary Customizing.   (line  14)
* open-paren-in-column-0-is-defun-start: Left Margin Paren.   (line  38)
* other-holidays:                        Holiday Customizing. (line  31)
* outline-level:                         Outline Format.      (line  56)
* outline-minor-mode-prefix:             Outline Mode.        (line   6)
* outline-mode-hook:                     Outline Mode.        (line  36)
* outline-regexp:                        Outline Format.      (line  37)
* overflow-newline-into-fringe:          Line Truncation.     (line  30)
* overline-margin:                       Display Custom.      (line  41)
* page-delimiter:                        Pages.               (line  61)
* paragraph-separate:                    Paragraphs.          (line  46)
* paragraph-start:                       Paragraphs.          (line  46)
* partial-completion-mode:               Completion Options.  (line  27)
* PC-disable-includes:                   Completion Options.  (line  44)
* PC-include-file-path:                  Completion Options.  (line  44)
* pdb-mode-hook:                         GUD Customization.   (line   6)
* perldb-mode-hook:                      GUD Customization.   (line   6)
* picture-mode-hook:                     Picture Mode.        (line  40)
* picture-tab-chars:                     Tabs in Picture.     (line   6)
* plain-tex-mode-hook:                   TeX Misc.            (line   6)
* print-diary-entries-hook:              Diary Customizing.   (line  26)
* print-region-function (MS-DOS):        Windows Printing.    (line  78)
* printer-name:                          Printing.            (line  35)
* printer-name, (MS-DOS/MW-Windows):     Windows Printing.    (line  19)
* ps-font-family:                        PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  42)
* ps-font-info-database:                 PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  42)
* ps-font-size:                          PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  42)
* ps-landscape-mode:                     PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  35)
* ps-lpr-command:                        PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line   6)
* ps-lpr-command (MS-DOS):               Windows Printing.    (line  86)
* ps-lpr-switches:                       PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line   6)
* ps-lpr-switches (MS-DOS):              Windows Printing.    (line  86)
* ps-multibyte-buffer:                   PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  48)
* ps-number-of-columns:                  PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  39)
* ps-page-dimensions-database:           PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  29)
* ps-paper-type:                         PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  29)
* ps-print-color-p:                      PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  17)
* ps-print-header:                       PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  14)
* ps-printer-name:                       PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line   6)
* ps-printer-name (MS-DOS):              Windows Printing.    (line  86)
* ps-use-face-background:                PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  24)
* read-quoted-char-radix:                Inserting Text.      (line  83)
* recentf-mode:                          File Conveniences.   (line  10)
* require-final-newline:                 Customize Save.      (line   6)
* resize-mini-windows:                   Minibuffer Edit.     (line  27)
* revert-without-query:                  Reverting.           (line  26)
* rmail-decode-mime-charset:             Recognize Coding.    (line  97)
* rmail-delete-after-output:             Rmail Output.        (line  54)
* rmail-delete-message-hook:             Rmail Deletion.      (line  40)
* rmail-dont-reply-to-names:             Rmail Reply.         (line  42)
* rmail-edit-mode-hook:                  Rmail Editing.       (line  25)
* rmail-file-coding-system:              Recognize Coding.    (line 103)
* rmail-file-name:                       Rmail Basics.        (line   6)
* rmail-highlighted-headers:             Rmail Display.       (line  40)
* rmail-ignored-headers:                 Rmail Display.       (line  14)
* rmail-mail-new-frame:                  Rmail Reply.         (line 108)
* rmail-mode-hook:                       Rmail.               (line   6)
* rmail-movemail-flags:                  Remote Mailboxes.    (line  60)
* rmail-movemail-program:                Movemail.            (line  84)
* rmail-movemail-search-path:            Movemail.            (line  84)
* rmail-nonignored-headers:              Rmail Display.       (line  14)
* rmail-output-file-alist:               Rmail Output.        (line  67)
* rmail-pop-password:                    Remote Mailboxes.    (line  43)
* rmail-pop-password-required:           Remote Mailboxes.    (line  43)
* rmail-preserve-inbox:                  Rmail Inbox.         (line  47)
* rmail-primary-inbox-list:              Rmail Inbox.         (line  15)
* rmail-redisplay-summary:               Rmail Summary Edit.  (line  64)
* rmail-remote-password:                 Remote Mailboxes.    (line  43)
* rmail-remote-password-required:        Remote Mailboxes.    (line  43)
* rmail-retry-ignored-headers:           Rmail Reply.         (line  62)
* rmail-secondary-file-directory:        Rmail Files.         (line  36)
* rmail-secondary-file-regexp:           Rmail Files.         (line  36)
* rmail-summary-line-count-flag:         Rmail Make Summary.  (line  57)
* rmail-summary-window-size:             Rmail Make Summary.  (line  57)
* safe-local-eval-forms:                 Safe File Variables. (line  52)
* safe-local-variable-values:            Safe File Variables. (line  27)
* same-window-buffer-names:              Force Same Window.   (line  12)
* same-window-regexps:                   Force Same Window.   (line  26)
* save-abbrevs:                          Saving Abbrevs.      (line  41)
* scheme-mode-hook:                      Program Modes.       (line  45)
* scroll-all-mode:                       Window Convenience.  (line  25)
* scroll-bar-mode:                       Scroll Bars.         (line  27)
* scroll-bar-width:                      Scroll Bars.         (line  43)
* scroll-conservatively:                 Auto Scrolling.      (line   6)
* scroll-down-aggressively:              Auto Scrolling.      (line  17)
* scroll-margin:                         Auto Scrolling.      (line  35)
* scroll-preserve-screen-position:       Scrolling.           (line  81)
* scroll-up-aggressively:                Auto Scrolling.      (line  17)
* sdb-mode-hook:                         GUD Customization.   (line   6)
* search-slow-speed:                     Slow Isearch.        (line  17)
* search-slow-window-lines:              Slow Isearch.        (line  22)
* search-whitespace-regexp:              Regexp Search.       (line  31)
* selective-display-ellipses:            Selective Display.   (line  28)
* send-mail-function:                    Mail Sending.        (line  39)
* sendmail-coding-system:                Output Coding.       (line  41)
* sentence-end:                          Sentences.           (line  62)
* sentence-end-double-space:             Sentences.           (line  53)
* sentence-end-without-period:           Sentences.           (line  71)
* server-kill-new-buffers:               Emacs Server.        (line  48)
* server-name:                           Emacs Server.        (line  58)
* server-temp-file-regexp:               Emacs Server.        (line  48)
* server-window:                         Emacs Server.        (line  55)
* set-language-environment-hook:         Language Environments.
                                                              (line  83)
* set-mark-command-repeat-pop:           Mark Ring.           (line  15)
* sgml-xml-mode:                         HTML Mode.           (line  69)
* shell-cd-regexp:                       Directory Tracking.  (line   6)
* shell-command-default-error-buffer:    Single Shell.        (line  67)
* shell-command-regexp:                  Shell Mode.          (line 105)
* shell-completion-execonly:             Shell Options.       (line  43)
* shell-completion-fignore:              Shell Mode.          (line  25)
* shell-file-name:                       Single Shell.        (line  43)
* shell-input-ring-file-name:            Shell Ring.          (line  76)
* shell-popd-regexp:                     Directory Tracking.  (line   6)
* shell-prompt-pattern:                  Shell Prompts.       (line   6)
* shell-pushd-regexp:                    Directory Tracking.  (line   6)
* show-trailing-whitespace:              Useless Whitespace.  (line   6)
* slitex-mode-hook:                      TeX Misc.            (line   6)
* slitex-run-command:                    TeX Print.           (line  61)
* small-temporary-file-directory:        Backup.              (line  25)
* sort-fold-case:                        Sorting.             (line 115)
* sort-numeric-base:                     Sorting.             (line  22)
* special-display-buffer-names:          Special Buffer Frames.
                                                              (line   6)
* special-display-frame-alist:           Special Buffer Frames.
                                                              (line  31)
* special-display-regexps:               Special Buffer Frames.
                                                              (line  25)
* split-window-keep-point:               Split Window.        (line  48)
* standard-fontset-spec:                 Defining Fontsets.   (line   6)
* standard-indent:                       Format Indentation.  (line  47)
* suggest-key-bindings:                  M-x.                 (line  45)
* tab-stop-list:                         Tab Stops.           (line  10)
* tab-width:                             Text Display.        (line  46)
* table-cell-horizontal-char:            Table Definition.    (line  29)
* table-cell-intersection-char:          Table Definition.    (line  33)
* table-cell-vertical-char:              Table Definition.    (line  25)
* table-detect-cell-alignment:           Cell Justification.  (line  24)
* tags-apropos-additional-actions:       List Tags.           (line  28)
* tags-apropos-verbose:                  List Tags.           (line  22)
* tags-case-fold-search:                 Tags Search.         (line  43)
* tags-file-name:                        Select Tags Table.   (line   6)
* tags-table-list:                       Select Tags Table.   (line  26)
* tags-tag-face:                         List Tags.           (line  28)
* temporary-file-directory:              Backup.              (line  25)
* term-file-prefix:                      Terminal Init.       (line  27)
* term-setup-hook:                       Terminal Init.       (line  32)
* tex-bibtex-command:                    TeX Print.           (line 138)
* tex-default-mode:                      TeX Mode.            (line  16)
* tex-directory:                         TeX Print.           (line  54)
* tex-dvi-print-command:                 TeX Print.           (line  61)
* tex-dvi-view-command:                  TeX Print.           (line  61)
* tex-main-file:                         TeX Print.           (line 128)
* tex-mode-hook:                         TeX Misc.            (line   6)
* tex-run-command:                       TeX Print.           (line  61)
* tex-shell-hook:                        TeX Misc.            (line   6)
* tex-show-queue-command:                TeX Print.           (line  61)
* tex-start-commands:                    TeX Print.           (line 124)
* tex-start-options:                     TeX Print.           (line 121)
* text-mode-hook:                        Text Mode.           (line  43)
* timeclock-ask-before-exiting:          Time Intervals.      (line  25)
* timeclock-file:                        Time Intervals.      (line  32)
* timeclock-modeline-display:            Time Intervals.      (line  20)
* today-invisible-calendar-hook:         Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  42)
* today-visible-calendar-hook:           Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  23)
* tool-bar-mode:                         Tool Bars.           (line  19)
* tooltip-delay:                         Tooltips.            (line  22)
* tooltip-gud-modes:                     Debugger Operation.  (line  26)
* track-eol:                             Moving Point.        (line 103)
* truncate-lines:                        Line Truncation.     (line  14)
* truncate-partial-width-windows:        Split Window.        (line  38)
* undo-limit:                            Undo.                (line  68)
* undo-outer-limit:                      Undo.                (line  68)
* undo-strong-limit:                     Undo.                (line  68)
* unibyte-display-via-language-environment: Unibyte Mode.     (line  19)
* uniquify-buffer-name-style:            Uniquify.            (line  11)
* use-dialog-box:                        Dialog Boxes.        (line   6)
* use-file-dialog:                       Dialog Boxes.        (line  15)
* user-mail-address:                     Init Examples.       (line  28)
* user-mail-address, initialization:     General Variables.   (line  40)
* vc-BACKEND-header:                     Version Headers.     (line  35)
* vc-command-messages:                   General VC Options.  (line  37)
* vc-comment-alist:                      Version Headers.     (line  49)
* vc-consult-headers:                    RCS and SCCS.        (line  21)
* vc-cvs-global-switches:                CVS Options.         (line  58)
* vc-cvs-stay-local <1>:                 CVS Options.         (line  29)
* vc-cvs-stay-local:                     VC Dired Mode.       (line  61)
* vc-default-init-version:               Registering.         (line  30)
* vc-diff-switches:                      Old Versions.        (line  49)
* vc-directory-exclusion-list:           VC Dired Mode.       (line  76)
* vc-dired-recurse:                      VC Dired Mode.       (line  27)
* vc-dired-terse-display:                VC Dired Mode.       (line  18)
* vc-follow-symlinks:                    General VC Options.  (line  17)
* vc-handled-backends:                   Customizing VC.      (line   6)
* vc-initial-comment:                    Registering.         (line  36)
* vc-keep-workfiles:                     General VC Options.  (line  11)
* vc-log-mode-hook:                      Log Buffer.          (line  45)
* vc-make-backup-files <1>:              General VC Options.  (line   6)
* vc-make-backup-files:                  Backup.              (line   6)
* vc-mistrust-permissions:               RCS and SCCS.        (line  26)
* vc-path:                               General VC Options.  (line  42)
* vc-rcs-diff-switches:                  Old Versions.        (line  49)
* vc-static-header-alist:                Version Headers.     (line  56)
* vc-stay-local <1>:                     CVS Options.         (line  29)
* vc-stay-local:                         VC Dired Mode.       (line  61)
* vc-suppress-confirm:                   General VC Options.  (line  31)
* version-control:                       Numbered Backups.    (line   6)
* view-calendar-holidays-initially:      Holidays.            (line  33)
* view-diary-entries-initially:          Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  35)
* visible-bell:                          Display Custom.      (line  12)
* visible-cursor:                        Cursor Display.      (line  14)
* w32-alt-is-meta:                       Windows Keyboard.    (line  22)
* w32-apps-modifier:                     Windows Keyboard.    (line  42)
* w32-capslock-is-shiftlock:             Windows Keyboard.    (line  26)
* w32-enable-caps-lock:                  Windows Keyboard.    (line  33)
* w32-enable-num-lock:                   Windows Keyboard.    (line  37)
* w32-get-true-file-attributes:          Windows Files.       (line  14)
* w32-grab-focus-on-raise:               Windows Misc.        (line  16)
* w32-list-proportional-fonts:           Windows Misc.        (line  20)
* w32-lwindow-modifier:                  Windows Keyboard.    (line  48)
* w32-mouse-button-tolerance:            Windows Mouse.       (line   8)
* w32-pass-alt-to-system:                Windows Keyboard.    (line  59)
* w32-pass-extra-mouse-buttons-to-system: Windows Mouse.      (line  14)
* w32-pass-lwindow-to-system:            Windows Keyboard.    (line  70)
* w32-pass-rwindow-to-system:            Windows Keyboard.    (line  70)
* w32-quote-process-args:                Windows Processes.   (line  51)
* w32-recognize-altgr:                   Windows Keyboard.    (line  78)
* w32-rwindow-modifier:                  Windows Keyboard.    (line  48)
* w32-scroll-lock-modifier:              Windows Keyboard.    (line  48)
* w32-swap-mouse-buttons:                Windows Mouse.       (line  17)
* w32-use-visible-system-caret:          Windows Misc.        (line   8)
* which-func-modes:                      Which Function.      (line   9)
* window-min-height:                     Change Window.       (line  51)
* window-min-width:                      Change Window.       (line  51)
* write-region-inhibit-fsync:            Customize Save.      (line  22)
* x-cut-buffer-max:                      Cut/Paste Other App. (line  14)
* x-gtk-file-dialog-help-text:           Dialog Boxes.        (line  33)
* x-gtk-show-hidden-files:               Dialog Boxes.        (line  21)
* x-gtk-use-old-file-dialog:             Dialog Boxes.        (line  27)
* x-mouse-click-focus-ignore-position:   Mouse Commands.      (line  22)
* x-select-enable-clipboard:             Clipboard.           (line   6)
* x-select-request-type:                 Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  56)
* x-stretch-cursor:                      Cursor Display.      (line  28)
* x-underline-at-descent-line:           Display Custom.      (line  45)
* xdb-mode-hook:                         GUD Customization.   (line   6)
* yank-excluded-properties:              Kill Ring.           (line  21)

File: emacs,  Node: Concept Index,  Next: Acknowledgments,  Prev: Variable Index,  Up: Top

Concept Index
*************

[index]
* Menu:

* $ in file names:                       File Names.          (line  64)
* ( in leftmost column:                  Left Margin Paren.   (line   6)
* *Messages* buffer:                     Echo Area.           (line  42)
* -/--/.-./.../.:                        Amusements.          (line  32)
* .mailrc file:                          Mail Aliases.        (line   6)
* .timelog file:                         Time Intervals.      (line  32)
* // in file name:                       Minibuffer File.     (line  28)
* 8-bit character codes:                 Inserting Text.      (line  76)
* 8-bit display:                         Unibyte Mode.        (line  33)
* 8-bit input:                           Unibyte Mode.        (line  40)
* <BACKSPACE> vs <DEL>:                  DEL Does Not Delete. (line   6)
* <DEL> vs <BACKSPACE>:                  DEL Does Not Delete. (line   6)
* <ESC> replacing <META> key:            User Input.          (line  53)
* ? in display:                          International Chars. (line  17)
* _emacs init file, MS-Windows:          Windows HOME.        (line  33)
* A and B buffers (Emerge):              Overview of Emerge.  (line  21)
* Abbrev mode:                           Abbrev Concepts.     (line  13)
* abbrevs:                               Abbrevs.             (line   6)
* abnormal hook:                         Hooks.               (line  27)
* aborting recursive edit:               Quitting.            (line  66)
* accented characters:                   Unibyte Mode.        (line   6)
* accessible portion:                    Narrowing.           (line   6)
* accumulating scattered text:           Accumulating Text.   (line   6)
* action options (command line):         Emacs Invocation.    (line  41)
* adaptive filling:                      Adaptive Fill.       (line   6)
* Adding to the kill ring in Dired.:     Misc Dired Features. (line  10)
* addpm, MS-Windows installation program: MS-Windows Registry.
                                                              (line   6)
* againformation:                        Dissociated Press.   (line  28)
* aggressive scrolling:                  Auto Scrolling.      (line  17)
* alarm clock:                           Appointments.        (line  52)
* alignment for comments:                Comment Commands.    (line   6)
* Alt key (MS-Windows):                  Windows Keyboard.    (line  22)
* Alt key invokes menu (Windows):        Windows Keyboard.    (line  59)
* ALTERNATE_EDITOR environment variable: Invoking emacsclient.
                                                              (line  37)
* AltGr key (MS-Windows):                Windows Keyboard.    (line  78)
* ange-ftp:                              Remote Files.        (line  46)
* anonymous FTP:                         Remote Files.        (line  50)
* appending kills in the ring:           Appending Kills.     (line   6)
* appointment notification:              Appointments.        (line   6)
* apropos:                               Apropos.             (line  31)
* apropos search results, order by score: Apropos.            (line  92)
* arc:                                   File Archives.       (line  42)
* Arch:                                  Version Systems.     (line  19)
* Archive mode:                          File Archives.       (line  42)
* arguments (command line):              Emacs Invocation.    (line   6)
* arguments to commands:                 Arguments.           (line   6)
* arrow keys:                            Moving Point.        (line   6)
* ASCII:                                 User Input.          (line   6)
* ASCII art:                             Text.                (line  38)
* Asm mode:                              Asm Mode.            (line   6)
* assembler mode:                        Asm Mode.            (line   6)
* astronomical day numbers:              Calendar Systems.    (line  12)
* attached frame (of speedbar):          Speedbar.            (line   6)
* attribute (Rmail):                     Rmail Labels.        (line   6)
* attributes of mode line, changing:     Optional Mode Line.  (line  74)
* Auto Compression mode:                 Compressed Files.    (line   6)
* Auto Fill mode:                        Auto Fill.           (line   6)
* Auto Save mode:                        Auto Save.           (line   6)
* Auto-Lower mode:                       Frame Parameters.    (line   6)
* Auto-Raise mode:                       Frame Parameters.    (line   6)
* Auto-Revert mode:                      Reverting.           (line  38)
* auto-save for remote files:            Auto Save Files.     (line  27)
* autoload:                              Lisp Libraries.      (line  55)
* autoload Lisp libraries:               Init Examples.       (line  92)
* automatic typing:                      Text.                (line  43)
* automatic version backups:             Version Backups.     (line   6)
* autotyping:                            Text.                (line  43)
* available colors:                      Colors.              (line   6)
* avoiding mouse in the way of your typing: Mouse Avoidance.  (line   6)
* AWK mode:                              C Modes.             (line   6)
* b2m:                                   Out of Rmail.        (line  12)
* Babyl format to Inbox format:          Out of Rmail.        (line   6)
* back end (version control):            Version Systems.     (line   6)
* back reference, in regexp:             Regexp Backslash.    (line  54)
* back reference, in regexp replacement: Regexp Replace.      (line  13)
* background color, command-line argument: Colors.            (line  29)
* background mode, on xterm:             General Variables.   (line 146)
* background syntax highlighting:        Font Lock.           (line 100)
* backtrace for bug reports:             Checklist.           (line 213)
* backup file:                           Backup.              (line   6)
* backup file names on MS-DOS:           MS-DOS File Names.   (line  20)
* backup, and user-id:                   Backup Copying.      (line  27)
* backups for remote files:              Remote Files.        (line  39)
* balanced expression:                   Expressions.         (line   6)
* balloon help:                          Help Echo.           (line   6)
* base buffer:                           Indirect Buffers.    (line   6)
* Bash command to use Emacs server:      Emacs Server.        (line  27)
* batch mode:                            Initial Options.     (line  34)
* binary files, on MS-DOS/MS-Windows:    Text and Binary.     (line  81)
* binding:                               Commands.            (line   6)
* binding keyboard macros:               Save Keyboard Macro. (line  28)
* blank lines:                           Blank Lines.         (line  16)
* blank lines in programs:               Multi-Line Comments. (line   6)
* blinking cursor disable, command-line argument: Misc X.     (line  21)
* body lines (Outline mode):             Outline Format.      (line   6)
* bold font:                             Face Customization.  (line   6)
* bookmarks:                             Bookmarks.           (line   6)
* border color, command-line argument:   Colors.              (line  33)
* borders (X Window System):             Borders X.           (line   6)
* boredom:                               Amusements.          (line   6)
* box-drawing characters (MS-DOS):       MS-DOS and MULE.     (line  99)
* brace in column zero and fontification: Font Lock.          (line  63)
* braces, moving across:                 Moving by Parens.    (line   6)
* branch (version control):              Branches.            (line   6)
* Brief emulation:                       Emulation.           (line  10)
* Browse-URL:                            Browse-URL.          (line   6)
* buffer definitions index:              Imenu.               (line   6)
* buffer list, customizable:             Buffer Menus.        (line   6)
* buffer menu <1>:                       Buffer Menus.        (line  16)
* buffer menu:                           Several Buffers.     (line   6)
* buffer size display:                   Optional Mode Line.  (line   6)
* buffer size, maximum:                  Buffers.             (line  38)
* buffers:                               Buffers.             (line   6)
* buggestion:                            Dissociated Press.   (line  45)
* bugs:                                  Bugs.                (line   6)
* building programs:                     Building.            (line   6)
* button down events:                    Mouse Buttons.       (line   6)
* buttons (customization buffer):        Customization Groups.
                                                              (line  35)
* buttons at buffer position:            Editing Format Info. (line  25)
* bypassing init and default.el file:    Initial Options.     (line  70)
* byte code:                             Lisp Libraries.      (line  10)
* byte-compiling several files (in Dired): Operating on Files.
                                                              (line 114)
* C editing:                             Programs.            (line   6)
* C mode:                                C Modes.             (line   6)
* C++ class browser, tags:               Tags.                (line  29)
* C++ mode:                              C Modes.             (line   6)
* C-:                                    User Input.          (line   6)
* cache of file names:                   File Name Cache.     (line   6)
* calendar:                              Calendar/Diary.      (line   6)
* calendar and HTML:                     Writing Calendar Files.
                                                              (line   9)
* calendar and LaTeX:                    Writing Calendar Files.
                                                              (line  38)
* calendar, first day of week:           Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  33)
* call Lisp functions, command-line argument: Action Arguments.
                                                              (line  41)
* candle lighting times:                 Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 164)
* capitalizing words:                    Case.                (line  24)
* case conversion:                       Case.                (line   6)
* case-sensitivity and tags search:      Tags Search.         (line  43)
* categories of characters:              Regexp Backslash.    (line 140)
* cell text justification:               Cell Justification.  (line   6)
* Celtic:                                International.       (line   6)
* centering:                             Fill Commands.       (line  44)
* change buffers:                        Select Buffer.       (line   6)
* change log:                            Change Log.          (line  13)
* Change Log mode:                       Change Log.          (line  38)
* changes, undoing:                      Undo.                (line   6)
* changing file group (in Dired):        Operating on Files.  (line  81)
* changing file owner (in Dired):        Operating on Files.  (line  85)
* changing file permissions (in Dired):  Operating on Files.  (line  76)
* changing file time (in Dired):         Operating on Files.  (line  94)
* character set (keyboard):              User Input.          (line   6)
* character set of character at point:   Position Info.       (line 100)
* characters (in text) <1>:              Text Display.        (line   6)
* characters (in text):                  Text Characters.     (line   6)
* characters in a certain charset:       Charsets.            (line  21)
* characters which belong to a specific language: Regexp Backslash.
                                                              (line 140)
* charsets:                              Charsets.            (line   6)
* checking out files:                    VC Concepts.         (line  14)
* checking spelling:                     Spelling.            (line   6)
* checking syntax:                       Flymake.             (line   6)
* Chinese:                               International.       (line   6)
* Chinese calendar:                      Calendar Systems.    (line  58)
* choosing a major mode:                 Choosing Modes.      (line   6)
* ciphers:                               Amusements.          (line  20)
* citing mail:                           Citing Mail.         (line   6)
* class browser, C++:                    Tags.                (line  29)
* click events:                          Mouse Buttons.       (line   6)
* clipboard:                             Clipboard.           (line   6)
* clipboard support (Mac OS):            Mac International.   (line   6)
* codepage, MS-DOS:                      MS-DOS and MULE.     (line  26)
* coding systems:                        Coding Systems.      (line   6)
* collision:                             Interlocking.        (line  25)
* color customization, in ~/.emacs:      Creating Frames.     (line  46)
* color emulation on black-and-white printers: PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  17)
* color of window, from command line:    Colors.              (line   6)
* Column Number mode:                    Optional Mode Line.  (line  26)
* columns (and rectangles):              Rectangles.          (line   6)
* columns (indentation):                 Indentation.         (line   6)
* columns, splitting:                    Two-Column.          (line   6)
* Comint mode:                           Shell Mode.          (line 152)
* comint-highlight-input face:           Interactive Shell.   (line  20)
* comint-highlight-prompt face:          Interactive Shell.   (line  20)
* command:                               Commands.            (line   6)
* command history:                       Repetition.          (line   6)
* command line arguments:                Emacs Invocation.    (line   6)
* comments:                              Comments.            (line   6)
* comments on customized settings:       Changing a Variable. (line 145)
* compare files (in Dired):              Comparison in Dired. (line   6)
* comparing 3 files (diff3):             Comparing Files.     (line  37)
* comparing files:                       Comparing Files.     (line   6)
* compilation buffer, keeping point at end: Compilation.      (line  54)
* compilation errors:                    Compilation.         (line   6)
* Compilation mode:                      Compilation Mode.    (line   6)
* compilation under MS-DOS:              MS-DOS Processes.    (line   6)
* complete key:                          Keys.                (line  12)
* completion:                            Completion.          (line   6)
* completion (Lisp symbols):             Symbol Completion.   (line  36)
* completion (symbol names):             Symbol Completion.   (line   6)
* compose character:                     Unibyte Mode.        (line  61)
* compressing files (in Dired):          Operating on Files.  (line 106)
* compression:                           Compressed Files.    (line   6)
* Conf mode:                             Program Modes.       (line  20)
* conflicts:                             Merging.             (line  46)
* connecting to remote host:             Remote Host.         (line   6)
* continuation line:                     Continuation Lines.  (line   6)
* Control:                               User Input.          (line   6)
* control characters:                    User Input.          (line   6)
* Control-Meta:                          Expressions.         (line  31)
* converting Rmail file to mailbox format: Out of Rmail.      (line   6)
* converting text to upper or lower case: Case.               (line  24)
* Coptic calendar:                       Calendar Systems.    (line  41)
* copy of every outgoing message:        Mail Headers.        (line  37)
* copying files:                         Misc File Ops.       (line  63)
* copying files (in Dired):              Operating on Files.  (line  34)
* copying text:                          Yanking.             (line   6)
* CORBA IDL mode:                        C Modes.             (line   6)
* correcting spelling:                   Spelling.            (line   6)
* CPerl mode:                            Program Modes.       (line  20)
* crashes:                               Auto Save.           (line   6)
* create a text-based table:             Table Creation.      (line   6)
* creating files:                        Visiting.            (line 101)
* creating frames:                       Creating Frames.     (line   6)
* CRiSP mode:                            Emulation.           (line  10)
* cryptanalysis:                         Amusements.          (line  20)
* CUA key bindings:                      CUA Bindings.        (line   6)
* current buffer:                        Buffers.             (line  13)
* current function name in mode line:    Which Function.      (line   6)
* cursor:                                Point.               (line   6)
* cursor color, command-line argument:   Colors.              (line  37)
* cursor in non-selected windows:        Cursor Display.      (line  21)
* cursor location:                       Position Info.       (line  38)
* cursor location, on MS-DOS:            Text and Binary.     (line  19)
* cursor motion:                         Moving Point.        (line   6)
* cursor shape on MS-DOS:                MS-DOS Display.      (line  19)
* cursor, blinking:                      Cursor Display.      (line   6)
* cursor, locating visually:             Cursor Display.      (line   6)
* custom themes:                         Custom Themes.       (line   6)
* customization:                         Customization.       (line   6)
* customization buffer:                  Easy Customization.  (line  13)
* customization groups:                  Customization Groups.
                                                              (line   6)
* customization of menu face:            Standard Faces.      (line 169)
* customizing faces:                     Face Customization.  (line   6)
* customizing Lisp indentation:          Lisp Indent.         (line   6)
* cut and paste:                         Glossary.            (line 299)
* cut buffer:                            Cut/Paste Other App. (line  14)
* cutting:                               Cut/Paste Other App. (line   6)
* cutting text:                          Killing.             (line  15)
* cvs:                                   VC Dired Mode.       (line   6)
* CVS:                                   Version Systems.     (line   9)
* CVS Dired Mode:                        VC Dired Mode.       (line   6)
* cvs watch feature:                     CVS Options.         (line  21)
* CVSREAD environment variable (CVS):    CVS Options.         (line  11)
* CWarn mode:                            Other C Commands.    (line  82)
* Cyrillic:                              International.       (line   6)
* Czech:                                 International.       (line   6)
* day of year:                           General Calendar.    (line  21)
* daylight saving time:                  Daylight Saving.     (line   6)
* DBX:                                   Debuggers.           (line   6)
* dead character:                        Unibyte Mode.        (line  61)
* debuggers:                             Debuggers.           (line   6)
* debugging Emacs, tricks and techniques: Checklist.          (line 248)
* debugging X problems:                  Table of Resources.  (line 104)
* decoding mail messages (Rmail):        Rmail Coding.        (line   6)
* decoding non-ASCII keyboard input on X: Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  46)
* default argument:                      Minibuffer.          (line  20)
* default-frame-alist:                   Creating Frames.     (line  46)
* default.el file, not loading:          Initial Options.     (line  70)
* default.el, the default init file:     Init File.           (line  16)
* defining keyboard macros:              Keyboard Macros.     (line   6)
* defuns:                                Moving by Defuns.    (line   6)
* delete column in table:                Column Commands.     (line  13)
* delete row in table:                   Row Commands.        (line  14)
* Delete Selection mode:                 Mouse Commands.      (line  99)
* deleting auto-save files:              Flagging Many Files. (line  38)
* deleting blank lines:                  Blank Lines.         (line   6)
* deleting characters and lines:         Erasing.             (line  29)
* deleting files (in Dired):             Dired Deletion.      (line   6)
* deleting some backup files:            Flagging Many Files. (line  32)
* deletion:                              Killing.             (line  15)
* deletion (of files):                   Misc File Ops.       (line  38)
* deletion (Rmail):                      Rmail Deletion.      (line   6)
* Delphi mode:                           Program Modes.       (line  20)
* desktop:                               Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line   6)
* Devanagari:                            International.       (line   6)
* developediment:                        Dissociated Press.   (line  45)
* device for Emacs terminal I/O:         Initial Options.     (line  19)
* dialog boxes:                          Dialog Boxes.        (line   6)
* diary:                                 Diary.               (line   6)
* diary buffer:                          Fancy Diary Display. (line  11)
* diary file:                            Format of Diary File.
                                                              (line   6)
* Diff mode:                             Diff Mode.           (line   6)
* digest message:                        Rmail Digest.        (line   6)
* directional window selection:          Window Convenience.  (line  14)
* directories in buffer names:           Uniquify.            (line   6)
* directory header lines:                Subdirectory Motion. (line  10)
* directory listing:                     Directories.         (line   6)
* directory listing on MS-DOS:           MS-DOS Processes.    (line  44)
* directory tracking:                    Directory Tracking.  (line   6)
* Dired:                                 Dired.               (line   6)
* Dired sorting:                         Dired Updating.      (line  59)
* Dired, and MS-Windows/MS-DOS:          ls in Lisp.          (line   6)
* disable window system:                 Initial Options.     (line  29)
* disabled command:                      Disabling.           (line   6)
* disabling remote files:                Remote Files.        (line  69)
* DISPLAY environment variable:          Display X.           (line   6)
* display for Emacs frame:               Initial Options.     (line  24)
* display name (X Window System):        Display X.           (line   6)
* display of buffer size:                Optional Mode Line.  (line   6)
* display of line number:                Optional Mode Line.  (line  21)
* DNS mode:                              Program Modes.       (line  20)
* DocTeX mode:                           TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* doctor:                                Total Frustration.   (line   6)
* DOS applications, running from Emacs:  Windows Processes.   (line   6)
* DOS codepages:                         MS-DOS and MULE.     (line  26)
* DOS-style end-of-line display:         Recognize Coding.    (line  56)
* DOS-to-Unix conversion of files:       Text and Binary.     (line  38)
* double clicks:                         Mouse Buttons.       (line  28)
* double slash in file name:             Minibuffer File.     (line  28)
* down events:                           Mouse Buttons.       (line   6)
* downcase file names:                   Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  27)
* drag and drop:                         Drag and Drop.       (line   6)
* drag and drop, Dired:                  Misc Dired Features. (line  49)
* drag events:                           Mouse Buttons.       (line   6)
* drastic changes:                       Reverting.           (line   6)
* dribble file:                          Checklist.           (line  80)
* DSSSL mode:                            Program Modes.       (line  20)
* Dutch:                                 International.       (line   6)
* Ebrowse:                               Tags.                (line  29)
* echo area:                             Echo Area.           (line   6)
* Edebug:                                Checklist.           (line 162)
* editable fields (customization buffer): Customization Groups.
                                                              (line  35)
* editing binary files:                  Editing Binary Files.
                                                              (line   6)
* editing in Picture mode:               Basic Picture.       (line   6)
* editing level, recursive:              Recursive Edit.      (line   6)
* EDITOR environment variable:           Emacs Server.        (line   6)
* EDT:                                   Emulation.           (line   6)
* Eldoc mode:                            Lisp Doc.            (line  16)
* Eliza:                                 Total Frustration.   (line   6)
* Emacs as a server:                     Emacs Server.        (line   6)
* EMACS environment variable:            Interactive Shell.   (line  57)
* Emacs icon, a gnu:                     Icons X.             (line  14)
* Emacs initialization file:             Init File.           (line   6)
* Emacs-Lisp mode:                       Lisp Eval.           (line   6)
* emacs.bash:                            Emacs Server.        (line  27)
* EMACS_SERVER_FILE environment variable: Invoking emacsclient.
                                                              (line  54)
* emacsclient:                           Emacs Server.        (line   6)
* emacsclient invocation and options:    Invoking emacsclient.
                                                              (line   6)
* Emerge:                                Emerge.              (line   6)
* emulating other editors:               Emulation.           (line   6)
* emulation of Brief:                    Emulation.           (line  10)
* encoding of characters:                International.       (line   6)
* end-of-line conversion:                Coding Systems.      (line  56)
* end-of-line conversion on MS-DOS/MS-Windows: Text and Binary.
                                                              (line   9)
* end-of-line conversion, mode-line indication: Mode Line.    (line 104)
* enlarge a table cell:                  Cell Commands.       (line  36)
* Enriched mode:                         Formatted Text.      (line   6)
* entering Emacs:                        Entering Emacs.      (line   6)
* environment variables:                 Environment.         (line   6)
* environment variables (Mac OS):        Mac Environment Variables.
                                                              (line   6)
* environment variables for subshells:   Interactive Shell.   (line  32)
* environment variables in file names:   File Names.          (line  64)
* environment variables, and non-ASCII characters: Enabling Multibyte.
                                                              (line  47)
* erasing characters and lines:          Erasing.             (line  29)
* error log:                             Compilation.         (line   6)
* error message in the echo area:        Echo Area.           (line  24)
* errors in init file:                   Initial Options.     (line 101)
* escape sequences in files:             Recognize Coding.    (line  66)
* ESHELL environment variable:           Interactive Shell.   (line  32)
* etags program:                         Create Tags Table.   (line   6)
* Ethiopic:                              International.       (line   6)
* Ethiopic calendar:                     Calendar Systems.    (line  41)
* Euro sign:                             Language Environments.
                                                              (line  26)
* European character sets:               Unibyte Mode.        (line   6)
* evaluate expression, command-line argument: Action Arguments.
                                                              (line  48)
* exiting:                               Exiting.             (line   6)
* exiting recursive edit:                Recursive Edit.      (line  12)
* expanding subdirectories in Dired:     Subdirectories in Dired.
                                                              (line   6)
* expansion (of abbrevs):                Abbrevs.             (line   6)
* expansion of C macros:                 Other C Commands.    (line  45)
* expansion of environment variables:    File Names.          (line  64)
* expression:                            Expressions.         (line   6)
* expunging (Dired):                     Dired Deletion.      (line  36)
* expunging (Rmail):                     Rmail Deletion.      (line  11)
* face at point:                         Position Info.       (line 100)
* face colors, setting:                  Faces.               (line  38)
* face customization, in ~/.emacs:       Creating Frames.     (line  46)
* faces:                                 Faces.               (line   6)
* faces for highlighting query replace:  Query Replace.       (line  28)
* faces for highlighting search matches: Highlight Isearch.   (line  14)
* faces under MS-DOS:                    MS-DOS Display.      (line   6)
* failed merges:                         Comparing Files.     (line  37)
* Feedmail:                              Mail Sending.        (line  39)
* FFAP minor mode:                       FFAP.                (line  18)
* file archives:                         File Archives.       (line   6)
* file comparison (in Dired):            Comparison in Dired. (line   6)
* file database (locate):                Dired and Find.      (line  38)
* file dates:                            Interlocking.        (line   6)
* file directory:                        Directories.         (line   6)
* file local variables:                  File Variables.      (line   6)
* file management:                       Dired.               (line   6)
* file name caching:                     File Name Cache.     (line   6)
* file names:                            File Names.          (line   6)
* file names (Mac OS):                   Mac Directories.     (line   6)
* file names on MS-Windows:              Windows Files.       (line   6)
* file names under MS-DOS:               MS-DOS File Names.   (line   6)
* file names under Windows 95/NT:        MS-DOS File Names.   (line  26)
* file names with non-ASCII characters:  File Name Coding.    (line   9)
* file names, quote special characters:  Quoted File Names.   (line   6)
* file ownership, and backup:            Backup Copying.      (line  27)
* file selection dialog:                 Visiting.            (line  86)
* file shadows:                          File Shadowing.      (line   6)
* file truenames:                        File Aliases.        (line  27)
* file version in change log entries:    Change Log.          (line  32)
* file-name completion, on MS-Windows:   Windows Files.       (line  11)
* files:                                 Files.               (line   6)
* files, visiting and saving:            Visiting.            (line  28)
* filesets:                              Filesets.            (line   6)
* fill prefix:                           Fill Prefix.         (line   6)
* filling text:                          Filling.             (line   6)
* find:                                  File Name Cache.     (line   6)
* find and Dired:                        Dired and Find.      (line   6)
* find Info manual by its file name:     Misc Help.           (line  11)
* finding file at point:                 FFAP.                (line   6)
* finding files containing regexp matches (in Dired): Marks vs Flags.
                                                              (line 112)
* finding strings within text:           Search.              (line   6)
* firewall, and accessing remote files:  Remote Files.        (line  58)
* fix width of table cells:              Fixed Width Mode.    (line   6)
* fixing incorrectly decoded mail messages: Rmail Coding.     (line  16)
* flagging files (in Dired):             Dired Deletion.      (line   6)
* flagging many files for deletion (in Dired): Flagging Many Files.
                                                              (line   6)
* Flyspell mode:                         Spelling.            (line  44)
* folding editing:                       Foldout.             (line   6)
* Follow mode:                           Follow Mode.         (line   6)
* font (default):                        Creating Frames.     (line  52)
* font for menus:                        Table of Resources.  (line  72)
* Font Lock mode:                        Font Lock.           (line   6)
* font name (X Window System):           Font X.              (line   6)
* font names (Mac OS):                   Mac Font Specs.      (line   6)
* font of character at point:            Position Info.       (line 100)
* fonts and faces:                       Face Customization.  (line   6)
* fonts for PostScript printing:         PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  48)
* fonts for various scripts:             Language Environments.
                                                              (line  39)
* fonts, emulating under MS-DOS:         MS-DOS Display.      (line   6)
* fontsets:                              Fontsets.            (line   6)
* foreground color, command-line argument: Colors.            (line  23)
* formatted text:                        Formatted Text.      (line   6)
* formfeed:                              Pages.               (line   6)
* Fortran continuation lines:            ForIndent Cont.      (line   6)
* Fortran mode:                          Fortran.             (line   6)
* Fortran77 and Fortran90:               Fortran.             (line  19)
* fortune cookies:                       Mail Amusements.     (line  24)
* forwarding a message:                  Rmail Reply.         (line  73)
* frame focus policy, MS-Windows:        Windows Misc.        (line  16)
* frame size under MS-DOS:               MS-DOS Display.      (line  43)
* frame title, command-line argument:    Title X.             (line  17)
* frames:                                Frames.              (line   6)
* frames on MS-DOS:                      MS-DOS Display.      (line  36)
* French Revolutionary calendar:         Calendar Systems.    (line  29)
* fringe face:                           Standard Faces.      (line 143)
* fringes:                               Fringes.             (line   6)
* fringes, and continuation lines:       Continuation Lines.  (line   6)
* fringes, and current execution line in GUD: Debugger Operation.
                                                              (line   6)
* fringes, and unused line indication:   Useless Whitespace.  (line  29)
* FTP:                                   Remote Files.        (line   6)
* fullheight, command-line argument:     Window Size X.       (line  22)
* fullscreen, command-line argument:     Window Size X.       (line  18)
* fullwidth, command-line argument:      Window Size X.       (line  26)
* function definition:                   Commands.            (line   6)
* function key:                          Keymaps.             (line  38)
* function, move to beginning or end:    Moving by Defuns.    (line  19)
* gamma correction:                      Table of Resources.  (line  86)
* gateway, and remote file access with ange-ftp: Remote Files.
                                                              (line  58)
* GDB:                                   Debuggers.           (line   6)
* GDB commands in Fringe:                Source Buffers.      (line   6)
* GDB User Interface layout:             GDB-UI Layout.       (line   6)
* geometry of Emacs window:              Window Size X.       (line   6)
* geometry, command-line argument:       Window Size X.       (line  11)
* German:                                International.       (line   6)
* getting help with keys:                Basic Help.          (line   6)
* Glasses mode:                          Glasses.             (line   6)
* Global Auto-Revert mode:               Reverting.           (line  38)
* global keymap:                         Keymaps.             (line  17)
* global mark:                           CUA Bindings.        (line  37)
* global mark ring:                      Global Mark Ring.    (line   6)
* global substitution:                   Replace.             (line   6)
* Gnome:                                 Clipboard.           (line   6)
* GNU Arch:                              Version Systems.     (line  19)
* Gnus:                                  Gnus.                (line   6)
* Go Moku:                               Amusements.          (line  10)
* Goto-address:                          Goto-address.        (line   6)
* graphic characters:                    Inserting Text.      (line   6)
* Greek:                                 International.       (line   6)
* Gregorian calendar:                    Other Calendars.     (line   6)
* growing minibuffer:                    Minibuffer Edit.     (line  23)
* GTK resources and customization:       GTK resources.       (line   6)
* GTK styles:                            GTK styles.          (line   6)
* GTK widget classes:                    GTK Names in Emacs.  (line   6)
* GTK widget names <1>:                  GTK Names in Emacs.  (line   6)
* GTK widget names:                      GTK widget names.    (line   6)
* GUD library:                           Debuggers.           (line   6)
* gzip:                                  Compressed Files.    (line   6)
* handwriting:                           PostScript.          (line  54)
* hard links (creation):                 Misc File Ops.       (line  56)
* hard links (in Dired):                 Operating on Files.  (line  64)
* hard links (visiting):                 File Aliases.        (line   6)
* hard newline:                          Hard and Soft Newlines.
                                                              (line   6)
* hardcopy:                              Printing.            (line   6)
* head version:                          Branches.            (line  23)
* header (TeX mode):                     TeX Print.           (line  96)
* header line (Dired):                   Subdirectory Motion. (line  10)
* headers (of mail message):             Mail Headers.        (line   6)
* heading lines (Outline mode):          Outline Format.      (line   6)
* Hebrew:                                International.       (line   6)
* Hebrew calendar:                       Calendar Systems.    (line  16)
* height of minibuffer:                  Minibuffer Edit.     (line  23)
* help:                                  Help.                (line   6)
* help, viewing web pages:               Help Mode.           (line  38)
* hex editing:                           Editing Binary Files.
                                                              (line   6)
* Hexl mode:                             Editing Binary Files.
                                                              (line   6)
* Hi Lock mode:                          Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  10)
* Hide-ifdef mode:                       Other C Commands.    (line  99)
* hiding in Dired (Dired):               Hiding Subdirectories.
                                                              (line   6)
* Highlight Changes mode:                Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line   6)
* highlight current line:                Cursor Display.      (line  34)
* highlighting by matching:              Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line   6)
* highlighting lines of text:            Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  49)
* highlighting matching parentheses:     Matching.            (line  33)
* highlighting region:                   Transient Mark.      (line   6)
* Hindi:                                 International.       (line   6)
* history of commands:                   Repetition.          (line   6)
* history of minibuffer input:           Minibuffer History.  (line   6)
* history reference:                     History References.  (line   6)
* holiday forms:                         Holiday Customizing. (line  34)
* holidays:                              Holidays.            (line   6)
* HOME directory on MS-Windows:          Windows HOME.        (line   6)
* home directory shorthand:              File Names.          (line  60)
* HOME directory under MS-DOS:           MS-DOS File Names.   (line  35)
* hook:                                  Hooks.               (line   6)
* horizontal scrolling:                  Horizontal Scrolling.
                                                              (line   6)
* hourglass pointer display:             Display Custom.      (line  35)
* hungry deletion (C Mode):              Hungry Delete.       (line   6)
* Hyper (under MS-DOS):                  MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  20)
* hyperlinking:                          Hyperlinking.        (line   6)
* IBM graphics characters (MS-DOS):      MS-DOS and MULE.     (line  99)
* iCalendar support:                     Importing Diary.     (line  15)
* Icomplete mode:                        Completion Options.  (line  49)
* Icon mode:                             Program Modes.       (line  20)
* icons (X Window System):               Icons X.             (line   6)
* icons, toolbar:                        Tool Bars.           (line   6)
* identifiers, making long ones readable: Glasses.            (line   6)
* IDL mode:                              C Modes.             (line   6)
* ignored file names, in completion:     Completion Options.  (line   6)
* ignoriginal:                           Dissociated Press.   (line  37)
* image-dired:                           Image-Dired.         (line   6)
* image-dired mode:                      Image-Dired.         (line   6)
* images, viewing:                       File Conveniences.   (line  20)
* IMAP mailboxes:                        Remote Mailboxes.    (line  37)
* in-situ subdirectory (Dired):          Subdirectories in Dired.
                                                              (line  19)
* inbox file:                            Rmail Inbox.         (line   6)
* incorrect fontification:               Font Lock.           (line  63)
* incremental search:                    Incremental Search.  (line   6)
* incremental search, input method interference: Input Methods.
                                                              (line  84)
* indentation:                           Indentation.         (line   6)
* indentation for comments:              Comment Commands.    (line   6)
* indentation for programs:              Program Indent.      (line   6)
* index of buffer definitions:           Imenu.               (line   6)
* indirect buffer:                       Indirect Buffers.    (line   6)
* indirect buffers and outlines:         Outline Views.       (line   6)
* inferior process:                      Compilation.         (line   6)
* inferior processes under MS-DOS:       MS-DOS Processes.    (line   6)
* Info:                                  Misc Help.           (line   6)
* Info index completion:                 Symbol Completion.   (line  25)
* init file:                             Init File.           (line   6)
* init file .emacs on MS-Windows:        Windows HOME.        (line  14)
* init file, and non-ASCII characters:   Enabling Multibyte.  (line  47)
* init file, default name under MS-DOS:  MS-DOS File Names.   (line   6)
* init file, not loading:                Initial Options.     (line  70)
* initial options (command line):        Emacs Invocation.    (line  41)
* initial version number to register:    Registering.         (line  30)
* initial-frame-alist:                   Creating Frames.     (line  46)
* input event:                           User Input.          (line  93)
* input method, during incremental search: Non-ASCII Isearch. (line   6)
* input methods:                         Input Methods.       (line   6)
* input methods, X:                      Table of Resources.  (line 121)
* input with the keyboard:               User Input.          (line   6)
* insert column in table:                Column Commands.     (line   6)
* insert file contents, command-line argument: Action Arguments.
                                                              (line  51)
* insert row in table:                   Row Commands.        (line   6)
* insert string into table cells:        Table Misc.          (line   6)
* inserted subdirectory (Dired):         Subdirectories in Dired.
                                                              (line  19)
* inserting blank lines:                 Blank Lines.         (line   6)
* insertion:                             Inserting Text.      (line   6)
* INSIDE_EMACS environment variable:     Interactive Shell.   (line  52)
* interactive highlighting:              Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line   6)
* internal border width, command-line argument: Borders X.    (line  15)
* international characters in .emacs:    Init Non-ASCII.      (line   6)
* international files from DOS/Windows systems: Coding Systems.
                                                              (line  21)
* international scripts:                 International.       (line   6)
* international support (MS-DOS):        MS-DOS and MULE.     (line   6)
* Intlfonts for PostScript printing:     PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  48)
* Intlfonts package, installation:       Language Environments.
                                                              (line  39)
* invisible lines:                       Outline Mode.        (line   6)
* invocation (command line arguments):   Emacs Invocation.    (line   6)
* IPA:                                   International.       (line   6)
* isearch:                               Incremental Search.  (line   6)
* Islamic calendar:                      Calendar Systems.    (line  20)
* ISO commercial calendar:               Calendar Systems.    (line   6)
* ISO Latin character sets:              Unibyte Mode.        (line   6)
* iso-ascii library:                     Unibyte Mode.        (line  27)
* iso-transl library:                    Unibyte Mode.        (line  61)
* ispell program:                        Spelling.            (line 164)
* Iswitchb mode:                         Iswitchb.            (line   6)
* italic font:                           Face Customization.  (line   6)
* Japanese:                              International.       (line   6)
* jar:                                   File Archives.       (line  42)
* Java class archives:                   File Archives.       (line  42)
* Java mode:                             C Modes.             (line   6)
* JDB:                                   Debuggers.           (line   6)
* Julian calendar:                       Calendar Systems.    (line   8)
* Julian day numbers:                    Calendar Systems.    (line  12)
* just-in-time (JIT) font-lock:          Font Lock.           (line 100)
* justification:                         Fill Commands.       (line  36)
* Kerberos POP authentication:           Remote Mailboxes.    (line  65)
* key:                                   Keys.                (line   6)
* key bindings:                          Key Bindings.        (line   6)
* key rebinding, permanent:              Init File.           (line   6)
* key rebinding, this session:           Rebinding.           (line   6)
* key sequence:                          Keys.                (line   6)
* keyboard coding (Mac OS):              Mac Input.           (line   6)
* keyboard input:                        User Input.          (line   6)
* keyboard macro:                        Keyboard Macros.     (line   6)
* keyboard shortcuts:                    Glossary.            (line 679)
* keyboard, MS-Windows:                  Windows Keyboard.    (line   6)
* keymap:                                Keymaps.             (line   6)
* keypad:                                Function Keys.       (line  77)
* keypad keys (MS-Windows):              Windows Keyboard.    (line  37)
* keys stolen by window manager:         User Input.          (line 106)
* kill DOS application:                  Windows Processes.   (line  37)
* kill ring:                             Yanking.             (line   6)
* killing buffers:                       Kill Buffer.         (line   6)
* killing characters and lines:          Erasing.             (line  29)
* killing Emacs:                         Exiting.             (line   6)
* killing expressions:                   Expressions.         (line  54)
* killing rectangular areas of text:     Rectangles.          (line   6)
* killing text:                          Killing.             (line  15)
* Korean:                                International.       (line   6)
* label (Rmail):                         Rmail Labels.        (line   6)
* landmark game:                         Amusements.          (line  26)
* language environment, automatic selection on MS-DOS: MS-DOS and MULE.
                                                              (line  58)
* language environments:                 Language Environments.
                                                              (line   6)
* Lao:                                   International.       (line   6)
* LaTeX mode:                            TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* LaTeX references:                      TeX Misc.            (line  15)
* Latin:                                 International.       (line   6)
* Latin-1 TeX encoding:                  TeX Misc.            (line  11)
* lazy search highlighting:              Highlight Isearch.   (line   6)
* leading:                               Table of Resources.  (line  60)
* leaving Emacs:                         Exiting.             (line   6)
* LessTif Widget X Resources:            LessTif Resources.   (line   6)
* libraries:                             Lisp Libraries.      (line   6)
* Life:                                  Amusements.          (line  30)
* line endings:                          Coding Systems.      (line  56)
* line number commands:                  Position Info.       (line  38)
* line number display:                   Optional Mode Line.  (line  21)
* line spacing:                          Table of Resources.  (line  60)
* line spacing, command-line argument:   Misc X.              (line  17)
* line truncation, and fringes <1>:      Line Truncation.     (line   6)
* line truncation, and fringes:          Continuation Lines.  (line  25)
* line wrapping:                         Continuation Lines.  (line   6)
* line-drawing characters (MS-DOS):      MS-DOS and MULE.     (line  99)
* lines, highlighting:                   Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  49)
* links (customization buffer):          Customization Groups.
                                                              (line  35)
* Lisp editing:                          Programs.            (line   6)
* Lisp files byte-compiled by XEmacs:    Lisp Libraries.      (line  61)
* Lisp files, and multibyte operation:   Enabling Multibyte.  (line  47)
* Lisp functions specific to Mac OS:     Mac Functions.       (line   6)
* Lisp string syntax:                    Init Syntax.         (line  32)
* Lisp symbol completion:                Symbol Completion.   (line  36)
* lisp-indent-function property:         Lisp Indent.         (line  27)
* list commands:                         Moving by Parens.    (line   6)
* listing current buffers:               List Buffers.        (line   9)
* listing system fonts:                  Font X.              (line 109)
* load init file of another user:        Initial Options.     (line  98)
* loading Lisp code:                     Lisp Libraries.      (line   6)
* loading Lisp libraries automatically:  Init Examples.       (line  92)
* loading Lisp libraries, command-line argument: Action Arguments.
                                                              (line  26)
* loading several files (in Dired):      Operating on Files.  (line 110)
* local back end (version control):      Local Version Control.
                                                              (line   6)
* local keymap:                          Local Keymaps.       (line   6)
* local variables:                       Locals.              (line  16)
* local variables in files:              File Variables.      (line   6)
* local version control:                 Local Version Control.
                                                              (line   6)
* locale, date format:                   Time Stamps.         (line   6)
* locales:                               Language Environments.
                                                              (line  45)
* location of point:                     Position Info.       (line  38)
* locking (CVS):                         CVS Options.         (line   6)
* locking and version control:           VC Concepts.         (line  27)
* locking files:                         Interlocking.        (line  18)
* locking, non-strict (RCS):             RCS and SCCS.        (line   6)
* log File, types of:                    Types of Log File.   (line   6)
* logging keystrokes:                    Checklist.           (line  80)
* long file names in DOS box under Windows 95/NT: MS-DOS File Names.
                                                              (line  26)
* Long Lines minor mode:                 Longlines.           (line   6)
* looking for a subject in documentation: Help.               (line  29)
* lpr usage under MS-DOS:                Windows Printing.    (line  78)
* ls emulation:                          ls in Lisp.          (line   6)
* Lucid Widget X Resources:              Lucid Resources.     (line   6)
* lzh:                                   File Archives.       (line  42)
* M-:                                    User Input.          (line  53)
* M4 mode:                               Program Modes.       (line  20)
* Mac OS:                                Mac OS.              (line   6)
* Mac Preferences:                       Mac Environment Variables.
                                                              (line  36)
* Mac Roman coding system:               Mac International.   (line   6)
* Macintosh:                             Mac OS.              (line   6)
* Macintosh end-of-line conversion:      Coding Systems.      (line  56)
* Macintosh key bindings:                Emulation.           (line   6)
* macro expansion in C:                  Other C Commands.    (line  45)
* mail:                                  Sending Mail.        (line   6)
* mail (on mode line):                   Optional Mode Line.  (line  64)
* mail aliases:                          Mail Aliases.        (line   6)
* MAIL environment variable:             Rmail Inbox.         (line  15)
* Mail mode:                             Mail Mode.           (line   6)
* mail-composition methods:              Mail Methods.        (line   6)
* MAILHOST environment variable:         Remote Mailboxes.    (line  18)
* mailrc file:                           Mail Aliases.        (line   6)
* main border width, command-line argument: Borders X.        (line  20)
* major modes:                           Major Modes.         (line   6)
* make:                                  Compilation.         (line   6)
* Makefile mode:                         Program Modes.       (line  20)
* making pictures out of text characters: Picture Mode.       (line   6)
* manipulating paragraphs:               Paragraphs.          (line   6)
* manipulating sentences:                Sentences.           (line   6)
* manipulating text:                     Text.                (line   6)
* manual page:                           Man Page.            (line   6)
* manual pages, on MS-DOS/MS-Windows:    Man Page.            (line  46)
* manual version backups:                Version Backups.     (line  24)
* manuals, on-line:                      Misc Help.           (line   6)
* Marathi:                               International.       (line   6)
* mark:                                  Mark.                (line   6)
* mark rectangle:                        Rectangles.          (line  13)
* mark ring:                             Mark Ring.           (line   6)
* marking executable files (in Dired):   Marks vs Flags.      (line  22)
* marking many files (in Dired):         Marks vs Flags.      (line   6)
* marking sections of text:              Marking Objects.     (line   6)
* marking subdirectories (in Dired):     Marks vs Flags.      (line  30)
* marking symbolic links (in Dired):     Marks vs Flags.      (line  26)
* Markov chain:                          Dissociated Press.   (line  37)
* master file:                           VC Concepts.         (line   6)
* matching parentheses:                  Matching.            (line   6)
* matching parenthesis and braces, moving to: Moving by Parens.
                                                              (line   6)
* maximum buffer size exceeded, error message: Visiting.      (line  77)
* Mayan calendar:                        Calendar Systems.    (line  35)
* Mayan calendar round:                  Mayan Calendar.      (line  64)
* Mayan haab calendar:                   Mayan Calendar.      (line  56)
* Mayan long count:                      Mayan Calendar.      (line  36)
* Mayan tzolkin calendar:                Mayan Calendar.      (line  48)
* MCVS:                                  Version Systems.     (line  40)
* memory full:                           Memory Full.         (line   6)
* menu bar <1>:                          Table of Resources.  (line  63)
* menu bar:                              Menu Bar.            (line   6)
* menu bar access using keyboard (MS-Windows): Windows Keyboard.
                                                              (line  17)
* menu bar appearance:                   Standard Faces.      (line 169)
* Menu Bar mode:                         Menu Bars.           (line   6)
* menu face, no effect if customized:    Standard Faces.      (line 169)
* Menu X Resources (LessTif widgets):    LessTif Resources.   (line   6)
* Menu X Resources (Lucid widgets):      Lucid Resources.     (line   6)
* merge buffer (Emerge):                 Overview of Emerge.  (line  21)
* merges, failed:                        Comparing Files.     (line  37)
* merging changes:                       Merging.             (line   6)
* merging files:                         Emerge.              (line   6)
* message:                               Sending Mail.        (line   6)
* Message mode for sending mail:         Mail Methods.        (line   6)
* message number:                        Rmail Basics.        (line  20)
* messages saved from echo area:         Echo Area.           (line  42)
* Meta:                                  User Input.          (line  53)
* Meta (Mac OS):                         Mac Input.           (line   6)
* Meta (under MS-DOS):                   MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  20)
* Meta commands and words:               Words.               (line   6)
* Meta-CVS:                              Version Systems.     (line  40)
* Metafont mode:                         Program Modes.       (line  20)
* MH mail interface:                     Mail Methods.        (line   6)
* Microsoft Windows:                     Microsoft Windows.   (line   6)
* Midnight mode:                         Kill Buffer.         (line  47)
* minibuffer:                            Minibuffer.          (line   6)
* minibuffer history:                    Minibuffer History.  (line   6)
* minibuffer keymaps:                    Minibuffer Maps.     (line   6)
* minibuffer-prompt face:                Standard Faces.      (line 136)
* minor mode keymap:                     Local Keymaps.       (line  13)
* minor modes:                           Minor Modes.         (line   6)
* mistakes, correcting:                  Fixit.               (line   6)
* mode hook:                             Program Modes.       (line  45)
* mode line:                             Mode Line.           (line   6)
* mode line (MS-DOS):                    MS-DOS and MULE.     (line  75)
* mode line, 3D appearance:              Optional Mode Line.  (line  74)
* mode line, mouse:                      Mode Line Mouse.     (line   6)
* mode, Abbrev:                          Abbrev Concepts.     (line  13)
* mode, archive:                         File Archives.       (line  42)
* mode, Auto Compression:                Compressed Files.    (line   6)
* mode, Auto Fill:                       Auto Fill.           (line   6)
* mode, Auto Save:                       Auto Save.           (line   6)
* mode, Auto-Revert:                     Reverting.           (line  38)
* mode, AWK:                             C Modes.             (line   6)
* mode, C:                               C Modes.             (line   6)
* mode, C++:                             C Modes.             (line   6)
* mode, Column Number:                   Optional Mode Line.  (line  26)
* mode, Comint:                          Shell Mode.          (line 152)
* mode, Compilation:                     Compilation Mode.    (line   6)
* mode, CORBA IDL:                       C Modes.             (line   6)
* mode, CRiSP:                           Emulation.           (line  10)
* mode, Delete Selection:                Mouse Commands.      (line  99)
* mode, DocTeX:                          TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* mode, Emacs-Lisp:                      Lisp Eval.           (line   6)
* mode, Enriched:                        Formatted Text.      (line   6)
* mode, Follow:                          Follow Mode.         (line   6)
* mode, Font Lock:                       Font Lock.           (line   6)
* mode, Fortran:                         Fortran.             (line   6)
* mode, Global Auto-Revert:              Reverting.           (line  38)
* mode, Hexl:                            Editing Binary Files.
                                                              (line   6)
* mode, Iswitchb:                        Iswitchb.            (line   6)
* mode, Java:                            C Modes.             (line   6)
* mode, LaTeX:                           TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* mode, Mail:                            Mail Mode.           (line   6)
* mode, major:                           Major Modes.         (line   6)
* mode, Menu Bar:                        Menu Bars.           (line   6)
* mode, minor:                           Minor Modes.         (line   6)
* mode, Mouse Wheel:                     Wheeled Mice.        (line   6)
* mode, MSB:                             Buffer Menus.        (line  16)
* mode, Objective C:                     C Modes.             (line   6)
* mode, Outline:                         Outline Mode.        (line   6)
* mode, Overwrite:                       Minor Modes.         (line  79)
* mode, Paragraph-Indent Text:           Text Mode.           (line  26)
* mode, Pike:                            C Modes.             (line   6)
* mode, Scroll Bar:                      Scroll Bars.         (line   6)
* mode, Scroll-all:                      Window Convenience.  (line  25)
* mode, Shell:                           Shell Mode.          (line   6)
* mode, SliTeX:                          TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* mode, tar:                             File Archives.       (line   6)
* mode, Term:                            Term Mode.           (line   6)
* mode, TeX:                             TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* mode, Text:                            Text Mode.           (line   6)
* mode, Tool Bar:                        Tool Bars.           (line   6)
* mode, Transient Mark:                  Transient Mark.      (line   6)
* mode, View:                            Misc File Ops.       (line   9)
* mode, Winner:                          Window Convenience.  (line   6)
* modes for programming languages:       Program Modes.       (line   6)
* modes, Long Lines:                     Longlines.           (line   6)
* modes, Refill:                         Refill.              (line   6)
* modification dates:                    Time Stamps.         (line   6)
* modified (buffer):                     Visiting.            (line  49)
* Modula2 mode:                          Program Modes.       (line  20)
* moon, phases of:                       Lunar Phases.        (line   6)
* Morse code:                            Amusements.          (line  32)
* Motif key bindings:                    Emulation.           (line   6)
* mouse:                                 Keymaps.             (line  51)
* mouse avoidance:                       Mouse Avoidance.     (line   6)
* mouse button events:                   Mouse Buttons.       (line   6)
* mouse buttons (what they do):          Mouse Commands.      (line   6)
* mouse on mode line:                    Mode Line Mouse.     (line   6)
* mouse pointer color, command-line argument: Colors.         (line  42)
* mouse support:                         Text-Only Mouse.     (line   6)
* mouse support under MS-DOS:            MS-DOS Mouse.        (line   6)
* mouse wheel:                           Wheeled Mice.        (line   6)
* Mouse Wheel minor mode:                Wheeled Mice.        (line   6)
* mouse, and MS-Windows:                 Windows Mouse.       (line   6)
* mouse, set number of buttons:          MS-DOS Mouse.        (line  18)
* move to beginning or end of function:  Moving by Defuns.    (line  19)
* movemail:                              Remote Mailboxes.    (line   6)
* movemail program:                      Movemail.            (line   6)
* movement:                              Moving Point.        (line   6)
* moving files (in Dired):               Operating on Files.  (line  55)
* moving inside the calendar:            Calendar Motion.     (line   6)
* moving point:                          Moving Point.        (line   6)
* moving text:                           Yanking.             (line   6)
* moving the cursor:                     Moving Point.        (line   6)
* MS-DOG:                                MS-DOS.              (line   6)
* MS-DOS end-of-line conversion:         Coding Systems.      (line  56)
* MS-DOS peculiarities:                  MS-DOS.              (line   6)
* MS-Windows codepages:                  MS-DOS and MULE.     (line 129)
* MS-Windows keyboard shortcuts:         Windows Keyboard.    (line   9)
* MS-Windows, Emacs peculiarities:       Microsoft Windows.   (line   6)
* MSB mode:                              Buffer Menus.        (line  16)
* MULE:                                  International.       (line   6)
* multibyte characters:                  International.       (line   6)
* multibyte operation, and Lisp files:   Enabling Multibyte.  (line  47)
* multiple displays:                     Multiple Displays.   (line   6)
* multiple views of outline:             Outline Views.       (line   6)
* multiple windows in Emacs:             Windows.             (line   6)
* multiple-file search and replace:      Tags Search.         (line   6)
* mustatement:                           Dissociated Press.   (line  45)
* named configurations (RCS):            Snapshot Caveats.    (line   6)
* narrowing:                             Narrowing.           (line   6)
* narrowing, and buffer size display:    Optional Mode Line.  (line  18)
* narrowing, and line number display:    Optional Mode Line.  (line  34)
* navigation:                            Hyperlinking.        (line   6)
* net use, and printing on MS-Windows:   Windows Printing.    (line  38)
* networked printers (MS-Windows):       Windows Printing.    (line  38)
* newline:                               Inserting Text.      (line  38)
* newlines, hard and soft:               Hard and Soft Newlines.
                                                              (line   6)
* Next Error Follow mode:                Compilation Mode.    (line 108)
* NFS and quitting:                      Quitting.            (line  56)
* nil:                                   Glossary.            (line 899)
* no-break hyphen, display:              Text Display.        (line  37)
* no-break space, display:               Text Display.        (line  37)
* non-ASCII characters in .emacs:        Init Non-ASCII.      (line   6)
* non-ASCII keys, binding:               Init Non-ASCII.      (line   6)
* non-greedy regexp matching:            Regexps.             (line  78)
* non-integral number of lines in a window: Optional Mode Line.
                                                              (line  74)
* non-selected windows, mode line appearance: Optional Mode Line.
                                                              (line  80)
* non-strict locking (RCS):              RCS and SCCS.        (line   6)
* non-window terminals:                  Non-Window Terminals.
                                                              (line   6)
* nonincremental search:                 Nonincremental Search.
                                                              (line   6)
* normal hook:                           Hooks.               (line  21)
* nroff:                                 Nroff Mode.          (line   6)
* NSA:                                   Mail Amusements.     (line   6)
* numeric arguments:                     Arguments.           (line   6)
* Objective C mode:                      C Modes.             (line   6)
* Octave mode:                           Program Modes.       (line  20)
* omer count:                            Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 164)
* on-line manuals:                       Misc Help.           (line   6)
* open file:                             Visiting.            (line   6)
* open-parenthesis in leftmost column:   Left Margin Paren.   (line   6)
* OpenWindows:                           Clipboard.           (line   6)
* operating on files in Dired:           Operating on Files.  (line   6)
* operations on a marked region:         Using Region.        (line   6)
* option, user:                          Variables.           (line   6)
* options (command line):                Emacs Invocation.    (line   6)
* other editors:                         Emulation.           (line   6)
* out of memory:                         Memory Full.         (line   6)
* Outline mode:                          Outline Mode.        (line   6)
* outline with multiple views:           Outline Views.       (line   6)
* outragedy:                             Dissociated Press.   (line  45)
* overlays at character position:        Editing Format Info. (line  25)
* override character terminal color support: Colors.          (line  51)
* Overwrite mode:                        Minor Modes.         (line  79)
* page-at-a-time:                        Paging in Term.      (line   6)
* pages:                                 Pages.               (line   6)
* Pango font name:                       GTK styles.          (line 134)
* Paragraph-Indent Text mode:            Text Mode.           (line  26)
* paragraphs:                            Paragraphs.          (line   6)
* parasha, weekly:                       Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 164)
* parentheses, displaying matches:       Matching.            (line   6)
* parentheses, moving across:            Moving by Parens.    (line   6)
* parenthesis in column zero and fontification: Font Lock.    (line  63)
* parenthetical groupings:               Moving by Parens.    (line   6)
* Partial Completion mode:               Completion Options.  (line  27)
* parts of the screen:                   Screen.              (line   6)
* pasting <1>:                           Cut/Paste Other App. (line   6)
* pasting:                               Yanking.             (line   6)
* patches, editing:                      Diff Mode.           (line   6)
* patches, sending:                      Sending Patches.     (line   6)
* PC key bindings:                       Emulation.           (line   6)
* PC selection:                          Emulation.           (line   6)
* PCL-CVS:                               VC Dired Mode.       (line   6)
* PDB:                                   Debuggers.           (line   6)
* per-buffer variables:                  Locals.              (line  27)
* Perl mode:                             Program Modes.       (line  20)
* Perldb:                                Debuggers.           (line   6)
* Persian calendar:                      Calendar Systems.    (line  47)
* phases of the moon:                    Lunar Phases.        (line   6)
* Picture mode and rectangles:           Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line   6)
* pictures:                              Picture Mode.        (line   6)
* Pike mode:                             C Modes.             (line   6)
* point:                                 Point.               (line   6)
* point location:                        Position Info.       (line  38)
* point location, on MS-DOS:             Text and Binary.     (line  19)
* Polish:                                International.       (line   6)
* Pong game:                             Amusements.          (line  35)
* POP mailboxes:                         Remote Mailboxes.    (line  18)
* position and size of Emacs frame:      Window Size X.       (line   6)
* PostScript mode:                       Program Modes.       (line  20)
* prefix arguments:                      Arguments.           (line   6)
* prefix key:                            Keys.                (line  12)
* preprocessor highlighting:             Other C Commands.    (line  67)
* presidentagon:                         Dissociated Press.   (line  19)
* pretty-printer:                        Program Indent.      (line  19)
* primary Rmail file:                    Rmail Basics.        (line   6)
* primary selection:                     Cut/Paste Other App. (line  14)
* printing:                              Printing.            (line   6)
* printing files (in Dired):             Operating on Files.  (line  99)
* Printing package:                      Printing Package.    (line   6)
* printing under MS-DOS:                 MS-DOS Processes.    (line  29)
* program building:                      Building.            (line   6)
* program editing:                       Programs.            (line   6)
* Prolog mode:                           Program Modes.       (line  20)
* prompt:                                Minibuffer.          (line  14)
* prompt, shell:                         Shell Prompts.       (line   6)
* properbose:                            Dissociated Press.   (line  45)
* puzzles:                               Amusements.          (line  13)
* Python mode:                           Program Modes.       (line  20)
* query replace:                         Query Replace.       (line   6)
* quitting:                              Quitting.            (line   6)
* quitting (in search):                  Error in Isearch.    (line  19)
* quitting Emacs:                        Exiting.             (line   6)
* quitting on MS-DOS:                    MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  12)
* quoting:                               Inserting Text.      (line  54)
* quoting file names:                    Quoted File Names.   (line   6)
* RCS:                                   Version Systems.     (line  28)
* read-only buffer:                      Misc Buffer.         (line  18)
* read-only text, killing:               Killing.             (line  32)
* reading mail:                          Rmail.               (line   6)
* reading netnews:                       Gnus.                (line   6)
* rebinding keys, permanently:           Init File.           (line   6)
* rebinding major mode keys:             Local Keymaps.       (line  35)
* rebinding mouse buttons:               Mouse Buttons.       (line   6)
* rebinding non-ASCII keys:              Init Non-ASCII.      (line   6)
* rectangle:                             Rectangles.          (line   6)
* rectangle highlighting:                CUA Bindings.        (line  24)
* rectangles and Picture mode:           Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line   6)
* recursive copying:                     Operating on Files.  (line  43)
* recursive deletion:                    Dired Deletion.      (line  47)
* recursive editing level:               Recursive Edit.      (line   6)
* redefining keys, this session:         Rebinding.           (line   6)
* references, LaTeX:                     TeX Misc.            (line  15)
* Refill minor mode:                     Refill.              (line   6)
* refilling text, word processor style <1>: Longlines.        (line   6)
* refilling text, word processor style:  Refill.              (line   6)
* refreshing displayed files:            Dired Updating.      (line   6)
* RefTeX package:                        TeX Misc.            (line  15)
* regexp:                                Regexp Search.       (line   6)
* region:                                Mark.                (line   6)
* region face:                           Standard Faces.      (line  90)
* region highlighting:                   Transient Mark.      (line   6)
* registered file:                       VC Concepts.         (line   6)
* registers:                             Registers.           (line   6)
* Registry (MS-Windows):                 Resources.           (line  18)
* registry, setting environment variables and resources on MS-Windows: MS-Windows Registry.
                                                              (line   6)
* regular expression:                    Regexp Search.       (line   6)
* related files:                         Other C Commands.    (line 104)
* reload files:                          Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line   6)
* remember editing session:              Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line   6)
* remote file access:                    Remote Files.        (line   6)
* remote host:                           Remote Host.         (line   6)
* remote repositories (CVS) <1>:         CVS Options.         (line  29)
* remote repositories (CVS):             Remote Repositories. (line   6)
* remove indentation:                    Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  47)
* renaming files (in Dired):             Operating on Files.  (line  55)
* repeating a command:                   Repeating.           (line   6)
* replacement:                           Replace.             (line   6)
* reply to a message:                    Rmail Reply.         (line  33)
* REPLYTO environment variable:          Mail Headers.        (line  71)
* reporting bugs:                        Checklist.           (line   6)
* reread a file:                         Reverting.           (line   6)
* resizing minibuffer:                   Minibuffer Edit.     (line  23)
* resolving conflicts:                   Merging.             (line  46)
* resource files for GTK:                GTK resources.       (line   6)
* resource name, command-line argument:  Resources.           (line  66)
* resource values, command-line argument: Resources.          (line  75)
* resources:                             Resources.           (line   6)
* restore session:                       Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line   6)
* restriction:                           Narrowing.           (line   6)
* retrying a failed message:             Rmail Reply.         (line  62)
* reverse order in POP inboxes:          Remote Mailboxes.    (line  70)
* reverse video, command-line argument:  Colors.              (line  48)
* risky variable:                        Safe File Variables. (line  27)
* Rlogin:                                Remote Host.         (line   6)
* Rmail:                                 Rmail.               (line   6)
* Rmail file sorting:                    Rmail Sorting.       (line   6)
* Romanian:                              International.       (line   6)
* rosh hodesh:                           Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 164)
* rot13 code:                            Rmail Rot13.         (line   6)
* running a hook:                        Hooks.               (line   6)
* running Lisp functions:                Building.            (line   6)
* saved echo area messages:              Echo Area.           (line  42)
* saving a setting:                      Changing a Variable. (line 114)
* saving file name in a register:        RegFiles.            (line   6)
* saving files:                          Visiting.            (line  28)
* saving keyboard macros:                Save Keyboard Macro. (line  17)
* saving number in a register:           RegNumbers.          (line   6)
* saving position in a register:         RegPos.              (line   6)
* saving rectangle in a register:        RegRect.             (line   6)
* saving sessions:                       Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line   6)
* saving text in a register:             RegText.             (line   6)
* saving window configuration in a register: RegConfig.       (line   6)
* SCCS:                                  Version Systems.     (line  44)
* screen:                                Screen.              (line   6)
* screen reader software, MS-Windows:    Windows Misc.        (line   8)
* script mode:                           Initial Options.     (line  56)
* Scroll Bar mode:                       Scroll Bars.         (line   6)
* Scroll-all mode:                       Window Convenience.  (line  25)
* scrollbar width:                       Table of Resources.  (line  90)
* scrolling:                             Scrolling.           (line  10)
* scrolling all windows:                 Emulation.           (line   6)
* scrolling in the calendar:             Scroll Calendar.     (line   6)
* scrolling windows together:            Window Convenience.  (line  25)
* SDB:                                   Debuggers.           (line   6)
* search and replace in multiple files:  Tags Search.         (line   6)
* search and replace in multiple files (in Dired): Operating on Files.
                                                              (line 127)
* search multiple files (in Dired):      Operating on Files.  (line 119)
* search-and-replace commands:           Replace.             (line   6)
* searching:                             Search.              (line   6)
* searching documentation efficiently:   Help.                (line  29)
* searching for non-ASCII characters:    Non-ASCII Isearch.   (line   6)
* searching in Rmail:                    Rmail Motion.        (line  60)
* secondary selection:                   Secondary Selection. (line   6)
* sections of manual pages:              Man Page.            (line  22)
* selected buffer:                       Buffers.             (line  13)
* selected window:                       Basic Window.        (line  12)
* selecting buffers in other windows:    Pop Up Window.       (line   6)
* selection, primary:                    Cut/Paste Other App. (line  14)
* selective display:                     Selective Display.   (line   6)
* selective undo:                        Undo.                (line  52)
* self-documentation:                    Help.                (line   6)
* sending mail:                          Sending Mail.        (line   6)
* sending patches for GNU Emacs:         Sending Patches.     (line   6)
* Sendmail:                              Mail Sending.        (line  39)
* sentences:                             Sentences.           (line   6)
* server, using Emacs as:                Emacs Server.        (line   6)
* setting a mark:                        Mark.                (line   6)
* setting variables:                     Examining.           (line   6)
* settings:                              Easy Customization.  (line   6)
* settings, how to save:                 Changing a Variable. (line 114)
* settings, how to set:                  Changing a Variable. (line  37)
* sexp:                                  Expressions.         (line   6)
* sexp diary entries:                    Sexp Diary Entries.  (line   6)
* shadow files:                          File Shadowing.      (line   6)
* shell commands:                        Shell.               (line   6)
* shell commands, Dired:                 Shell Commands in Dired.
                                                              (line   6)
* SHELL environment variable:            Interactive Shell.   (line  32)
* Shell mode:                            Shell Mode.          (line   6)
* shell scripts, and local file variables: Specifying File Variables.
                                                              (line  29)
* Shell-script mode:                     Program Modes.       (line  20)
* Show Paren mode:                       Matching.            (line  33)
* shrink a table cell:                   Cell Commands.       (line  36)
* shy group, in regexp:                  Regexp Backslash.    (line  47)
* Simula mode:                           Program Modes.       (line  20)
* simulation of middle mouse button:     Windows Mouse.       (line   8)
* simultaneous editing:                  Interlocking.        (line   6)
* single-frame terminals:                Non-Window Terminals.
                                                              (line   6)
* site init file:                        Init File.           (line  24)
* site-start.el file, not loading:       Initial Options.     (line  77)
* site-start.el, the site startup file:  Init File.           (line  24)
* size of minibuffer:                    Minibuffer Edit.     (line  23)
* skeletons:                             Text.                (line  43)
* slashes repeated in file name:         Minibuffer File.     (line  28)
* SliTeX mode:                           TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* Slovak:                                International.       (line   6)
* Slovenian:                             International.       (line   6)
* slow display during scrolling:         Font Lock.           (line  73)
* Smerge mode:                           Comparing Files.     (line  37)
* SMTP:                                  Mail Sending.        (line  39)
* Snake:                                 Amusements.          (line  46)
* snapshots and version control:         Snapshots.           (line   6)
* soft hyphen, display:                  Text Display.        (line  37)
* soft newline:                          Hard and Soft Newlines.
                                                              (line   6)
* solitaire:                             Amusements.          (line  38)
* sorting:                               Sorting.             (line   6)
* sorting diary entries:                 Fancy Diary Display. (line  31)
* sorting Dired buffer:                  Dired Updating.      (line  59)
* sorting Rmail file:                    Rmail Sorting.       (line   6)
* Spanish:                               International.       (line   6)
* specific version control system:       Advanced C-x v v.    (line  21)
* specify default font from the command line: Font X.         (line  13)
* specify end-of-line conversion:        Text Coding.         (line  31)
* specifying fullscreen for Emacs frame: Window Size X.       (line   6)
* speedbar:                              Speedbar.            (line   6)
* spell-checking the active region:      Spelling.            (line  75)
* spelling, checking and correcting:     Spelling.            (line   6)
* splash screen:                         Initial Options.     (line  87)
* split table cell:                      Cell Commands.       (line  18)
* splitting columns:                     Two-Column.          (line   6)
* standard colors on a character terminal: Colors.            (line  51)
* standard fontset:                      Defining Fontsets.   (line   6)
* start iconified, command-line argument: Icons X.            (line  18)
* starting Emacs:                        Entering Emacs.      (line   6)
* startup (command line arguments):      Emacs Invocation.    (line   6)
* startup (init file):                   Init File.           (line   6)
* startup fontset:                       Defining Fontsets.   (line  17)
* startup message:                       Initial Options.     (line  87)
* string substitution:                   Replace.             (line   6)
* string syntax:                         Init Syntax.         (line  32)
* StudlyCaps:                            Amusements.          (line  41)
* StudlyCaps, making them readable:      Glasses.             (line   6)
* style (for indentation):               Custom C Indent.     (line   6)
* subdirectories in Dired:               Subdirectories in Dired.
                                                              (line   6)
* subprocesses on MS-Windows:            Windows Processes.   (line   6)
* subscribe groups:                      Summary of Gnus.     (line  33)
* subshell:                              Shell.               (line   6)
* subtree (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  63)
* Subversion:                            Version Systems.     (line  35)
* summary (Rmail):                       Rmail Summary.       (line   6)
* summing time intervals:                Time Intervals.      (line   6)
* sunrise and sunset:                    Sunrise/Sunset.      (line   6)
* Super (under MS-DOS):                  MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  20)
* suspending:                            Exiting.             (line   6)
* suspicious constructions in C, C++:    Other C Commands.    (line  82)
* SVN:                                   Version Systems.     (line  35)
* switch buffers:                        Select Buffer.       (line   6)
* switches (command line):               Emacs Invocation.    (line   6)
* symbolic links (creation in Dired):    Operating on Files.  (line  70)
* symbolic links (creation):             Misc File Ops.       (line  66)
* symbolic links (visiting):             File Aliases.        (line   6)
* synchronizing windows:                 Follow Mode.         (line   6)
* synchronous X mode:                    Table of Resources.  (line 104)
* syntax highlighting and coloring:      Font Lock.           (line   6)
* syntax of regexps:                     Regexps.             (line   6)
* syntax table:                          Syntax.              (line   6)
* t:                                     Glossary.            (line 899)
* tab stops:                             Tab Stops.           (line   6)
* table column commands:                 Column Commands.     (line   6)
* table creation:                        Table Creation.      (line   6)
* table dimensions:                      Measuring Tables.    (line   6)
* table for HTML and LaTeX:              Table Misc.          (line  10)
* table in language format:              Table Misc.          (line  10)
* table mode:                            Text Based Tables.   (line   6)
* table recognition:                     Table Recognition.   (line   6)
* table row commands:                    Row Commands.        (line   6)
* table to text:                         Table Conversion.    (line   6)
* tables, indentation for:               Tab Stops.           (line   6)
* tags and tag tables:                   Tags.                (line   6)
* tags, C++:                             Tags.                (line  29)
* tags-based completion:                 Symbol Completion.   (line  25)
* Tar mode:                              File Archives.       (line   6)
* Tcl mode:                              Program Modes.       (line  20)
* techniquitous:                         Dissociated Press.   (line  37)
* Telnet:                                Remote Host.         (line   6)
* templates:                             Text.                (line  43)
* TERM environment variable:             Checklist.           (line  89)
* Term mode:                             Term Mode.           (line   6)
* terminal emulators, mouse support:     Text-Only Mouse.     (line   6)
* termscript file:                       Checklist.           (line  89)
* Tetris:                                Amusements.          (line  46)
* TeX encoding:                          TeX Misc.            (line  11)
* TeX mode:                              TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* TEXEDIT environment variable:          Emacs Server.        (line  19)
* TEXINPUTS environment variable:        TeX Print.           (line  54)
* text:                                  Text.                (line   6)
* text and binary files on MS-DOS/MS-Windows: Text and Binary.
                                                              (line   6)
* text colors, from command line:        Colors.              (line   6)
* Text mode:                             Text Mode.           (line   6)
* text properties at point:              Position Info.       (line 100)
* text properties of characters:         Editing Format Info. (line  25)
* text to table:                         Table Conversion.    (line   6)
* text-based tables:                     Text Based Tables.   (line   6)
* text-based tables, split a cell:       Cell Commands.       (line  18)
* text/enriched MIME format:             Formatted Text.      (line  17)
* Thai:                                  International.       (line   6)
* Tibetan:                               International.       (line   6)
* time (on mode line):                   Optional Mode Line.  (line  50)
* time intervals, summing:               Time Intervals.      (line   6)
* time stamps:                           Time Stamps.         (line   6)
* timeclock:                             Time Intervals.      (line   6)
* TLS encryption (Rmail):                Remote Mailboxes.    (line  75)
* toggling marks (in Dired):             Marks vs Flags.      (line  76)
* tool bar:                              Table of Resources.  (line 111)
* Tool Bar mode:                         Tool Bars.           (line   6)
* tooltips <1>:                          Tooltips.            (line   6)
* tooltips:                              Help Echo.           (line   6)
* tooltips with GUD:                     Debugger Operation.  (line  26)
* top level:                             Mode Line.           (line   6)
* tower of Hanoi:                        Amusements.          (line   6)
* TPU:                                   Emulation.           (line  28)
* trailing whitespace:                   Useless Whitespace.  (line   6)
* Tramp:                                 Remote Files.        (line   6)
* Transient Mark mode:                   Transient Mark.      (line   6)
* transposition of expressions:          Expressions.         (line  58)
* triple clicks:                         Mouse Buttons.       (line  28)
* truenames of files:                    File Aliases.        (line  27)
* truncation <1>:                        Line Truncation.     (line   6)
* truncation:                            Continuation Lines.  (line  25)
* trunk (version control):               Branches.            (line   6)
* Turkish:                               International.       (line   6)
* turn multibyte support on or off:      Enabling Multibyte.  (line   9)
* two directories (in Dired):            Operating on Files.  (line  25)
* two-column editing:                    Two-Column.          (line   6)
* types of log file:                     Types of Log File.   (line   6)
* typos, fixing:                         Fixit.               (line   6)
* unbalanced parentheses and quotes:     Parentheses.         (line   6)
* uncompression:                         Compressed Files.    (line   6)
* undecided, coding system:              Coding Systems.      (line  86)
* undeletion (Rmail):                    Rmail Deletion.      (line  45)
* undigestify:                           Rmail Digest.        (line   6)
* undisplayable characters:              International Chars. (line  17)
* undo:                                  Undo.                (line   6)
* undo limit:                            Undo.                (line  68)
* undoing window configuration changes:  Window Convenience.  (line   6)
* Unibyte operation:                     Unibyte Mode.        (line   6)
* unibyte operation (MS-DOS):            MS-DOS and MULE.     (line  41)
* unibyte operation, and Lisp files:     Enabling Multibyte.  (line  47)
* unibyte operation, command-line argument: Initial Options.  (line 106)
* unibyte operation, environment variable: General Variables. (line  17)
* unique buffer names:                   Uniquify.            (line   6)
* unmarking files (in Dired):            Marks vs Flags.      (line  44)
* unsubscribe groups:                    Summary of Gnus.     (line  33)
* untranslated file system:              Text and Binary.     (line  50)
* unused lines:                          Useless Whitespace.  (line  29)
* unzip archives:                        File Archives.       (line  42)
* upcase file names:                     Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  21)
* updating Dired buffer:                 Dired Updating.      (line   6)
* URL, viewing in help:                  Help Mode.           (line  38)
* URLs:                                  Browse-URL.          (line   6)
* URLs, activating:                      Goto-address.        (line   6)
* use-hard-newlines:                     Hard and Soft Newlines.
                                                              (line   6)
* user name for remote file access:      Remote Files.        (line  46)
* user option:                           Variables.           (line   6)
* user options, how to set:              Changing a Variable. (line  37)
* userenced:                             Dissociated Press.   (line  45)
* using tab stops in making tables:      Tab Stops.           (line   6)
* usual erasure key:                     DEL Does Not Delete. (line   6)
* UTF-8:                                 Language Environments.
                                                              (line  26)
* variable:                              Variables.           (line   6)
* variables, how to set:                 Changing a Variable. (line  37)
* vc-resolve-conflicts:                  Merging.             (line  65)
* version backups:                       Version Backups.     (line   6)
* version control:                       Version Control.     (line   6)
* version control log:                   Types of Log File.   (line   6)
* version number to check in/out:        Advanced C-x v v.    (line   6)
* VERSION_CONTROL environment variable:  Numbered Backups.    (line  26)
* vertical scroll bars, command-line argument: Misc X.        (line  13)
* VHDL mode:                             Program Modes.       (line  20)
* vi:                                    Emulation.           (line   6)
* Vietnamese:                            International.       (line   6)
* View mode:                             Misc File Ops.       (line   9)
* viewing:                               Misc File Ops.       (line   9)
* viewing web pages in help:             Help Mode.           (line  38)
* views of an outline:                   Outline Views.       (line   6)
* visiting files:                        Visiting.            (line   6)
* visiting files, command-line argument: Action Arguments.    (line  12)
* Watching expressions in GDB:           Watch Expressions.   (line   6)
* watching files (CVS):                  CVS Options.         (line  21)
* wdired mode:                           Wdired.              (line   6)
* Web:                                   Browse-URL.          (line   6)
* web pages, viewing in help:            Help Mode.           (line  38)
* weeks, which day they start on:        Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  33)
* wheel, mouse:                          Wheeled Mice.        (line   6)
* whitespace, trailing:                  Useless Whitespace.  (line   6)
* wide block cursor:                     Cursor Display.      (line  28)
* widening:                              Narrowing.           (line   6)
* widgets at buffer position:            Editing Format Info. (line  25)
* width and height of Emacs frame:       Window Size X.       (line   6)
* width of the scroll bar:               Scroll Bars.         (line  43)
* wildcard characters in file names:     Visiting.            (line 130)
* Windmove package:                      Window Convenience.  (line  14)
* window configuration changes, undoing: Window Convenience.  (line   6)
* window manager, keys stolen by:        User Input.          (line 106)
* Windows clipboard support:             MS-DOS Mouse.        (line  29)
* windows in Emacs:                      Windows.             (line   6)
* Windows system menu:                   Windows Keyboard.    (line  59)
* windows, synchronizing:                Follow Mode.         (line   6)
* Winner mode:                           Window Convenience.  (line   6)
* word processing:                       Formatted Text.      (line   6)
* word search:                           Word Search.         (line   6)
* word wrap:                             Longlines.           (line   6)
* words:                                 Words.               (line   6)
* words, case conversion:                Case.                (line  24)
* WordStar:                              Emulation.           (line   6)
* work file:                             VC Concepts.         (line  14)
* World Wide Web:                        Browse-URL.          (line   6)
* wrapping:                              Continuation Lines.  (line   6)
* WYSIWYG:                               Formatted Text.      (line   6)
* X cutting and pasting:                 Cut/Paste Other App. (line   6)
* X input methods:                       Table of Resources.  (line 121)
* X resources:                           Resources.           (line   6)
* XDB:                                   Debuggers.           (line   6)
* XIM:                                   Table of Resources.  (line 121)
* xterm:                                 Text-Only Mouse.     (line   8)
* yahrzeits <1>:                         Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 164)
* yahrzeits:                             From Other Calendar. (line  61)
* yanking:                               Yanking.             (line   6)
* yanking and text properties:           Kill Ring.           (line  21)
* yanking previous kills:                Earlier Kills.       (line   6)
* zip:                                   File Archives.       (line  42)
* Zippy:                                 Amusements.          (line  52)
* Zmacs mode:                            Transient Mark.      (line  93)
* zoo:                                   File Archives.       (line  42)
* ~/.emacs.d/gtkrc file:                 GTK resources.       (line   6)
* ~/.gtkrc-2.0 file:                     GTK resources.       (line   6)
* ~/.Xdefaults file:                     Resources.           (line   6)
* ~/.Xresources file:                    Resources.           (line   6)


File: emacs,  Node: Screen,  Next: User Input,  Prev: Acknowledgments,  Up: Top

1 The Organization of the Screen
********************************

On a text-only terminal, the Emacs display occupies the whole screen.
On a graphical display, such as on GNU/Linux using the X Window System,
Emacs creates its own windows to use.  We use the term "frame" to mean
the entire text-only screen or an entire system-level window used by
Emacs.  Emacs uses both kinds of frames, in the same way, to display
your editing.  Emacs normally starts out with just one frame, but you
can create additional frames if you wish.  *Note Frames::.

   When you start Emacs, the main central area of the frame, all except
for the top and bottom and sides, displays the text you are editing.
This area is called "the window".  At the top there is normally a "menu
bar" where you can access a series of menus; then there may be a "tool
bar", a row of icons that perform editing commands if you click on
them.  Below this, the window begins, often with a "scroll bar" on one
side.  Below the window comes the last line of the frame, a special
"echo area" or "minibuffer window", where prompts appear and you enter
information when Emacs asks for it.  See following sections for more
information about these special lines.

   You can subdivide the window horizontally or vertically to make
multiple text windows, each of which can independently display some
file or text (*note Windows::).  In this manual, the word "window"
refers to the initial large window if not subdivided, or any one of the
multiple windows you have subdivided it into.

   At any time, one window is the "selected window".  On graphical
displays, the selected window normally shows a more prominent cursor
(usually solid and blinking) while other windows show a weaker cursor
(such as a hollow box).   Text terminals have just one cursor, so it
always appears in the selected window.

   Most Emacs commands implicitly apply to the text in the selected
window; the text in unselected windows is mostly visible for reference.
However, mouse commands generally operate on whatever window you click
them in, whether selected or not.  If you use multiple frames on a
graphical display, then giving the input focus to a particular frame
selects a window in that frame.

   Each window's last line is a "mode line", which describes what is
going on in that window.  It appears in different color and/or a "3D"
box if the terminal supports them; its contents normally begin with
`--:--  *scratch*' when Emacs starts.  The mode line displays status
information such as what buffer is being displayed above it in the
window, what major and minor modes are in use, and whether the buffer
contains unsaved changes.

* Menu:

* Point::	        The place in the text where editing commands operate.
* Echo Area::           Short messages appear at the bottom of the screen.
* Mode Line::	        Interpreting the mode line.
* Menu Bar::            How to use the menu bar.

File: emacs,  Node: Point,  Next: Echo Area,  Up: Screen

1.1 Point
=========

Within Emacs, the active cursor shows the location at which editing
commands will take effect.  This location is called "point".  Many
Emacs commands move point through the text, so that you can edit at
different places in it.  You can also place point by clicking mouse
button 1 (normally the left button).

   While the cursor appears to be _on_ a character, you should think of
point as _between_ two characters; it points _before_ the character
that appears under the cursor.  For example, if your text looks like
`frob' with the cursor over the `b', then point is between the `o' and
the `b'.  If you insert the character `!' at that position, the result
is `fro!b', with point between the `!' and the `b'.  Thus, the cursor
remains over the `b', as before.

   Sometimes people speak of "the cursor" when they mean "point," or
speak of commands that move point as "cursor motion" commands.

   If you are editing several files in Emacs, each in its own buffer,
each buffer has its own point location.  A buffer that is not currently
displayed remembers its point location in case you display it again
later.  When Emacs displays multiple windows, each window has its own
point location.  If the same buffer appears in more than one window,
each window has its own point position in that buffer, and (when
possible) its own cursor.

   A text-only terminal has just one cursor, in the selected window.
The other windows do not show a cursor, even though they do have their
own position of point.  When Emacs updates the screen on a text-only
terminal, it has to put the cursor temporarily at the place the output
goes.  This doesn't mean point is there, though.  Once display updating
finishes, Emacs puts the cursor where point is.

   On graphical displays, Emacs shows a cursor in each window; the
selected window's cursor is solid and blinking, and the other cursors
are just hollow.  Thus, the most prominent cursor always shows you the
selected window, on all kinds of terminals.

   *Note Cursor Display::, for customizable variables that control
display of the cursor or cursors.

   The term "point" comes from the character `.', which was the command
in TECO (the language in which the original Emacs was written) for
accessing the value now called "point."

File: emacs,  Node: Echo Area,  Next: Mode Line,  Prev: Point,  Up: Screen

1.2 The Echo Area
=================

The line at the bottom of the frame (below the mode line) is the "echo
area".  It is used to display small amounts of text for various
purposes.

   "Echoing" means displaying the characters that you type.  At the
command line, the operating system normally echoes all your input.
Emacs handles echoing differently.

   Single-character commands do not echo in Emacs, and multi-character
commands echo only if you pause while typing them.  As soon as you pause
for more than a second in the middle of a command, Emacs echoes all the
characters of the command so far.  This is to "prompt" you for the rest
of the command.  Once echoing has started, the rest of the command
echoes immediately as you type it.  This behavior is designed to give
confident users fast response, while giving hesitant users maximum
feedback.  You can change this behavior by setting a variable (*note
Display Custom::).

   If a command cannot do its job, it may display an "error message" in
the echo area.  Error messages are accompanied by beeping or by
flashing the screen.  The error also discards any input you have typed
ahead.

   Some commands display informative messages in the echo area.  These
messages look much like error messages, but they are not announced with
a beep and do not throw away input.  Sometimes the message tells you
what the command has done, when this is not obvious from looking at the
text being edited.  Sometimes the sole purpose of a command is to show
you a message giving you specific information--for example, `C-x ='
(hold down <CTRL> and type `x', then let go of <CTRL> and type `=')
displays a message describing the character position of point in the
text and its current column in the window.  Commands that take a long
time often display messages ending in `...' while they are working, and
add `done' at the end when they are finished.  They may also indicate
progress with percentages.

   Echo-area informative messages are saved in an editor buffer named
`*Messages*'.  (We have not explained buffers yet; see *note Buffers::,
for more information about them.)  If you miss a message that appears
briefly on the screen, you can switch to the `*Messages*' buffer to see
it again.  (Successive progress messages are often collapsed into one
in that buffer.)

   The size of `*Messages*' is limited to a certain number of lines.
The variable `message-log-max' specifies how many lines.  Once the
buffer has that many lines, adding lines at the end deletes lines from
the beginning, to keep the size constant.  *Note Variables::, for how
to set variables such as `message-log-max'.

   The echo area is also used to display the "minibuffer", a window
where you can input arguments to commands, such as the name of a file
to be edited.  When the minibuffer is in use, the echo area begins with
a prompt string that usually ends with a colon; also, the cursor
appears in that line because it is the selected window.  You can always
get out of the minibuffer by typing `C-g'.  *Note Minibuffer::.

File: emacs,  Node: Mode Line,  Next: Menu Bar,  Prev: Echo Area,  Up: Screen

1.3 The Mode Line
=================

Each text window's last line is a "mode line", which describes what is
going on in that window.  The mode line starts and ends with dashes.
When there is only one text window, the mode line appears right above
the echo area; it is the next-to-last line in the frame.  On a
text-only terminal, the mode line is in inverse video if the terminal
supports that; on a graphics display, the mode line has a 3D box
appearance to help it stand out.  The mode line of the selected window
is highlighted if possible; see *note Optional Mode Line::, for more
information.

   Normally, the mode line looks like this:

     -CS:CH-FR  BUF      POS LINE   (MAJOR MINOR)------

This gives information about the window and the buffer it displays: the
buffer's name, what major and minor modes are in use, whether the
buffer's text has been changed, and how far down the buffer you are
currently looking.

   CH contains two stars `**' if the text in the buffer has been edited
(the buffer is "modified"), or `--' if the buffer has not been edited.
For a read-only buffer, it is `%*' if the buffer is modified, and `%%'
otherwise.

   FR gives the selected frame name (*note Frames::).  It appears only
on text-only terminals.  The initial frame's name is `F1'.

   BUF is the name of the window's "buffer".  Usually this is the same
as the name of a file you are editing.  *Note Buffers::.

   The buffer displayed in the selected window (the window with the
cursor) is the "current buffer", where editing happens.  When a
command's effect applies to "the buffer," we mean it does those things
to the current buffer.

   POS tells you whether there is additional text above the top of the
window, or below the bottom.  If your buffer is small and it is all
visible in the window, POS is `All'.  Otherwise, it is `Top' if you are
looking at the beginning of the buffer, `Bot' if you are looking at the
end of the buffer, or `NN%', where NN is the percentage of the buffer
above the top of the window.  With Size Indication mode, you can
display the size of the buffer as well.  *Note Optional Mode Line::.

   LINE is `L' followed by the current line number of point.  This is
present when Line Number mode is enabled (it normally is).  You can
display the current column number too, by turning on Column Number
mode.  It is not enabled by default because it is somewhat slower.
*Note Optional Mode Line::.

   MAJOR is the name of the "major mode" in effect in the buffer.  A
buffer can only be in one major mode at a time.  The major modes
available include Fundamental mode (the least specialized), Text mode,
Lisp mode, C mode, Texinfo mode, and many others.  *Note Major Modes::,
for details of how the modes differ and how to select them.

   Some major modes display additional information after the major mode
name.  For example, Rmail buffers display the current message number and
the total number of messages.  Compilation buffers and Shell buffers
display the status of the subprocess.

   MINOR is a list of some of the "minor modes" that are turned on at
the moment in the window's chosen buffer.  For example, `Fill' means
that Auto Fill mode is on.  `Abbrev' means that Word Abbrev mode is on.
`Ovwrt' means that Overwrite mode is on.  *Note Minor Modes::, for more
information.

   `Narrow' means that the buffer being displayed has editing
restricted to only a portion of its text.  (This is not really a minor
mode, but is like one.)  *Note Narrowing::.  `Def' means that a
keyboard macro is being defined.  *Note Keyboard Macros::.

   In addition, if Emacs is inside a recursive editing level, square
brackets (`[...]') appear around the parentheses that surround the
modes.  If Emacs is in one recursive editing level within another,
double square brackets appear, and so on.  Since recursive editing
levels affect Emacs globally, not just one buffer, the square brackets
appear in every window's mode line or not in any of them.  *Note
Recursive Edit::.

   CS states the coding system used for the file you are editing.  A
dash indicates the default state of affairs: no code conversion, except
for end-of-line translation if the file contents call for that.  `='
means no conversion whatsoever.  Nontrivial code conversions are
represented by various letters--for example, `1' refers to ISO Latin-1.
*Note Coding Systems::, for more information.

   On a text-only terminal, CS includes two additional characters which
describe the coding system for keyboard input and the coding system for
terminal output.  They come right before the coding system used for the
file you are editing.

   If you are using an input method, a string of the form `I>' is added
to the beginning of CS; I identifies the input method.  (Some input
methods show `+' or `@' instead of `>'.)  *Note Input Methods::.

   When multibyte characters are not enabled, CS does not appear at
all.  *Note Enabling Multibyte::.

   The colon after CS changes to another string in some cases.  Emacs
uses newline characters to separate lines in the buffer.  Some files
use different conventions for separating lines: either carriage-return
linefeed (the MS-DOS convention) or just carriage-return (the Macintosh
convention).  If the buffer's file uses carriage-return linefeed, the
colon changes to either a backslash (`\') or `(DOS)', depending on the
operating system.  If the file uses just carriage-return, the colon
indicator changes to either a forward slash (`/') or `(Mac)'.  On some
systems, Emacs displays `(Unix)' instead of the colon for files that
use newline as the line separator.

   *Note Optional Mode Line::, to add other handy information to the
mode line, such as the size of the buffer, the current column number of
point, and whether new mail for you has arrived.

   The mode line is mouse-sensitive; when you move the mouse across
various parts of it, Emacs displays help text to say what a click in
that place will do.  *Note Mode Line Mouse::.

File: emacs,  Node: Menu Bar,  Prev: Mode Line,  Up: Screen

1.4 The Menu Bar
================

Each Emacs frame normally has a "menu bar" at the top which you can use
to perform common operations.  There's no need to list them here, as
you can more easily see them yourself.

   On a graphical display, you can use the mouse to choose a command
from the menu bar.  A right-arrow at the end of the menu item means it
leads to a subsidiary menu; `...' at the end means that the command
invoked will read arguments (further input from you) before it actually
does anything.

   You can also invoke the first menu bar item by pressing <F10> (to run
the command `menu-bar-open').  You can then navigate the menus with the
arrow keys.  You select an item by pressing <RET> and cancel menu
navigation with <ESC>.

   To view the full command name and documentation for a menu item, type
`C-h k', and then select the menu bar with the mouse in the usual way
(*note Key Help::).

   On text-only terminals with no mouse, you can use the menu bar by
typing `M-`' or <F10> (these run the command `tmm-menubar').  This lets
you select a menu item with the keyboard.  A provisional choice appears
in the echo area.  You can use the up and down arrow keys to move
through the menu to different items, and then you can type <RET> to
select the item.

   Each menu item also has an assigned letter or digit which designates
that item; it is usually the initial of some word in the item's name.
This letter or digit is separated from the item name by `=>'.  You can
type the item's letter or digit to select the item.

   Some of the commands in the menu bar have ordinary key bindings as
well; one such binding is shown in parentheses after the item itself.

File: emacs,  Node: User Input,  Next: Keys,  Prev: Screen,  Up: Top

2 Kinds of User Input
*********************

GNU Emacs is designed for use with keyboard commands because that is
the most efficient way to edit.  You can do editing with the mouse, as
in other editors, and you can give commands with the menu bar and tool
bar, and scroll with the scroll bar.  But if you keep on editing that
way, you won't get the benefits of Emacs.  Therefore, this manual
documents primarily how to edit with the keyboard.  You can force
yourself to practice using the keyboard by using the shell command
`emacs -nw' to start Emacs, so that the mouse won't work.

   Emacs uses an extension of the ASCII character set for keyboard
input; it also accepts non-character input events including function
keys and mouse button actions.

   ASCII consists of 128 character codes.  Some of these codes are
assigned graphic symbols such as `a' and `='; the rest are control
characters, such as `Control-a' (usually written `C-a' for short).
`C-a' gets its name from the fact that you type it by holding down the
<CTRL> key while pressing `a'.

   Some ASCII control characters have special names, and most terminals
have special keys you can type them with: for example, <RET>, <TAB>,
<DEL> and <ESC>.  The space character is usually known as <SPC>, even
though strictly speaking it is a graphic character that is blank.

   Emacs extends the ASCII character set with thousands more printing
characters (*note International::), additional control characters, and a
few more modifiers that can be combined with any character.

   On ASCII terminals, there are only 32 possible control characters.
These are the control variants of letters and `@[]\^_'.  In addition,
the shift key is meaningless with control characters: `C-a' and `C-A'
are the same character, and Emacs cannot distinguish them.

   The Emacs character set has room for control variants of all
printing characters, and distinguishes `C-A' from `C-a'.  Graphical
terminals make it possible to enter all these characters.  For example,
`C--' (that's Control-Minus) and `C-5' are meaningful Emacs commands on
a graphical terminal.

   Another Emacs character-set extension is additional modifier bits.
Only one modifier bit is commonly used; it is called Meta.  Every
character has a Meta variant; examples include `Meta-a' (normally
written `M-a', for short), `M-A' (different from `M-a', but they are
normally equivalent in Emacs), `M-<RET>', and `M-C-a'.  That last means
`a' with both the <CTRL> and <META> modifiers.  We usually write it as
`C-M-a' rather than `M-C-a', for reasons of tradition.

   Some terminals have a <META> key, and allow you to type Meta
characters by holding this key down.  Thus, you can type `Meta-a' by
holding down <META> and pressing `a'.  The <META> key works much like
the <SHIFT> key.  In fact, this key is more often labeled <ALT> or
<EDIT>, instead of <META>; on a Sun keyboard, it may have a diamond on
it.

   If there is no <META> key, you can still type Meta characters using
two-character sequences starting with <ESC>.  Thus, you can enter `M-a'
by typing `<ESC> a'.  You can enter `C-M-a' by typing `<ESC> C-a'.
Unlike <META>, which modifies other characters, <ESC> is a separate
character.  You don't hold down <ESC> while typing the next character;
instead, you press it and release it, then you enter the next character.
<ESC> is allowed on terminals with <META> keys, too, in case you have
formed a habit of using it.

   Emacs defines several other modifier keys that can be applied to any
input character.  These are called <SUPER>, <HYPER> and <ALT>.  We
write `s-', `H-' and `A-' to say that a character uses these modifiers.
Thus, `s-H-C-x' is short for `Super-Hyper-Control-x'.  Not all
graphical terminals actually provide keys for these modifier flags--in
fact, many terminals have a key labeled <ALT> which is really a <META>
key.  The standard key bindings of Emacs do not include any characters
with these modifiers.  But you can assign them meanings of your own by
customizing Emacs.

   If your keyboard lacks one of these modifier keys, you can enter it
using `C-x @': `C-x @ h' adds the "hyper" flag to the next character,
`C-x @ s' adds the "super" flag, and `C-x @ a' adds the "alt" flag.
For instance, `C-x @ h C-a' is a way to enter `Hyper-Control-a'.
(Unfortunately there is no way to add two modifiers by using `C-x @'
twice for the same character, because the first one goes to work on the
`C-x'.)

   Keyboard input includes keyboard keys that are not characters at
all, such as function keys and arrow keys.  Mouse buttons are also not
characters.  However, you can modify these events with the modifier
keys <CTRL>, <META>, <SUPER>, <HYPER> and <ALT>, just like keyboard
characters.

   Input characters and non-character inputs are collectively called
"input events".  *Note Input Events: (elisp)Input Events, for the full
Lisp-level details.  If you are not doing Lisp programming, but simply
want to redefine the meaning of some characters or non-character
events, see *note Customization::.

   ASCII terminals cannot really send anything to the computer except
ASCII characters.  These terminals use a sequence of characters to
represent each function key.  But that is invisible to the Emacs user,
because the keyboard input routines catch these special sequences and
convert them to function key events before any other part of Emacs gets
to see them.

   On graphical displays, the window manager is likely to block the
character `Meta-<TAB>' before Emacs can see it.  It may also block
`Meta-<SPC>', `C-M-d' and `C-M-l'.  If you have these problems, we
recommend that you customize your window manager to turn off those
commands, or put them on key combinations that Emacs does not use.

File: emacs,  Node: Keys,  Next: Commands,  Prev: User Input,  Up: Top

3 Keys
******

A "key sequence" ("key", for short) is a sequence of input events that
is meaningful as a unit--a "single command."  Some Emacs command
sequences are invoked by just one character or one event; for example,
just `C-f' moves forward one character in the buffer.  But Emacs also
has commands that take two or more events to invoke.

   If a sequence of events is enough to invoke a command, it is a
"complete key".  Examples of complete keys include `C-a', `X', <RET>,
<NEXT> (a function key), <DOWN> (an arrow key), `C-x C-f', and `C-x 4
C-f'.  If it isn't long enough to be complete, we call it a "prefix
key".  The above examples show that `C-x' and `C-x 4' are prefix keys.
Every key sequence is either a complete key or a prefix key.

   Most single characters constitute complete keys in the standard Emacs
command bindings.  A few of them are prefix keys.  A prefix key combines
with the following input event to make a longer key sequence, which may
itself be complete or a prefix.  For example, `C-x' is a prefix key, so
`C-x' and the next input event combine to make a two-event key
sequence.  Most of these key sequences are complete keys, including
`C-x C-f' and `C-x b'.  A few, such as `C-x 4' and `C-x r', are
themselves prefix keys that lead to three-event key sequences.  There's
no limit to the length of a key sequence, but in practice people rarely
use sequences longer than four events.

   You can't add input events onto a complete key.  For example, the
two-event sequence `C-f C-k' is not a key, because the `C-f' is a
complete key in itself.  It's impossible to give `C-f C-k' an
independent meaning as a command.  `C-f C-k' is two key sequences, not
one.

   All told, the prefix keys in Emacs are `C-c', `C-h', `C-x', `C-x
<RET>', `C-x @', `C-x a', `C-x n', `C-x r', `C-x v', `C-x 4', `C-x 5',
`C-x 6', <ESC>, `M-g', and `M-o'.  (<F1> and <F2> are aliases for `C-h'
and `C-x 6'.)  This list is not cast in stone; it describes the
standard key bindings.  If you customize Emacs, you can make new prefix
keys, or eliminate some of the standard ones (not recommended for most
users).  *Note Key Bindings::.

   If you make or eliminate prefix keys, that changes the set of
possible key sequences.  For example, if you redefine `C-f' as a
prefix, `C-f C-k' automatically becomes a key (complete, unless you
define that too as a prefix).  Conversely, if you remove the prefix
definition of `C-x 4', then `C-x 4 f' and `C-x 4 ANYTHING' are no
longer keys.

   Typing the help character (`C-h' or <F1>) after a prefix key
displays a list of the commands starting with that prefix.  There are a
few prefix keys after which `C-h' does not work--for historical
reasons, they define other meanings for `C-h' which are painful to
change.  <F1> works after all prefix keys.

File: emacs,  Node: Commands,  Next: Text Characters,  Prev: Keys,  Up: Top

4 Keys and Commands
*******************

This manual is full of passages that tell you what particular keys do.
But Emacs does not assign meanings to keys directly.  Instead, Emacs
assigns meanings to named "commands", and then gives keys their
meanings by "binding" them to commands.

   Every command has a name chosen by a programmer.  The name is
usually made of a few English words separated by dashes; for example,
`next-line' or `forward-word'.  A command also has a "function
definition" which is a Lisp program; this is how the command does its
work.  In Emacs Lisp, a command is a Lisp function with special options
to read arguments and for interactive use.  For more information on
commands and functions, see *note What Is a Function: (elisp)What Is a
Function.  (The definition here is simplified slightly.)

   The bindings between keys and commands are recorded in tables called
"keymaps".  *Note Keymaps::.

   When we say that "`C-n' moves down vertically one line" we are
glossing over a subtle distinction that is irrelevant in ordinary use,
but vital for Emacs customization.  The command `next-line' does a
vertical move downward.  `C-n' has this effect _because_ it is bound to
`next-line'.  If you rebind `C-n' to the command `forward-word', `C-n'
will move forward one word instead.  Rebinding keys is an important
method of customization.

   In the rest of this manual, we usually ignore this distinction to
keep things simple.  We will often speak of keys like `C-n' as
commands, even though strictly speaking the key is bound to a command.
Usually we state the name of the command which really does the work in
parentheses after mentioning the key that runs it.  For example, we
will say that "The command `C-n' (`next-line') moves point vertically
down," meaning that the command `next-line' moves vertically down, and
the key `C-n' is normally bound to it.

   Since we are discussing customization, we should tell you about
"variables".  Often the description of a command will say, "To change
this, set the variable `mumble-foo'."  A variable is a name used to
store a value.  Most of the variables documented in this manual are
meant for customization: some command or other part of Emacs examines
the variable and behaves differently according to the value that you
set.  You can ignore the information about variables until you are
interested in customizing them.  Then read the basic information on
variables (*note Variables::) and the information about specific
variables will make sense.

File: emacs,  Node: Text Characters,  Next: Entering Emacs,  Prev: Commands,  Up: Top

5 Character Set for Text
************************

Text in Emacs buffers is a sequence of characters.  In the simplest
case, these are ASCII characters, each stored in one 8-bit byte.  Both
ASCII control characters (octal codes 000 through 037, and 0177) and
ASCII printing characters (codes 040 through 0176) are allowed.  The
other modifier flags used in keyboard input, such as Meta, are not
allowed in buffers.

   Non-ASCII printing characters can also appear in buffers, when
multibyte characters are enabled.  They have character codes starting
at 256, octal 0400, and each one is represented as a sequence of two or
more bytes.  *Note International::.  Single-byte characters with codes
128 through 255 can also appear in multibyte buffers.  However,
non-ASCII control characters cannot appear in a buffer.

   Some ASCII control characters serve special purposes in text, and
have special names.  For example, the newline character (octal code
012) is used in the buffer to end a line, and the tab character (octal
code 011) is used for indenting to the next tab stop column (normally
every 8 columns).  *Note Text Display::.

   If you disable multibyte characters, then you can use only one
alphabet of non-ASCII characters, which all fit in one byte.  They use
octal codes 0200 through 0377.  *Note Unibyte Mode::.

File: emacs,  Node: Entering Emacs,  Next: Exiting,  Prev: Text Characters,  Up: Top

6 Entering and Exiting Emacs
****************************

The usual way to invoke Emacs is with the shell command `emacs'.  Emacs
clears the screen, then displays an initial help message and copyright
notice.  Some operating systems discard your type-ahead when Emacs
starts up; they give Emacs no way to prevent this.  On those systems,
wait for Emacs to clear the screen before you start typing.

   From a shell window under the X Window System, run Emacs in the
background with `emacs&'.  This way, Emacs won't tie up the shell
window, so you can use it to run other shell commands while Emacs is
running.  You can type Emacs commands as soon as you direct your
keyboard input to an Emacs frame.

   When Emacs starts up, it creates a buffer named `*scratch*'.  That's
the buffer you start out in.  The `*scratch*' buffer uses Lisp
Interaction mode; you can use it to type Lisp expressions and evaluate
them.  You can also ignore that capability and just write notes there.
You can specify a different major mode for this buffer by setting the
variable `initial-major-mode' in your init file.  *Note Init File::.

   It is possible to specify files to be visited, Lisp files to be
loaded, and functions to be called through Emacs command-line
arguments.  *Note Emacs Invocation::.  The feature exists mainly for
compatibility with other editors, and for scripts.

   Many editors are designed to edit one file.  When done with that
file, you exit the editor.  The next time you want to edit a file, you
must start the editor again.  Working this way, it is convenient to use
a command-line argument to say which file to edit.

   However, killing Emacs after editing one each and starting it afresh
for the next file is both unnecessary and harmful, since it denies you
the full power of Emacs.  Emacs can visit more than one file in a
single editing session, and that is the right way to use it.  Exiting
the Emacs session loses valuable accumulated context, such as the kill
ring, registers, undo history, and mark ring.  These features are
useful for operating on multiple files, or even continuing to edit one
file.  If you kill Emacs after each file, you don't take advantage of
them.

   The recommended way to use GNU Emacs is to start it only once, just
after you log in, and do all your editing in the same Emacs session.
Each time you edit a file, you visit it with the existing Emacs, which
eventually has many files in it ready for editing.  Usually you do not
kill Emacs until you are about to log out.  *Note Files::, for more
information on visiting more than one file.

   To edit a file from another program while Emacs is running, you can
use the `emacsclient' helper program to open a file in the already
running Emacs.  *Note Emacs Server::.

File: emacs,  Node: Exiting,  Next: Basic,  Prev: Entering Emacs,  Up: Top

7 Exiting Emacs
***************

There are two commands for exiting Emacs, and three kinds of exiting:
"iconifying" Emacs, "suspending" Emacs, and "killing" Emacs.

   "Iconifying" means replacing the Emacs frame with a small box or
"icon" on the screen.  This is the usual way to exit Emacs when you're
using a graphical display--if you bother to "exit" at all.  (Just
switching to another application is usually sufficient.)

   "Suspending" means stopping Emacs temporarily and returning control
to its parent process (usually a shell), allowing you to resume editing
later in the same Emacs job.  This is the usual way to exit Emacs when
running it on a text terminal.

   "Killing" Emacs means destroying the Emacs job.  You can run Emacs
again later, but you will get a fresh Emacs; there is no way to resume
the same editing session after it has been killed.

`C-z'
     Suspend Emacs (`suspend-emacs') or iconify a frame
     (`iconify-or-deiconify-frame').

`C-x C-c'
     Kill Emacs (`save-buffers-kill-emacs').

   On graphical displays, `C-z' runs the command
`iconify-or-deiconify-frame', which temporarily iconifies (or
"minimizes") the selected Emacs frame (*note Frames::).  You can then
use the window manager to select some other application.  (You could
select another application without iconifying Emacs first, but getting
the Emacs frame out of the way can make it more convenient to find the
other application.)

   On a text terminal, `C-z' runs the command `suspend-emacs'.
Suspending Emacs takes you back to the shell from which you invoked
Emacs.  You can resume Emacs with the shell command `%emacs' in most
common shells.  On systems that don't support suspending programs,
`C-z' starts an inferior shell that communicates directly with the
terminal, and Emacs waits until you exit the subshell.  (The way to do
that is probably with `C-d' or `exit', but it depends on which shell
you use.)  On these systems, you can only get back to the shell from
which Emacs was run (to log out, for example) when you kill Emacs.

   Suspending can fail if you run Emacs under a shell that doesn't
support suspension of its subjobs, even if the system itself does
support it.  In such a case, you can set the variable `cannot-suspend'
to a non-`nil' value to force `C-z' to start an inferior shell.

   To exit and kill Emacs, type `C-x C-c' (`save-buffers-kill-emacs').
A two-character key is used to make it harder to type by accident.
This command first offers to save any modified file-visiting buffers.
If you do not save them all, it asks for confirmation with `yes' before
killing Emacs, since any changes not saved now will be lost forever.
Also, if any subprocesses are still running, `C-x C-c' asks for
confirmation about them, since killing Emacs will also kill the
subprocesses.

   If the value of the variable `confirm-kill-emacs' is non-`nil', `C-x
C-c' assumes that its value is a predicate function, and calls that
function.  If the result is non-`nil', the session is killed, otherwise
Emacs continues to run.  One convenient function to use as the value of
`confirm-kill-emacs' is the function `yes-or-no-p'.  The default value
of `confirm-kill-emacs' is `nil'.

   You can't resume an Emacs session after killing it.  Emacs can,
however, record certain session information when you kill it, such as
which files you visited, so the next time you start Emacs it will try
to visit the same files.  *Note Saving Emacs Sessions::.

   The operating system usually listens for certain special characters
whose meaning is to kill or suspend the program you are running.  This
operating system feature is turned off while you are in Emacs.  The
meanings of `C-z' and `C-x C-c' as keys in Emacs were inspired by the
use of `C-z' and `C-c' on several operating systems as the characters
for stopping or killing a program, but that is their only relationship
with the operating system.  You can customize these keys to run any
commands of your choice (*note Keymaps::).

File: emacs,  Node: Emacs Invocation,  Next: X Resources,  Prev: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Top

Appendix C Command Line Arguments for Emacs Invocation
******************************************************

GNU Emacs supports command line arguments to request various actions
when invoking Emacs.  These are for compatibility with other editors and
for sophisticated activities.  We don't recommend using them for
ordinary editing.

   Arguments starting with `-' are "options", and so is `+LINENUM'.
All other arguments specify files to visit.  Emacs visits the specified
files while it starts up.  The last file name on your command line
becomes the current buffer; the other files are also visited in other
buffers.  If there are two files, they are both displayed; otherwise
the last file is displayed along with a buffer list that shows what
other buffers there are.  As with most programs, the special argument
`--' says that all subsequent arguments are file names, not options,
even if they start with `-'.

   Emacs command options can specify many things, such as the size and
position of the X window Emacs uses, its colors, and so on.  A few
options support advanced usage, such as running Lisp functions on files
in batch mode.  The sections of this chapter describe the available
options, arranged according to their purpose.

   There are two ways of writing options: the short forms that start
with a single `-', and the long forms that start with `--'.  For
example, `-d' is a short form and `--display' is the corresponding long
form.

   The long forms with `--' are easier to remember, but longer to type.
However, you don't have to spell out the whole option name; any
unambiguous abbreviation is enough.  When a long option takes an
argument, you can use either a space or an equal sign to separate the
option name and the argument.  Thus, you can write either `--display
sugar-bombs:0.0' or `--display=sugar-bombs:0.0'.  We recommend an equal
sign because it makes the relationship clearer, and the tables below
always show an equal sign.

   Most options specify how to initialize Emacs, or set parameters for
the Emacs session.  We call them "initial options".  A few options
specify things to do: for example, load libraries, call functions, or
terminate Emacs.  These are called "action options".  These and file
names together are called "action arguments".  Emacs processes all the
action arguments in the order they are written.  The `.emacs' file can
access the values of the action arguments as the elements of a list in
the variable `command-line-args'.

* Menu:

* Action Arguments::    Arguments to visit files, load libraries,
                          and call functions.
* Initial Options::     Arguments that take effect while starting Emacs.
* Command Example::     Examples of using command line arguments.
* Resume Arguments::    Specifying arguments when you resume a running Emacs.
* Environment::         Environment variables that Emacs uses.
* Display X::           Changing the default display and using remote login.
* Font X::              Choosing a font for text, under X.
* Colors::              Choosing display colors.
* Window Size X::       Start-up window size, under X.
* Borders X::           Internal and external borders, under X.
* Title X::             Specifying the initial frame's title.
* Icons X::             Choosing what sort of icon to use, under X.
* Misc X::              Other display options.

File: emacs,  Node: Action Arguments,  Next: Initial Options,  Up: Emacs Invocation

C.1 Action Arguments
====================

Here is a table of the action arguments and options:

`FILE'
`--file=FILE'
`--find-file=FILE'
`--visit=FILE'
     Visit FILE using `find-file'.  *Note Visiting::.  If you visit
     several files at startup in this way, Emacs also displays a Buffer
     Menu buffer to show you what files it has visited.  You can
     inhibit that by setting `inhibit-startup-buffer-menu' to `t'.

`+LINENUM FILE'
     Visit FILE using `find-file', then go to line number LINENUM in it.

`+LINENUM:COLUMNNUM FILE'
     Visit FILE using `find-file', then go to line number LINENUM and
     put point at column number COLUMNNUM.

`-l FILE'
`--load=FILE'
     Load a Lisp library named FILE with the function `load'.  *Note
     Lisp Libraries::.  If FILE is not an absolute file name, the
     library can be found either in the current directory, or in the
     Emacs library search path as specified with `EMACSLOADPATH' (*note
     General Variables::).

     *Warning:* If previous command-line arguments have visited files,
     the current directory is the directory of the last file visited.

`-L DIR'
`--directory=DIR'
     Add directory DIR to the variable `load-path'.

`-f FUNCTION'
`--funcall=FUNCTION'
     Call Lisp function FUNCTION.  If it is an interactive function (a
     command), it reads the arguments interactively just as if you had
     called the same function with a key sequence.  Otherwise, it calls
     the function with no arguments.

`--eval=EXPRESSION'
`--execute=EXPRESSION'
     Evaluate Lisp expression EXPRESSION.

`--insert=FILE'
     Insert the contents of FILE into the current buffer.  This is like
     what `M-x insert-file' does.  *Note Misc File Ops::.

`--kill'
     Exit from Emacs without asking for confirmation.

`--help'
     Print a usage message listing all available options, then exit
     successfully.

`--version'
     Print Emacs version, then exit successfully.

File: emacs,  Node: Initial Options,  Next: Command Example,  Prev: Action Arguments,  Up: Emacs Invocation

C.2 Initial Options
===================

The initial options specify parameters for the Emacs session.  This
section describes the more general initial options; some other options
specifically related to the X Window System appear in the following
sections.

   Some initial options affect the loading of init files.  The normal
actions of Emacs are to first load `site-start.el' if it exists, then
your own init file `~/.emacs' if it exists, and finally `default.el' if
it exists.  *Note Init File::.  Certain options prevent loading of some
of these files or substitute other files for them.

`-t DEVICE'
`--terminal=DEVICE'
     Use DEVICE as the device for terminal input and output.
     `--terminal' implies `--no-window-system'.

`-d DISPLAY'
`--display=DISPLAY'
     Use the X Window System and use the display named DISPLAY to open
     the initial Emacs frame.  *Note Display X::, for more details.

`-nw'
`--no-window-system'
     Don't communicate directly with the window system, disregarding the
     `DISPLAY' environment variable even if it is set.  This means that
     Emacs uses the terminal from which it was launched for all its
     display and input.

`-batch'
`--batch'
     Run Emacs in "batch mode".  Batch mode is used for running
     programs written in Emacs Lisp from shell scripts, makefiles, and
     so on.  You should also use the `-l', `-f' or `--eval' option, to
     invoke a Lisp program to do batch processing.

     In batch mode, Emacs does not display the text being edited, and
     the standard terminal interrupt characters such as `C-z' and `C-c'
     continue to have their normal effect.  The functions `prin1',
     `princ' and `print' output to `stdout' instead of the echo area,
     while `message' and error messages output to `stderr'.  Functions
     that would normally read from the minibuffer take their input from
     `stdin' instead.

     `--batch' implies `-q' (do not load an init file), but
     `site-start.el' is loaded nonetheless.  It also causes Emacs to
     exit after processing all the command options.  In addition, it
     disables auto-saving except in buffers for which it has been
     explicitly requested.

`--script FILE'
     Run Emacs in batch mode, like `--batch', and then read and execute
     the Lisp code in FILE.

     The normal use of this option is in executable script files that
     run Emacs.  They can start with this text on the first line

          #!/usr/bin/emacs --script

     which will invoke Emacs with `--script' and supply the name of the
     script file as FILE.  Emacs Lisp then treats `#!'  as a comment
     delimiter.

`-q'
`--no-init-file'
     Do not load your Emacs init file `~/.emacs', or `default.el'
     either.  Regardless of this switch, `site-start.el' is still
     loaded.  When invoked like this, Emacs does not allow saving
     options changed with the `M-x customize' command and its variants.
     *Note Easy Customization::.

`--no-site-file'
     Do not load `site-start.el'.  The options `-q', `-u' and `--batch'
     have no effect on the loading of this file--this option and `-Q'
     are the only options that block it.

`-Q'
`--quick'
     Start emacs with minimum customizations.  This is like using `-q'
     and `--no-site-file', but also disables the startup screen.

`--no-splash'
     Do not display a splash screen on startup.  You can also achieve
     this effect by setting the variable `inhibit-splash-screen' to
     non-`nil' in you personal init file (but _not_ in
     `site-start.el').  (This variable was called
     `inhibit-startup-message' in previous Emacs versions.)

`--no-desktop'
     Do not reload any saved desktop.  *Note Saving Emacs Sessions::.

`-u USER'
`--user=USER'
     Load USER's Emacs init file `~USER/.emacs' instead of your own(1).

`--debug-init'
     Enable the Emacs Lisp debugger for errors in the init file.  *Note
     Entering the Debugger on an Error: (elisp)Error Debugging.

`--unibyte'
`--no-multibyte'
     Do almost everything with single-byte buffers and strings.  All
     buffers and strings are unibyte unless you (or a Lisp program)
     explicitly ask for a multibyte buffer or string.  (Note that Emacs
     always loads Lisp files in multibyte mode, even if `--unibyte' is
     specified; see *note Enabling Multibyte::.)  Setting the
     environment variable `EMACS_UNIBYTE' has the same effect (*note
     General Variables::).

`--multibyte'
`--no-unibyte'
     Inhibit the effect of `EMACS_UNIBYTE', so that Emacs uses
     multibyte characters by default, as usual.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This option has no effect on MS-Windows.

File: emacs,  Node: Command Example,  Next: Resume Arguments,  Prev: Initial Options,  Up: Emacs Invocation

C.3 Command Argument Example
============================

Here is an example of using Emacs with arguments and options.  It
assumes you have a Lisp program file called `hack-c.el' which, when
loaded, performs some useful operation on the current buffer, expected
to be a C program.

     emacs --batch foo.c -l hack-c -f save-buffer >& log

This says to visit `foo.c', load `hack-c.el' (which makes changes in
the visited file), save `foo.c' (note that `save-buffer' is the
function that `C-x C-s' is bound to), and then exit back to the shell
(because of `--batch').  `--batch' also guarantees there will be no
problem redirecting output to `log', because Emacs will not assume that
it has a display terminal to work with.

File: emacs,  Node: Resume Arguments,  Next: Environment,  Prev: Command Example,  Up: Emacs Invocation

C.4 Resuming Emacs with Arguments
=================================

You can specify action arguments for Emacs when you resume it after a
suspension.  To prepare for this, put the following code in your
`.emacs' file (*note Hooks::):

     (add-hook 'suspend-hook 'resume-suspend-hook)
     (add-hook 'suspend-resume-hook 'resume-process-args)

   As further preparation, you must execute the shell script
`emacs.csh' (if you use csh as your shell) or `emacs.bash' (if you use
bash as your shell).  These scripts define an alias named `edit', which
will resume Emacs giving it new command line arguments such as files to
visit.  The scripts are found in the `etc' subdirectory of the Emacs
distribution.

   Only action arguments work properly when you resume Emacs.  Initial
arguments are not recognized--it's too late to execute them anyway.

   Note that resuming Emacs (with or without arguments) must be done
from within the shell that is the parent of the Emacs job.  This is why
`edit' is an alias rather than a program or a shell script.  It is not
possible to implement a resumption command that could be run from other
subjobs of the shell; there is no way to define a command that could be
made the value of `EDITOR', for example.  Therefore, this feature does
not take the place of the Emacs Server feature (*note Emacs Server::).

   The aliases use the Emacs Server feature if you appear to have a
server Emacs running.  However, they cannot determine this with complete
accuracy.  They may think that a server is still running when in
actuality you have killed that Emacs, because the file `/tmp/esrv...'
still exists.  If this happens, find that file and delete it.

File: emacs,  Node: Environment,  Next: Display X,  Prev: Resume Arguments,  Up: Emacs Invocation

C.5 Environment Variables
=========================

The "environment" is a feature of the operating system; it consists of
a collection of variables with names and values.  Each variable is
called an "environment variable"; environment variable names are
case-sensitive, and it is conventional to use upper case letters only.
The values are all text strings.

   What makes the environment useful is that subprocesses inherit the
environment automatically from their parent process.  This means you
can set up an environment variable in your login shell, and all the
programs you run (including Emacs) will automatically see it.
Subprocesses of Emacs (such as shells, compilers, and version-control
software) inherit the environment from Emacs, too.

   Inside Emacs, the command `M-x getenv' gets the value of an
environment variable.  `M-x setenv' sets a variable in the Emacs
environment.  (Environment variable substitutions with `$' work in the
value just as in file names; see *note File Names with $::.)

   The way to set environment variables outside of Emacs depends on the
operating system, and especially the shell that you are using.  For
example, here's how to set the environment variable `ORGANIZATION' to
`not very much' using Bash:

     export ORGANIZATION="not very much"

and here's how to do it in csh or tcsh:

     setenv ORGANIZATION "not very much"

   When Emacs is using the X Window System, various environment
variables that control X work for Emacs as well.  See the X
documentation for more information.

* Menu:

* General Variables::   Environment variables that all versions of Emacs use.
* Misc Variables::      Certain system-specific variables.
* MS-Windows Registry:: An alternative to the environment on MS-Windows.

File: emacs,  Node: General Variables,  Next: Misc Variables,  Up: Environment

C.5.1 General Variables
-----------------------

Here is an alphabetical list of specific environment variables that
have special meanings in Emacs, giving the name of each variable and
its meaning.  Most of these variables are also used by some other
programs.  Emacs does not require any of these environment variables to
be set, but it uses their values if they are set.

`CDPATH'
     Used by the `cd' command to search for the directory you specify,
     when you specify a relative directory name.

`EMACS_UNIBYTE'
     Defining this environment variable with a nonempty value directs
     Emacs to do almost everything with single-byte buffers and
     strings.  It is equivalent to using the `--unibyte' command-line
     option on each invocation.  *Note Initial Options::.

`EMACSDATA'
     Directory for the architecture-independent files that come with
     Emacs.  This is used to initialize the Lisp variable
     `data-directory'.

`EMACSDOC'
     Directory for the documentation string file, `DOC-EMACSVERSION'.
     This is used to initialize the Lisp variable `doc-directory'.

`EMACSLOADPATH'
     A colon-separated list of directories(1) to search for Emacs Lisp
     files--used to initialize `load-path'.

`EMACSPATH'
     A colon-separated list of directories to search for executable
     files--used to initialize `exec-path'.

`EMAIL'
     Your email address; used to initialize the Lisp variable
     `user-mail-address', which the Emacs mail interface puts into the
     `From' header of outgoing messages (*note Mail Headers::).

`ESHELL'
     Used for shell-mode to override the `SHELL' environment variable.

`HISTFILE'
     The name of the file that shell commands are saved in between
     logins.  This variable defaults to `~/.bash_history' if you use
     Bash, to `~/.sh_history' if you use ksh, and to `~/.history'
     otherwise.

`HOME'
     The location of your files in the directory tree; used for
     expansion of file names starting with a tilde (`~').  On MS-DOS,
     it defaults to the directory from which Emacs was started, with
     `/bin' removed from the end if it was present.  On Windows, the
     default value of `HOME' is the `Application Data' subdirectory of
     the user profile directory (normally, this is `C:/Documents and
     Settings/USERNAME/Application Data', where USERNAME is your user
     name), though for backwards compatibility `C:/' will be used
     instead if a `.emacs' file is found there.

`HOSTNAME'
     The name of the machine that Emacs is running on.

`INCPATH'
     A colon-separated list of directories.  Used by the `complete'
     package to search for files.

`INFOPATH'
     A colon-separated list of directories in which to search for Info
     files.

`LC_ALL'
`LC_COLLATE'
`LC_CTYPE'
`LC_MESSAGES'
`LC_MONETARY'
`LC_NUMERIC'
`LC_TIME'
`LANG'
     The user's preferred locale.  The locale has six categories,
     specified by the environment variables `LC_COLLATE' for sorting,
     `LC_CTYPE' for character encoding, `LC_MESSAGES' for system
     messages, `LC_MONETARY' for monetary formats, `LC_NUMERIC' for
     numbers, and `LC_TIME' for dates and times.  If one of these
     variables is not set, the category defaults to the value of the
     `LANG' environment variable, or to the default `C' locale if
     `LANG' is not set.  But if `LC_ALL' is specified, it overrides the
     settings of all the other locale environment variables.

     On MS-Windows, if `LANG' is not already set in the environment
     when Emacs starts, Emacs sets it based on the system-wide default
     language, which you can set in the `Regional Settings' Control
     Panel on some versions of MS-Windows.

     The value of the `LC_CTYPE' category is matched against entries in
     `locale-language-names', `locale-charset-language-names', and
     `locale-preferred-coding-systems', to select a default language
     environment and coding system.  *Note Language Environments::.

`LOGNAME'
     The user's login name.  See also `USER'.

`MAIL'
     The name of your system mail inbox.

`MH'
     Name of setup file for the mh system.  (The default is
     `~/.mh_profile'.)

`NAME'
     Your real-world name.

`NNTPSERVER'
     The name of the news server.  Used by the mh and Gnus packages.

`ORGANIZATION'
     The name of the organization to which you belong.  Used for
     setting the `Organization:' header in your posts from the Gnus
     package.

`PATH'
     A colon-separated list of directories in which executables reside.
     This is used to initialize the Emacs Lisp variable `exec-path'.

`PWD'
     If set, this should be the default directory when Emacs was
     started.

`REPLYTO'
     If set, this specifies an initial value for the variable
     `mail-default-reply-to'.  *Note Mail Headers::.

`SAVEDIR'
     The name of a directory in which news articles are saved by
     default.  Used by the Gnus package.

`SHELL'
     The name of an interpreter used to parse and execute programs run
     from inside Emacs.

`SMTPSERVER'
     The name of the outgoing mail server.  Used by the SMTP library
     (*note Top: (smtpmail)Top.).

`TERM'
     The type of the terminal that Emacs is using.  This variable must
     be set unless Emacs is run in batch mode.  On MS-DOS, it defaults
     to `internal', which specifies a built-in terminal emulation that
     handles the machine's own display.  If the value of `TERM'
     indicates that Emacs runs in non-windowed mode from `xterm' or a
     similar terminal emulator, the background mode defaults to
     `light', and Emacs will choose colors that are appropriate for a
     light background.

`TERMCAP'
     The name of the termcap library file describing how to program the
     terminal specified by the `TERM' variable.  This defaults to
     `/etc/termcap'.

`TMPDIR'
     Used by the Emerge package as a prefix for temporary files.

`TZ'
     This specifies the current time zone and possibly also daylight
     saving time information.  On MS-DOS, if `TZ' is not set in the
     environment when Emacs starts, Emacs defines a default value as
     appropriate for the country code returned by DOS.  On MS-Windows,
     Emacs does not use `TZ' at all.

`USER'
     The user's login name.  See also `LOGNAME'.  On MS-DOS, this
     defaults to `root'.

`VERSION_CONTROL'
     Used to initialize the `version-control' variable (*note Numbered
     Backups::).

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Here and below, whenever we say "colon-separated list of
directories," it pertains to Unix and GNU/Linux systems.  On MS-DOS and
MS-Windows, the directories are separated by semi-colons instead, since
DOS/Windows file names might include a colon after a drive letter.

File: emacs,  Node: Misc Variables,  Next: MS-Windows Registry,  Prev: General Variables,  Up: Environment

C.5.2 Miscellaneous Variables
-----------------------------

These variables are used only on particular configurations:

`COMSPEC'
     On MS-DOS and MS-Windows, the name of the command interpreter to
     use when invoking batch files and commands internal to the shell.
     On MS-DOS this is also used to make a default value for the
     `SHELL' environment variable.

`NAME'
     On MS-DOS, this variable defaults to the value of the `USER'
     variable.

`TEMP'
`TMP'
     On MS-DOS and MS-Windows, these specify the name of the directory
     for storing temporary files in.

`EMACSTEST'
     On MS-DOS, this specifies a file to use to log the operation of the
     internal terminal emulator.  This feature is useful for submitting
     bug reports.

`EMACSCOLORS'
     On MS-DOS, this specifies the screen colors.  It is useful to set
     them this way, since otherwise Emacs would display the default
     colors momentarily when it starts up.

     The value of this variable should be the two-character encoding of
     the foreground (the first character) and the background (the second
     character) colors of the default face.  Each character should be
     the hexadecimal code for the desired color on a standard PC
     text-mode display.  For example, to get blue text on a light gray
     background, specify `EMACSCOLORS=17', since 1 is the code of the
     blue color and 7 is the code of the light gray color.

     The PC display usually supports only eight background colors.
     However, Emacs switches the DOS display to a mode where all 16
     colors can be used for the background, so all four bits of the
     background color are actually used.

`WINDOW_GFX'
     Used when initializing the Sun windows system.

`PRELOAD_WINSOCK'
     On MS-Windows, if you set this variable, Emacs will load and
     initialize the network library at startup, instead of waiting
     until the first time it is required.

`emacs_dir'
     On MS-Windows, `emacs_dir' is a special environment variable, which
     indicates the full path of the directory in which Emacs is
     installed.  If Emacs is installed in the standard directory
     structure, it calculates this value automatically.  It is not much
     use setting this variable yourself unless your installation is
     non-standard, since unlike other environment variables, it will be
     overridden by Emacs at startup.  When setting other environment
     variables, such as `EMACSLOADPATH', you may find it useful to use
     `emacs_dir' rather than hard-coding an absolute path.  This allows
     multiple versions of Emacs to share the same environment variable
     settings, and it allows you to move the Emacs installation
     directory, without changing any environment or registry settings.

File: emacs,  Node: MS-Windows Registry,  Prev: Misc Variables,  Up: Environment

C.5.3 The MS-Windows System Registry
------------------------------------

Under MS-Windows, the installation program `addpm.exe' adds values for
`emacs_dir', `EMACSLOADPATH', `EMACSDATA', `EMACSPATH', `EMACSDOC',
`SHELL' and `TERM' to the `HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE' section of the system
registry, under `/Software/GNU/Emacs'.  It does this because there is
no standard place to set environment variables across different
versions of Windows.  Running `addpm.exe' is no longer strictly
necessary in recent versions of Emacs, but if you are upgrading from an
older version, running `addpm.exe' ensures that you do not have older
registry entries from a previous installation, which may not be
compatible with the latest version of Emacs.

   When Emacs starts, as well as checking the environment, it also
checks the System Registry for those variables and for `HOME', `LANG'
and `PRELOAD_WINSOCK'.

   To determine the value of those variables, Emacs goes through the
following procedure.  First, the environment is checked.  If the
variable is not found there, Emacs looks for registry keys by that name
under `/Software/GNU/Emacs'; first in the `HKEY_CURRENT_USER' section
of the registry, and if not found there, in the `HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE'
section.  Finally, if Emacs still cannot determine the values,
compiled-in defaults are used.

   In addition to the environment variables above, you can also add many
of the settings which on X belong in the `.Xdefaults' file (*note X
Resources::) to the `/Software/GNU/Emacs' registry key.  Settings you
add to the `HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE' section will affect all users of the
machine.  Settings you add to the `HKEY_CURRENT_USER' section will only
affect you, and will override machine wide settings.

File: emacs,  Node: Display X,  Next: Font X,  Prev: Environment,  Up: Emacs Invocation

C.6 Specifying the Display Name
===============================

The environment variable `DISPLAY' tells all X clients, including
Emacs, where to display their windows.  Its value is set by default in
ordinary circumstances, when you start an X server and run jobs
locally.  Occasionally you may need to specify the display yourself; for
example, if you do a remote login and want to run a client program
remotely, displaying on your local screen.

   With Emacs, the main reason people change the default display is to
let them log into another system, run Emacs on that system, but have the
window displayed at their local terminal.  You might need to log in to
another system because the files you want to edit are there, or because
the Emacs executable file you want to run is there.

   The syntax of the `DISPLAY' environment variable is
`HOST:DISPLAY.SCREEN', where HOST is the host name of the X Window
System server machine, DISPLAY is an arbitrarily-assigned number that
distinguishes your server (X terminal) from other servers on the same
machine, and SCREEN is a rarely-used field that allows an X server to
control multiple terminal screens.  The period and the SCREEN field are
optional.  If included, SCREEN is usually zero.

   For example, if your host is named `glasperle' and your server is
the first (or perhaps the only) server listed in the configuration, your
`DISPLAY' is `glasperle:0.0'.

   You can specify the display name explicitly when you run Emacs,
either by changing the `DISPLAY' variable, or with the option `-d
DISPLAY' or `--display=DISPLAY'.  Here is an example:

     emacs --display=glasperle:0 &

   You can inhibit the direct use of the window system and GUI with the
`-nw' option.  It tells Emacs to display using ordinary ASCII on its
controlling terminal.  This is also an initial option.

   Sometimes, security arrangements prevent a program on a remote system
from displaying on your local system.  In this case, trying to run Emacs
produces messages like this:

     Xlib:  connection to "glasperle:0.0" refused by server

You might be able to overcome this problem by using the `xhost' command
on the local system to give permission for access from your remote
machine.

File: emacs,  Node: Font X,  Next: Colors,  Prev: Display X,  Up: Emacs Invocation

C.7 Font Specification Options
==============================

By default, Emacs displays text in a twelve point Courier font (when
using X).  You can specify a different font on your command line
through the option `-fn NAME' (or `--font', which is an alias for
`-fn').

`-fn NAME'
`--font=NAME'
     Use font NAME as the default font.

   Under X, each font has a long name which consists of fourteen words
or numbers, separated by dashes.  Some fonts also have shorter
nicknames.  For instance, `9x15' is such a nickname.  This font makes
each character nine pixels wide and fifteen pixels high.  You can use
either kind of name.  Case is insignificant in both kinds.  You can use
wildcard patterns for the font name; then Emacs lets X choose one of
the fonts that match the pattern.  The wildcard character `*' matches
any sequence of characters (including none) and `?' matches any single
character.  However, matching is implementation-dependent, and can be
inaccurate when wildcards match dashes in a long name.  For reliable
results, supply all 14 dashes and use wildcards only within a field.
Here is an example, which happens to specify the font whose nickname is
`6x13':

     emacs -fn \
       "-misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-*-*-*-c-60-iso8859-1" &

You can also specify the font in your `.Xdefaults' file:

     emacs.font: -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-*-*-*-c-60-iso8859-1

   Note that if you use a wildcard pattern on the command line, you
need to enclose it in single or double quotes, to prevent the shell
from accidentally expanding it into a list of file names.  On the other
hand, you should not quote the name in the `.Xdefaults' file.

   The default font used by Emacs (under X) is:

     -adobe-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1

   A long font name has the following form:

     -MAKER-FAMILY-WEIGHT-SLANT-WIDTHTYPE-STYLE...
     ...-PIXELS-HEIGHT-HORIZ-VERT-SPACING-WIDTH-REGISTRY-ENCODING

MAKER
     This is the name of the font manufacturer.

FAMILY
     This is the name of the font family--for example, `courier'.

WEIGHT
     This is normally `bold', `medium' or `light'.  Other words may
     appear here in some font names.

SLANT
     This is `r' (roman), `i' (italic), `o' (oblique), `ri' (reverse
     italic), or `ot' (other).

WIDTHTYPE
     This is normally `condensed', `extended', `semicondensed' or
     `normal'.  Other words may appear here in some font names.

STYLE
     This is an optional additional style name.  Usually it is
     empty--most long font names have two hyphens in a row at this
     point.

PIXELS
     This is the font height, in pixels.

HEIGHT
     This is the font height on the screen, measured in tenths of a
     printer's point--approximately 1/720 of an inch.  In other words,
     it is the point size of the font, times ten.  For a given vertical
     resolution, HEIGHT and PIXELS are proportional; therefore, it is
     common to specify just one of them and use `*' for the other.

HORIZ
     This is the horizontal resolution, in pixels per inch, of the
     screen for which the font is intended.

VERT
     This is the vertical resolution, in pixels per inch, of the screen
     for which the font is intended.  Normally the resolution of the
     fonts on your system is the right value for your screen;
     therefore, you normally specify `*' for this and HORIZ.

SPACING
     This is `m' (monospace), `p' (proportional) or `c' (character
     cell).

WIDTH
     This is the average character width, in pixels, multiplied by ten.

REGISTRY
ENCODING
     These together make up the X font character set that the font
     depicts.  (X font character sets are not the same as Emacs
     charsets, but they are solutions for the same problem.)  You can
     use the `xfontsel' program to check which choices you have.
     However, normally you should use `iso8859' for REGISTRY and `1'
     for ENCODING.

   You will probably want to use a fixed-width default font--that is, a
font in which all characters have the same width.  Any font with `m' or
`c' in the SPACING field of the long name is a fixed-width font.
Here's how to use the `xlsfonts' program to list all the fixed-width
fonts available on your system:

     xlsfonts -fn '*x*' | egrep "^[0-9]+x[0-9]+"
     xlsfonts -fn '*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-m*'
     xlsfonts -fn '*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-c*'

To see what a particular font looks like, use the `xfd' command.  For
example:

     xfd -fn 6x13

displays the entire font `6x13'.

   While running Emacs, you can set the font of the current frame
(*note Frame Parameters::) or for a specific kind of text (*note
Faces::).

File: emacs,  Node: Colors,  Next: Window Size X,  Prev: Font X,  Up: Emacs Invocation

C.8 Window Color Options
========================

On a color display, you can specify which color to use for various
parts of the Emacs display.  To find out what colors are available on
your system, type `M-x list-colors-display', or press `C-Mouse-2' and
select `Display Colors' from the pop-up menu.  (A particular window
system might support many more colors, but the list displayed by
`list-colors-display' shows their portable subset that can be safely
used on any display supported by Emacs.)  If you do not specify colors,
on windowed displays the default for the background is white and the
default for all other colors is black.  On a monochrome display, the
foreground is black, the background is white, and the border is gray if
the display supports that.  On terminals, the background is usually
black and the foreground is white.

   Here is a list of the command-line options for specifying colors:

`-fg COLOR'
`--foreground-color=COLOR'
     Specify the foreground color.  COLOR should be a standard color
     name, or a numeric specification of the color's red, green, and
     blue components as in `#4682B4' or `RGB:46/82/B4'.

`-bg COLOR'
`--background-color=COLOR'
     Specify the background color.

`-bd COLOR'
`--border-color=COLOR'
     Specify the color of the border of the X window.

`-cr COLOR'
`--cursor-color=COLOR'
     Specify the color of the Emacs cursor which indicates where point
     is.

`-ms COLOR'
`--mouse-color=COLOR'
     Specify the color for the mouse cursor when the mouse is in the
     Emacs window.

`-r'
`-rv'
`--reverse-video'
     Reverse video--swap the foreground and background colors.

`--color=MODE'
     For a character terminal only, specify the mode of color support.
     This option is intended for overriding the number of supported
     colors that the character terminal advertises in its `termcap' or
     `terminfo' database.  The parameter MODE can be one of the
     following:
    `never'
    `no'
          Don't use colors even if the terminal's capabilities specify
          color support.

    `default'
    `auto'
          Same as when `--color' is not used at all: Emacs detects at
          startup whether the terminal supports colors, and if it does,
          turns on colored display.

    `always'
    `yes'
    `ansi8'
          Turn on the color support unconditionally, and use color
          commands specified by the ANSI escape sequences for the 8
          standard colors.

    `NUM'
          Use color mode for NUM colors.  If NUM is -1, turn off color
          support (equivalent to `never'); if it is 0, use the default
          color support for this terminal (equivalent to `auto');
          otherwise use an appropriate standard mode for NUM colors.
          Depending on your terminal's capabilities, Emacs might be
          able to turn on a color mode for 8, 16, 88, or 256 as the
          value of NUM.  If there is no mode that supports NUM colors,
          Emacs acts as if NUM were 0, i.e. it uses the terminal's
          default color support mode.
     If MODE is omitted, it defaults to ANSI8.

   For example, to use a coral mouse cursor and a slate blue text
cursor, enter:

     emacs -ms coral -cr 'slate blue' &

   You can reverse the foreground and background colors through the
`-rv' option or with the X resource `reverseVideo'.

   The `-fg', `-bg', and `-rv' options function on text-only terminals
as well as on graphical displays.

File: emacs,  Node: Window Size X,  Next: Borders X,  Prev: Colors,  Up: Emacs Invocation

C.9 Options for Window Size and Position
========================================

Here is a list of the command-line options for specifying size and
position of the initial Emacs frame:

`-g WIDTHxHEIGHT[{+-}XOFFSET{+-}YOFFSET]]'
`--geometry=WIDTHxHEIGHT[{+-}XOFFSET{+-}YOFFSET]]'
     Specify the size WIDTH and HEIGHT (measured in character columns
     and lines), and positions XOFFSET and YOFFSET (measured in
     pixels).  The WIDTH and HEIGHT parameters apply to all frames,
     whereas XOFFSET and YOFFSET only to the initial frame.

`-fs'
`--fullscreen'
     Specify that width and height shall be the size of the screen.

`-fh'
`--fullheight'
     Specify that the height shall be the height of the screen.

`-fw'
`--fullwidth'
     Specify that the width shall be the width of the screen.

In the `--geometry' option, `{+-}' means either a plus  sign or a minus
sign.  A plus sign before XOFFSET means it is the distance from the
left side of the screen; a minus sign means it counts from the right
side.  A plus sign before YOFFSET means it is the distance from the top
of the screen, and a minus sign there indicates the distance from the
bottom.  The values XOFFSET and YOFFSET may themselves be positive or
negative, but that doesn't change their meaning, only their direction.

   Emacs uses the same units as `xterm' does to interpret the geometry.
The WIDTH and HEIGHT are measured in characters, so a large font
creates a larger frame than a small font.  (If you specify a
proportional font, Emacs uses its maximum bounds width as the width
unit.)  The XOFFSET and YOFFSET are measured in pixels.

   You do not have to specify all of the fields in the geometry
specification.  If you omit both XOFFSET and YOFFSET, the window
manager decides where to put the Emacs frame, possibly by letting you
place it with the mouse.  For example, `164x55' specifies a window 164
columns wide, enough for two ordinary width windows side by side, and
55 lines tall.

   The default width for Emacs is 80 characters and the default height
is 40 lines.  You can omit either the width or the height or both.  If
you start the geometry with an integer, Emacs interprets it as the
width.  If you start with an `x' followed by an integer, Emacs
interprets it as the height.  Thus, `81' specifies just the width;
`x45' specifies just the height.

   If you start with `+' or `-', that introduces an offset, which means
both sizes are omitted.  Thus, `-3' specifies the XOFFSET only.  (If
you give just one offset, it is always XOFFSET.)  `+3-3' specifies both
the XOFFSET and the YOFFSET, placing the frame near the bottom left of
the screen.

   You can specify a default for any or all of the fields in
`.Xdefaults' file, and then override selected fields with a
`--geometry' option.

   Since the mode line and the echo area occupy the last 2 lines of the
frame, the height of the initial text window is 2 less than the height
specified in your geometry.  In non-X-toolkit versions of Emacs, the
menu bar also takes one line of the specified number.  But in the X
toolkit version, the menu bar is additional and does not count against
the specified height.  The tool bar, if present, is also additional.

   Enabling or disabling the menu bar or tool bar alters the amount of
space available for ordinary text.  Therefore, if Emacs starts up with
a tool bar (which is the default), and handles the geometry
specification assuming there is a tool bar, and then your `~/.emacs'
file disables the tool bar, you will end up with a frame geometry
different from what you asked for.  To get the intended size with no
tool bar, use an X resource to specify "no tool bar" (*note Table of
Resources::); then Emacs will already know there's no tool bar when it
processes the specified geometry.

   When using one of `--fullscreen', `--fullwidth' or `--fullheight'
there may be some space around the frame anyway.  That is because Emacs
rounds the sizes so they are an even number of character heights and
widths.

   Some window managers have options that can make them ignore both
program-specified and user-specified positions (sawfish is one).  If
these are set, Emacs fails to position the window correctly.

File: emacs,  Node: Borders X,  Next: Title X,  Prev: Window Size X,  Up: Emacs Invocation

C.10 Internal and External Borders
==================================

An Emacs frame has an internal border and an external border.  The
internal border is an extra strip of the background color around the
text portion of the frame.  Emacs itself draws the internal border.
The external border is added by the window manager outside the frame;
depending on the window manager you use, it may contain various boxes
you can click on to move or iconify the window.

`-ib WIDTH'
`--internal-border=WIDTH'
     Specify WIDTH as the width of the internal border (between the text
     and the main border), in pixels.

`-bw WIDTH'
`--border-width=WIDTH'
     Specify WIDTH as the width of the main border, in pixels.

   When you specify the size of the frame, that does not count the
borders.  The frame's position is measured from the outside edge of the
external border.

   Use the `-ib N' option to specify an internal border N pixels wide.
The default is 1.  Use `-bw N' to specify the width of the external
border (though the window manager may not pay attention to what you
specify).  The default width of the external border is 2.

File: emacs,  Node: Title X,  Next: Icons X,  Prev: Borders X,  Up: Emacs Invocation

C.11 Frame Titles
=================

An Emacs frame may or may not have a specified title.  The frame title,
if specified, appears in window decorations and icons as the name of
the frame.  If an Emacs frame has no specified title, the default title
has the form `INVOCATION-NAME@MACHINE' (if there is only one frame) or
the selected window's buffer name (if there is more than one frame).

   You can specify a title for the initial Emacs frame with a command
line option:

`-T TITLE'
`--title=TITLE'
     Specify TITLE as the title for the initial Emacs frame.

   The `--name' option (*note Resources::) also specifies the title for
the initial Emacs frame.

File: emacs,  Node: Icons X,  Next: Misc X,  Prev: Title X,  Up: Emacs Invocation

C.12 Icons
==========

Most window managers allow you to "iconify" a frame, removing it from
sight, and leaving a small, distinctive "icon" window in its place.
Clicking on the icon window makes the frame itself appear again.  If
you have many clients running at once, you can avoid cluttering up the
screen by iconifying most of the clients.

`-nbi'
`--no-bitmap-icon'
     Do not use a picture of a gnu as the Emacs icon.

`-iconic'
`--iconic'
     Start Emacs in iconified state.

   By default Emacs uses an icon window containing a picture of the GNU
gnu.  The `-nbi' or `--no-bitmap-icon' option tells Emacs to let the
window manager choose what sort of icon to use--usually just a small
rectangle containing the frame's title.

   The `-iconic' option tells Emacs to begin running as an icon, rather
than showing a frame right away.  In this situation, the icon is the
only indication that Emacs has started; the text frame doesn't appear
until you deiconify it.

File: emacs,  Node: Misc X,  Prev: Icons X,  Up: Emacs Invocation

C.13 Other Display Options
==========================

`-hb'
`--horizontal-scroll-bars'
     Enable horizontal scroll bars.  Since horizontal scroll bars are
     not yet implemented, this actually does nothing.

`-vb'
`--vertical-scroll-bars'
     Enable vertical scroll bars.

`-lsp PIXELS'
`--line-spacing=PIXELS'
     Specify PIXELS as additional space to put between lines, in pixels.

`-nbc'
`--no-blinking-cursor'
     Disable the blinking cursor on graphical displays.

`-D'
`--basic-display'
     Disable the menu-bar, the tool-bar, the scroll-bars, and tool tips,
     and turn off the blinking cursor.  This can be useful for making a
     test case that simplifies debugging of display problems.

   The `--xrm' option (*note Resources::) specifies additional X
resource values.

File: emacs,  Node: Basic,  Next: Minibuffer,  Prev: Exiting,  Up: Top

8 Basic Editing Commands
************************

Here we explain the basics of how to enter text, make corrections, and
save the text in a file.  If this material is new to you, we suggest
you first run the Emacs learn-by-doing tutorial, by typing `Control-h
t' inside Emacs.  (`help-with-tutorial').

   To clear and redisplay the screen, type `C-l' (`recenter').

* Menu:


* Inserting Text::      Inserting text by simply typing it.
* Moving Point::        Moving the cursor to the place where you want to
			  change something.
* Erasing::	        Deleting and killing text.
* Basic Undo::	        Undoing recent changes in the text.
* Files: Basic Files.   Visiting, creating, and saving files.
* Help: Basic Help.     Asking what a character does.
* Blank Lines::	        Making and deleting blank lines.
* Continuation Lines::  How Emacs displays lines too wide for the screen.
* Position Info::       What page, line, row, or column is point on?
* Arguments::	        Numeric arguments for repeating a command N times.
* Repeating::           Repeating the previous command quickly.

File: emacs,  Node: Inserting Text,  Next: Moving Point,  Up: Basic

8.1 Inserting Text
==================

Typing printing characters inserts them into the text you are editing.
It inserts them into the buffer at the cursor; more precisely, it
inserts them at "point", but the cursor normally shows where point is.
*Note Point::.

   Insertion moves the cursor forward, and the following text moves
forward with the cursor.  If the text in the buffer is `FOOBAR', with
the cursor before the `B', and you type `XX', you get `FOOXXBAR', with
the cursor still before the `B'.

   To "delete" text you have just inserted, use the large key labeled
<DEL>, <BACKSPACE> or <DELETE> which is a short distance above the
<RET> or <ENTER> key.  Regardless of the label on that key, Emacs
thinks of it as <DEL>, and that's what we call it in this manual.
<DEL> is the key you normally use outside Emacs to erase the last
character that you typed.

   The <DEL> key deletes the character _before_ the cursor.  As a
consequence, the cursor and all the characters after it move backwards.
If you type a printing character and then type <DEL>, they cancel out.

   On most computers, Emacs sets up <DEL> automatically.  In some
cases, especially with text-only terminals, Emacs may guess wrong.  If
the key that ought to erase the last character doesn't do it in Emacs,
see *note DEL Does Not Delete::.

   Most PC keyboards have both a <BACKSPACE> key a little ways above
<RET> or <ENTER>, and a <DELETE> key elsewhere.  On these keyboards,
Emacs tries to set up <BACKSPACE> as <DEL>.  The <DELETE> key deletes
"forwards" like `C-d' (see below), which means it deletes the character
underneath the cursor (after point).

   To end a line and start typing a new one, type <RET>.  (This key may
be labeled <RETURN> or <ENTER>, but in Emacs we call it <RET>.)  This
inserts a newline character in the buffer.  If point is at the end of
the line, this creates a new blank line after it.  If point is in the
middle of a line, the effect is to split that line.  Typing <DEL> when
the cursor is at the beginning of a line deletes the preceding newline
character, thus joining the line with the one before it.

   Emacs can split lines automatically when they become too long, if
you turn on a special minor mode called "Auto Fill" mode.  *Note
Filling::, for Auto Fill mode and other methods of "filling" text.

   If you prefer printing characters to replace (overwrite) existing
text, rather than shove it to the right, you should enable Overwrite
mode, a minor mode.  *Note Minor Modes::.

   Only printing characters and <SPC> insert themselves in Emacs.
Other characters act as editing commands and do not insert themselves.
These include control characters, and characters with codes above 200
octal.  If you need to insert one of these characters in the buffer,
you must "quote" it by typing the character `Control-q'
(`quoted-insert') first.  (This character's name is normally written
`C-q' for short.)  There are two ways to use `C-q':

   * `C-q' followed by any non-graphic character (even `C-g') inserts
     that character.

   * `C-q' followed by a sequence of octal digits inserts the character
     with the specified octal character code.  You can use any number of
     octal digits; any non-digit terminates the sequence.  If the
     terminating character is <RET>, it serves only to terminate the
     sequence.  Any other non-digit terminates the sequence and then
     acts as normal input--thus, `C-q 1 0 1 B' inserts `AB'.

     The use of octal sequences is disabled in ordinary non-binary
     Overwrite mode, to give you a convenient way to insert a digit
     instead of overwriting with it.

When multibyte characters are enabled, if you specify a code in the
range 0200 through 0377 octal, `C-q' assumes that you intend to use
some ISO 8859-N character set, and converts the specified code to the
corresponding Emacs character code.  *Note Enabling Multibyte::.  You
select _which_ of the ISO 8859 character sets to use through your
choice of language environment (*note Language Environments::).

   To use decimal or hexadecimal instead of octal, set the variable
`read-quoted-char-radix' to 10 or 16.  If the radix is greater than 10,
some letters starting with `a' serve as part of a character code, just
like digits.

   A numeric argument tells `C-q' how many copies of the quoted
character to insert (*note Arguments::).

   Customization information: <DEL> in most modes runs the command
`delete-backward-char'; <RET> runs the command `newline', and
self-inserting printing characters run the command `self-insert', which
inserts whatever character you typed.  Some major modes rebind <DEL> to
other commands.

File: emacs,  Node: Moving Point,  Next: Erasing,  Prev: Inserting Text,  Up: Basic

8.2 Changing the Location of Point
==================================

To do more than insert characters, you have to know how to move point
(*note Point::).  The simplest way to do this is with arrow keys, or by
clicking the left mouse button where you want to move to.

   There are also control and meta characters for cursor motion.  Some
are equivalent to the arrow keys (it is faster to use these control
keys than move your hand over to the arrow keys).  Others do more
sophisticated things.

`C-a'
     Move to the beginning of the line (`move-beginning-of-line').

`C-e'
     Move to the end of the line (`move-end-of-line').

`C-f'
     Move forward one character (`forward-char').  The right-arrow key
     does the same thing.

`C-b'
     Move backward one character (`backward-char').  The left-arrow key
     has the same effect.

`M-f'
     Move forward one word (`forward-word').

`M-b'
     Move backward one word (`backward-word').

`C-n'
     Move down one line vertically (`next-line').  This command
     attempts to keep the horizontal position unchanged, so if you
     start in the middle of one line, you move to the middle of the
     next.  The down-arrow key does the same thing.

`C-p'
     Move up one line, vertically (`previous-line').  The up-arrow key
     has the same effect.  This command preserves position within the
     line, like `C-n'.

`M-r'
     Move point to left margin, vertically centered in the window
     (`move-to-window-line').  Text does not move on the screen.  A
     numeric argument says which screen line to place point on, counting
     downward from the top of the window (zero means the top line).  A
     negative argument counts lines up from the bottom (-1 means the
     bottom line).

`M-<'
     Move to the top of the buffer (`beginning-of-buffer').  With
     numeric argument N, move to N/10 of the way from the top.  *Note
     Arguments::, for more information on numeric arguments.

`M->'
     Move to the end of the buffer (`end-of-buffer').

`C-v'
`<PAGEDOWN>'
`<PRIOR>'
     Scroll the display one screen forward, and move point if necessary
     to put it on the screen (`scroll-up').  This doesn't always move
     point, but it is commonly used to do so.  If your keyboard has a
     <PAGEDOWN> or <PRIOR> key, it does the same thing.

     Scrolling commands are described further in *note Scrolling::.

`M-v'
`<PAGEUP>'
`<NEXT>'
     Scroll one screen backward, and move point if necessary to put it
     on the screen (`scroll-down').  This doesn't always move point, but
     it is commonly used to do so.  If your keyboard has a <PAGEUP> or
     <NEXT> key, it does the same thing.

`M-x goto-char'
     Read a number N and move point to buffer position N.  Position 1
     is the beginning of the buffer.

`M-g M-g'
`M-g g'
`M-x goto-line'
     Read a number N and move point to the beginning of line number N.
     Line 1 is the beginning of the buffer.  If point is on or just
     after a number in the buffer, and you type <RET> with the
     minibuffer empty, that number is used for N.

`C-x C-n'
     Use the current column of point as the "semipermanent goal column"
     for `C-n' and `C-p' (`set-goal-column').  When a semipermanent
     goal column is in effect, those commands always try to move to
     this column, or as close as possible to it, after moving
     vertically.  The goal column remains in effect until canceled.

`C-u C-x C-n'
     Cancel the goal column.  Henceforth, `C-n' and `C-p' try to
     preserve the horizontal position, as usual.

   If you set the variable `track-eol' to a non-`nil' value, then `C-n'
and `C-p', when starting at the end of the line, move to the end of
another line.  Normally, `track-eol' is `nil'.  *Note Variables::, for
how to set variables such as `track-eol'.

   `C-n' normally stops at the end of the buffer when you use it on the
last line of the buffer.  However, if you set the variable
`next-line-add-newlines' to a non-`nil' value, `C-n' on the last line
of a buffer creates an additional line at the end and moves down into
it.

File: emacs,  Node: Erasing,  Next: Basic Undo,  Prev: Moving Point,  Up: Basic

8.3 Erasing Text
================

`<DEL>'
     Delete the character before point (`delete-backward-char').

`C-d'
     Delete the character after point (`delete-char').

`<DELETE>'
`<BACKSPACE>'
     One of these keys, whichever is the large key above the <RET> or
     <ENTER> key, deletes the character before point--it is <DEL>.  If
     <BACKSPACE> is <DEL>, and your keyboard also has <DELETE>, then
     <DELETE> deletes forwards, like `C-d'.

`C-k'
     Kill to the end of the line (`kill-line').

`M-d'
     Kill forward to the end of the next word (`kill-word').

`M-<DEL>'
     Kill back to the beginning of the previous word
     (`backward-kill-word').

   You already know about the <DEL> key which deletes the character
before point (that is, before the cursor).  Another key, `Control-d'
(`C-d' for short), deletes the character after point (that is, the
character that the cursor is on).  This shifts the rest of the text on
the line to the left.  If you type `C-d' at the end of a line, it joins
that line with the following line.

   To erase a larger amount of text, use the `C-k' key, which erases
(kills) a line at a time.  If you type `C-k' at the beginning or middle
of a line, it kills all the text up to the end of the line.  If you
type `C-k' at the end of a line, it joins that line with the following
line.

   *Note Killing::, for more flexible ways of killing text.

File: emacs,  Node: Basic Undo,  Next: Basic Files,  Prev: Erasing,  Up: Basic

8.4 Undoing Changes
===================

Emacs records a list of changes made in the buffer text, so you can
undo recent changes, as far as the records go.  Usually each editing
command makes a separate entry in the undo records, but sometimes an
entry covers just part of a command, and very simple commands may be
grouped.

`C-x u'
     Undo one entry of the undo records--usually, one command worth
     (`undo').

`C-_'
`C-/'
     The same.

   The command `C-x u' (or `C-_' or `C-/') is how you undo.  Normally
this command undoes the last change, and moves point back to where it
was before the change.

   If you repeat `C-x u' (or its aliases), each repetition undoes
another, earlier change, back to the limit of the undo information
available.  If all recorded changes have already been undone, the undo
command displays an error message and does nothing.

   The undo command applies only to changes in the buffer; you can't
use it to undo mere cursor motion.  However, some cursor motion
commands set the mark, so if you use these commands from time to time,
you can move back to the neighborhoods you have moved through by
popping the mark ring (*note Mark Ring::).

File: emacs,  Node: Basic Files,  Next: Basic Help,  Prev: Basic Undo,  Up: Basic

8.5 Files
=========

Text that you insert in an Emacs buffer lasts only as long as the Emacs
session.  To keep any text permanently you must put it in a "file".
Files are named units of text which are stored by the operating system
for you to retrieve later by name.  To use the contents of a file in
any way, you must specify the file name.  That includes editing the
file with Emacs.

   Suppose there is a file named `test.emacs' in your home directory.
To begin editing this file in Emacs, type

     C-x C-f test.emacs <RET>

Here the file name is given as an "argument" to the command `C-x C-f'
(`find-file').  That command uses the "minibuffer" to read the
argument, and you type <RET> to terminate the argument (*note
Minibuffer::).

   Emacs obeys this command by "visiting" the file: it creates a
buffer, it copies the contents of the file into the buffer, and then
displays the buffer for editing.  If you alter the text, you can "save"
the new text in the file by typing `C-x C-s' (`save-buffer').  This
copies the altered buffer contents back into the file `test.emacs',
making them permanent.  Until you save, the changed text exists only
inside Emacs, and the file `test.emacs' is unaltered.

   To create a file, just visit it with `C-x C-f' as if it already
existed.  This creates an empty buffer, in which you can insert the
text you want to put in the file.  Emacs actually creates the file the
first time you save this buffer with `C-x C-s'.

   To learn more about using files in Emacs, see *note Files::.

File: emacs,  Node: Basic Help,  Next: Blank Lines,  Prev: Basic Files,  Up: Basic

8.6 Help
========

If you forget what a key does, you can find out with the Help
character, which is `C-h' (or <F1>, which is an alias for `C-h').  Type
`C-h k' followed by the key of interest; for example, `C-h k C-n' tells
you what `C-n' does.  `C-h' is a prefix key; `C-h k' is just one of its
subcommands (the command `describe-key').  The other subcommands of
`C-h' provide different kinds of help.  Type `C-h' twice to get a
description of all the help facilities.  *Note Help::.

File: emacs,  Node: Blank Lines,  Next: Continuation Lines,  Prev: Basic Help,  Up: Basic

8.7 Blank Lines
===============

Here are special commands and techniques for inserting and deleting
blank lines.

`C-o'
     Insert one or more blank lines after the cursor (`open-line').

`C-x C-o'
     Delete all but one of many consecutive blank lines
     (`delete-blank-lines').

   To insert a new line of text before an existing line, type the new
line of text, followed by <RET>.  However, it may be easier to see what
you are doing if you first make a blank line and then insert the
desired text into it.  This is easy to do using the key `C-o'
(`open-line'), which inserts a newline after point but leaves point in
front of the newline.  After `C-o', type the text for the new line.
`C-o F O O' has the same effect as `F O O <RET>', except for the final
location of point.

   You can make several blank lines by typing `C-o' several times, or
by giving it a numeric argument specifying how many blank lines to make.
*Note Arguments::, for how.  If you have a fill prefix, the `C-o'
command inserts the fill prefix on the new line, if typed at the
beginning of a line.  *Note Fill Prefix::.

   The easy way to get rid of extra blank lines is with the command
`C-x C-o' (`delete-blank-lines').  `C-x C-o' in a run of several blank
lines deletes all but one of them.  `C-x C-o' on a lone blank line
deletes that one.  When point is on a nonblank line, `C-x C-o' deletes
all following blank lines (if any).

File: emacs,  Node: Continuation Lines,  Next: Position Info,  Prev: Blank Lines,  Up: Basic

8.8 Continuation Lines
======================

When a text line is too long to fit in one screen line, Emacs displays
it on two or more screen lines.  This is called "continuation" or "line
wrapping".  On graphical displays, Emacs indicates line wrapping with
small bent arrows in the left and right window fringes.  On text-only
terminals, Emacs displays a `\' character at the right margin of a
screen line if it is not the last in its text line.  This `\' character
says that the following screen line is not really a new text line.

   When line wrapping occurs just before a character that is wider than
one column, some columns at the end of the previous screen line may be
"empty."  In this case, Emacs displays additional `\' characters in the
"empty" columns before the `\' character that indicates continuation.

   Continued lines can be difficult to read, since lines can break in
the middle of a word.  If you prefer, you can make Emacs insert a
newline automatically when a line gets too long, by using Auto Fill
mode.  Or enable Long Lines mode, which ensures that wrapping only
occurs between words.  *Note Filling::.

   Emacs can optionally "truncate" long lines--this means displaying
just one screen line worth, and the rest of the long line does not
appear at all.  `$' in the last column or a small straight arrow in the
window's right fringe indicates a truncated line.

   *Note Line Truncation::, for more about line truncation, and other
variables that control how text is displayed.

File: emacs,  Node: Position Info,  Next: Arguments,  Prev: Continuation Lines,  Up: Basic

8.9 Cursor Position Information
===============================

Here are commands to get information about the size and position of
parts of the buffer, and to count lines.

`M-x what-page'
     Display the page number of point, and the line number within that
     page.

`M-x what-line'
     Display the line number of point in the whole buffer.

`M-x line-number-mode'
`M-x column-number-mode'
     Toggle automatic display of the current line number or column
     number.  *Note Optional Mode Line::.

`M-='
     Display the number of lines in the current region
     (`count-lines-region').  *Note Mark::, for information about the
     region.

`C-x ='
     Display the character code of character after point, character
     position of point, and column of point (`what-cursor-position').

`M-x hl-line-mode'
     Enable or disable highlighting of the current line.  *Note Cursor
     Display::.

`M-x size-indication-mode'
     Toggle automatic display of the size of the buffer.  *Note
     Optional Mode Line::.

   `M-x what-line' displays the current line number in the echo area.
You can also see the current line number in the mode line; see *note
Mode Line::; but if you narrow the buffer, the line number in the mode
line is relative to the accessible portion (*note Narrowing::).  By
contrast, `what-line' shows both the line number relative to the
narrowed region and the line number relative to the whole buffer.

   `M-x what-page' counts pages from the beginning of the file, and
counts lines within the page, showing both numbers in the echo area.
*Note Pages::.

   Use `M-=' (`count-lines-region') to displays the number of lines in
the region (*note Mark::).  *Note Pages::, for the command `C-x l'
which counts the lines in the current page.

   The command `C-x =' (`what-cursor-position') shows what cursor's
column position, and other information about point and the character
after it.  It displays a line in the echo area that looks like this:

     Char: c (99, #o143, #x63) point=28062 of 36168 (78%) column=53

   The four values after `Char:' describe the character that follows
point, first by showing it and then by giving its character code in
decimal, octal and hex.  For a non-ASCII multibyte character, these are
followed by `file' and the character's representation, in hex, in the
buffer's coding system, if that coding system encodes the character
safely and with a single byte (*note Coding Systems::).  If the
character's encoding is longer than one byte, Emacs shows `file ...'.

   However, if the character displayed is in the range 0200 through
0377 octal, it may actually stand for an invalid UTF-8 byte read from a
file.  In Emacs, that byte is represented as a sequence of 8-bit
characters, but all of them together display as the original invalid
byte, in octal code.  In this case, `C-x =' shows `part of display ...'
instead of `file'.

   `point=' is followed by the position of point expressed as a
character count.  The start of the buffer is position 1, one character
later is position 2, and so on.  The next, larger, number is the total
number of characters in the buffer.  Afterward in parentheses comes the
position expressed as a percentage of the total size.

   `column=' is followed by the horizontal position of point, in
columns from the left edge of the window.

   If the buffer has been narrowed, making some of the text at the
beginning and the end temporarily inaccessible, `C-x =' displays
additional text describing the currently accessible range.  For
example, it might display this:

     Char: C (67, #o103, #x43) point=252 of 889 (28%) <231-599> column=0

where the two extra numbers give the smallest and largest character
position that point is allowed to assume.  The characters between those
two positions are the accessible ones.  *Note Narrowing::.

   If point is at the end of the buffer (or the end of the accessible
part), the `C-x =' output does not describe a character after point.
The output might look like this:

     point=36169 of 36168 (EOB) column=0

   `C-u C-x =' displays the following additional information about a
character.

   * The character set name, and the codes that identify the character
     within that character set; ASCII characters are identified as
     belonging to the `ascii' character set.

   * The character's syntax and categories.

   * The character's encodings, both internally in the buffer, and
     externally if you were to save the file.

   * What keys to type to input the character in the current input
     method (if it supports the character).

   * If you are running Emacs on a graphical display, the font name and
     glyph code for the character.  If you are running Emacs on a
     text-only terminal, the code(s) sent to the terminal.

   * The character's text properties (*note Text Properties:
     (elisp)Text Properties.), including any faces usewd to display the
     character, and any overlays containing it (*note Overlays:
     (elisp)Overlays.).

   Here's an example showing the Latin-1 character A with grave accent,
in a buffer whose coding system is `iso-latin-1', whose terminal coding
system is `iso-latin-1' (so the terminal actually displays the
character as `A`'), and which has font-lock-mode (*note Font Lock::)
enabled:

       character: A` (2240, #o4300, #x8c0, U+00C0)
         charset: latin-iso8859-1
                  (Right-Hand Part of Latin Alphabet 1...
      code point: #x40
          syntax: w 	which means: word
        category: l:Latin
        to input: type "`A" with latin-1-prefix
     buffer code: #x81 #xC0
       file code: #xC0 (encoded by coding system iso-latin-1)
         display: terminal code #xC0

     There are text properties here:
       fontified            t

File: emacs,  Node: Arguments,  Next: Repeating,  Prev: Position Info,  Up: Basic

8.10 Numeric Arguments
======================

In mathematics and computer usage, "argument" means "data provided to a
function or operation."  You can give any Emacs command a "numeric
argument" (also called a "prefix argument").  Some commands interpret
the argument as a repetition count.  For example, `C-f' with an
argument of ten moves forward ten characters instead of one.  With
these commands, no argument is equivalent to an argument of one.
Negative arguments tell most such commands to move or act in the
opposite direction.

   If your terminal keyboard has a <META> key (labeled <ALT> on PC
keyboards), the easiest way to specify a numeric argument is to type
digits and/or a minus sign while holding down the <META> key.  For
example,

     M-5 C-n

moves down five lines.  The characters `Meta-1', `Meta-2', and so on,
as well as `Meta--', do this because they are keys bound to commands
(`digit-argument' and `negative-argument') that are defined to set up
an argument for the next command.  `Meta--' without digits normally
means -1.  Digits and `-' modified with Control, or Control and Meta,
also specify numeric arguments.

   You can also specify a numeric argument by typing `C-u'
(`universal-argument') followed by the digits.  The advantage of `C-u'
is that you can type the digits without modifier keys; thus, `C-u'
works on all terminals.  For a negative argument, type a minus sign
after `C-u'.  A minus sign without digits normally means -1.

   `C-u' alone has the special meaning of "four times": it multiplies
the argument for the next command by four.  `C-u C-u' multiplies it by
sixteen.  Thus, `C-u C-u C-f' moves forward sixteen characters.  This
is a good way to move forward "fast," since it moves about 1/5 of a
line in the usual size screen.  Other useful combinations are `C-u
C-n', `C-u C-u C-n' (move down a good fraction of a screen), `C-u C-u
C-o' (make "a lot" of blank lines), and `C-u C-k' (kill four lines).

   Some commands care whether there is an argument, but ignore its
value.  For example, the command `M-q' (`fill-paragraph') fills text;
with an argument, it justifies the text as well.  (*Note Filling::, for
more information on `M-q'.)  Plain `C-u' is a handy way of providing an
argument for such commands.

   Some commands use the value of the argument as a repeat count, but do
something peculiar when there is no argument.  For example, the command
`C-k' (`kill-line') with argument N kills N lines, including their
terminating newlines.  But `C-k' with no argument is special: it kills
the text up to the next newline, or, if point is right at the end of
the line, it kills the newline itself.  Thus, two `C-k' commands with
no arguments can kill a nonblank line, just like `C-k' with an argument
of one.  (*Note Killing::, for more information on `C-k'.)

   A few commands treat a plain `C-u' differently from an ordinary
argument.  A few others may treat an argument of just a minus sign
differently from an argument of -1.  These unusual cases are described
when they come up; they exist to make an individual command more
convenient, and they are documented in that command's documentation
string.

   You can use a numeric argument before a self-inserting character to
insert multiple copies of it.  This is straightforward when the
character is not a digit; for example, `C-u 6 4 a' inserts 64 copies of
the character `a'.  But this does not work for inserting digits; `C-u 6
4 1' specifies an argument of 641.  You can separate the argument from
the digit to insert with another `C-u'; for example, `C-u 6 4 C-u 1'
does insert 64 copies of the character `1'.

   We use the term "prefix argument" as well as "numeric argument," to
emphasize that you type these argument before the command, and to
distinguish them from minibuffer arguments that come after the command.

File: emacs,  Node: Repeating,  Prev: Arguments,  Up: Basic

8.11 Repeating a Command
========================

Many simple commands, such as those invoked with a single key or with
`M-x COMMAND-NAME <RET>', can be repeated by invoking them with a
numeric argument that serves as a repeat count (*note Arguments::).
However, if the command you want to repeat prompts for input, or uses a
numeric argument in another way, that method won't work.

   The command `C-x z' (`repeat') provides another way to repeat an
Emacs command many times.  This command repeats the previous Emacs
command, whatever that was.  Repeating a command uses the same arguments
that were used before; it does not read new arguments each time.

   To repeat the command more than once, type additional `z''s: each
`z' repeats the command one more time.  Repetition ends when you type a
character other than `z', or press a mouse button.

   For example, suppose you type `C-u 2 0 C-d' to delete 20 characters.
You can repeat that command (including its argument) three additional
times, to delete a total of 80 characters, by typing `C-x z z z'.  The
first `C-x z' repeats the command once, and each subsequent `z' repeats
it once again.

File: emacs,  Node: Minibuffer,  Next: M-x,  Prev: Basic,  Up: Top

9 The Minibuffer
****************

The "minibuffer" is where Emacs commands read complicated arguments
(anything more a single number).  We call it the "minibuffer" because
it's a special-purpose buffer with a small amount of screen space.
Minibuffer arguments can be file names, buffer names, Lisp function
names, Emacs command names, Lisp expressions, and many other
things--whatever the command wants to read.  You can use the usual
Emacs editing commands in the minibuffer to edit the argument text.

   When the minibuffer is in use, it appears in the echo area, with a
cursor.  The minibuffer display starts with a "prompt" in a distinct
color; it says what kind of input is expected and how it will be used.
Often the prompt is derived from the name of the command that is
reading the argument.  The prompt normally ends with a colon.

   Sometimes a "default argument" appears in the prompt, inside
parentheses before the colon.  The default will be used as the argument
value if you just type <RET>.  For example, commands that read buffer
names show a buffer name as the default.  You can type <RET> to operate
on that default buffer.

   The simplest way to enter a minibuffer argument is to type the text,
then <RET> to exit the minibuffer.  You can cancel the minibuffer, and
the command that wants the argument, by typing `C-g'.

   Since the minibuffer appears in the echo area, it can conflict with
other uses of the echo area.  Here is how Emacs handles such conflicts:

   * An error occurs while the minibuffer is active.

     The error message hides the minibuffer for a few seconds, or until
     you type something.  Then the minibuffer comes back.

   * A command such as `C-x =' needs to display a message in the echo
     area.

     The message hides the minibuffer for a few seconds, or until you
     type something.  Then the minibuffer comes back.

   * Keystrokes don't echo while the minibuffer is in use.

* Menu:

* File: Minibuffer File.  Entering file names with the minibuffer.
* Edit: Minibuffer Edit.  How to edit in the minibuffer.
* Completion::		  An abbreviation facility for minibuffer input.
* Minibuffer History::    Reusing recent minibuffer arguments.
* Repetition::		  Re-executing commands that used the minibuffer.

File: emacs,  Node: Minibuffer File,  Next: Minibuffer Edit,  Up: Minibuffer

9.1 Minibuffers for File Names
==============================

When you use the minibuffer to enter a file name, it starts out with
some initial text--the "default directory", ending in a slash.  The
file you specify will be in this directory unless you alter or replace
it.

   For example, if the minibuffer starts out with these contents:

     Find File: /u2/emacs/src/

(where `Find File: ' is the prompt), and you type `buffer.c' as input,
that specifies the file `/u2/emacs/src/buffer.c'.  You can specify the
parent directory by adding `..'; thus, if you type `../lisp/simple.el',
you will get `/u2/emacs/lisp/simple.el'.  Alternatively, you can use
`M-<DEL>' to kill the directory names you don't want (*note Words::).

   You can kill the entire default with `C-a C-k', but there's no need
to do that.  It's easier to ignore the default, and enter an absolute
file name starting with a slash or a tilde after the default directory.
For example, to specify `/etc/termcap', just type that name:

     Find File: /u2/emacs/src//etc/termcap

GNU Emacs interprets a double slash (which is not normally useful in
file names) as, "ignore everything before the second slash in the
pair."  In the example above. `/u2/emacs/src/' is ignored, so you get
`/etc/termcap'.  The ignored part of the file name is dimmed if the
terminal allows it; to disable this dimming, turn off File Name Shadow
mode (a minor mode) with the command `M-x file-name-shadow-mode'.

   If the variable `insert-default-directory' is `nil', the default
directory is never inserted in the minibuffer--so the minibuffer starts
out empty.  Nonetheless, relative file name arguments are still
interpreted based on the same default directory.

File: emacs,  Node: Minibuffer Edit,  Next: Completion,  Prev: Minibuffer File,  Up: Minibuffer

9.2 Editing in the Minibuffer
=============================

The minibuffer is an Emacs buffer (albeit a peculiar one), and the
usual Emacs commands are available for editing the argument text.

   Since <RET> in the minibuffer is defined to exit the minibuffer, you
can't use it to insert a newline in the minibuffer.  To do that, type
`C-o' or `C-q C-j'.  (The newline character is really the ASCII
character control-J.)

   The minibuffer has its own window, which normally has space in the
frame at all times, but it only acts like an Emacs window when the
minibuffer is active.  When active, this window is much like any other
Emacs window; for instance, you can switch to another window (with `C-x
o'), edit text there, then return to the minibuffer window to finish
the argument.  You can even kill text in another window, return to the
minibuffer window, and then yank the text into the argument.  *Note
Windows::.

   There are some restrictions on the minibuffer window, however: you
cannot kill it, or split it, or switch buffers in it--the minibuffer
and its window are permanently attached.

   The minibuffer window expands vertically as necessary to hold the
text that you put in the minibuffer.  If `resize-mini-windows' is `t'
(the default), the window always resizes as needed by its contents.  If
its value is the symbol `grow-only', the window grows automatically as
needed, but shrinks (back to the normal size) only when the minibuffer
becomes inactive.  If its value is `nil', you have to adjust the height
yourself.

   The variable `max-mini-window-height' controls the maximum height
for resizing the minibuffer window: a floating-point number specifies a
fraction of the frame's height; an integer specifies the maximum number
of lines; `nil' means do not resize the minibuffer window
automatically.  The default value is 0.25.

   The `C-M-v' command in the minibuffer scrolls the help text from
commands that display help text of any sort in another window.
`M-<PAGEUP>' and `M-<PAGEDOWN>' also operate on that help text.  This
is especially useful with long lists of possible completions.  *Note
Other Window::.

   Emacs normally disallows most commands that use the minibuffer while
the minibuffer is active.  (Entering the minibuffer from the minibuffer
can be confusing.)  To allow such commands in the minibuffer, set the
variable `enable-recursive-minibuffers' to `t'.

File: emacs,  Node: Completion,  Next: Minibuffer History,  Prev: Minibuffer Edit,  Up: Minibuffer

9.3 Completion
==============

Some arguments allow "completion" to enter their value.  This means
that after you type part of the argument, Emacs can fill in the rest,
or some of it, based on what you have typed so far.

   When completion is available, certain keys--<TAB>, <RET>, and
<SPC>--are rebound to complete the text in the minibuffer before point
into a longer string chosen from a set of "completion alternatives"
provided by the command that requested the argument.  (<SPC> does not
do completion in reading file names, because it is common to use spaces
in file names on some systems.)  `?' displays a list of the possible
completions at any time.

   For example, `M-x' uses the minibuffer to read the name of a
command, so it provides a list of all Emacs command names for
completion candidates.  The completion keys match the minibuffer text
against these candidates, find any additional name characters implied
by the text already present in the minibuffer, and add those
characters.  This makes it possible to type `M-x ins <SPC> b <RET>'
instead of `M-x insert-buffer <RET>', for example.

   Case is significant in completion when it is significant in the
argument you are entering (buffer names, file names, command names, for
instance).  Thus, `fo' does not complete to `Foo'.  Completion ignores
case distinctions for certain arguments in which case does not matter.

   Completion acts only on the text before point.  If there is text in
the minibuffer after point--i.e., if you move point backward after
typing some text into the minibuffer--it remains unchanged.

* Menu:

* Example: Completion Example.    Examples of using completion.
* Commands: Completion Commands.  A list of completion commands.
* Strict Completion::             Different types of completion.
* Options: Completion Options.    Options for completion.

File: emacs,  Node: Completion Example,  Next: Completion Commands,  Up: Completion

9.3.1 Completion Example
------------------------

A concrete example may help here.  If you type `M-x au <TAB>', the
<TAB> looks for alternatives (in this case, command names) that start
with `au'.  There are several, including `auto-fill-mode' and
`auto-save-mode', but they all begin with `auto-', so the `au' in the
minibuffer completes to `auto-'.

   If you type <TAB> again immediately, it cannot determine the next
character; it could be any of `cfilrs'.  So it does not add any
characters; instead, <TAB> displays a list of all possible completions
in another window.

   Now type `f <TAB>'.  This <TAB> sees `auto-f'.  The only command
name starting with that is `auto-fill-mode', so completion fills in the
rest of that.  You have been able to enter `auto-fill-mode' by typing
just `au <TAB> f <TAB>'.

File: emacs,  Node: Completion Commands,  Next: Strict Completion,  Prev: Completion Example,  Up: Completion

9.3.2 Completion Commands
-------------------------

Here is a list of the completion commands defined in the minibuffer
when completion is allowed.

`<TAB>'
     Complete the text before point in the minibuffer as much as
     possible (`minibuffer-complete').

`<SPC>'
     Complete up to one word from the minibuffer text before point
     (`minibuffer-complete-word').  <SPC> for completion is not
     available when entering a file name, since file names often include
     spaces.

`<RET>'
     Submit the text in the minibuffer as the argument, possibly
     completing first as described in the next node
     (`minibuffer-complete-and-exit').  *Note Strict Completion::.

`?'
     Display a list of possible completions of the text before point
     (`minibuffer-completion-help').

   <SPC> completes like <TAB>, but only up to the next hyphen or space.
If you have `auto-f' in the minibuffer and type <SPC>, it finds that
the completion is `auto-fill-mode', but it only inserts `ill-', giving
`auto-fill-'.  Another <SPC> at this point completes all the way to
`auto-fill-mode'.  The command that implements this behavior is called
`minibuffer-complete-word'.

   When you display a list of possible completions, you can choose one
from it:

`Mouse-1'
`Mouse-2'
     Clicking mouse button 1 or 2 on a completion possibility chooses
     that completion (`mouse-choose-completion').  You must click in the
     list of completions, not in the minibuffer.

`<PRIOR>'
`M-v'
     Typing <PRIOR> or <PAGE-UP>, or `M-v', while in the minibuffer,
     selects the window showing the completion list buffer
     (`switch-to-completions').  This paves the way for using the
     commands below.  (Selecting that window in other ways has the same
     effect.)

`<RET>'
     Typing <RET> _in the completion list buffer_ chooses the
     completion that point is in or next to (`choose-completion').  To
     use this command, you must first switch to the completion list
     window.

`<RIGHT>'
     Typing the right-arrow key <RIGHT> _in the completion list buffer_
     moves point to the following completion possibility
     (`next-completion').

`<LEFT>'
     Typing the left-arrow key <LEFT> _in the completion list buffer_
     moves point to the previous completion possibility
     (`previous-completion').

File: emacs,  Node: Strict Completion,  Next: Completion Options,  Prev: Completion Commands,  Up: Completion

9.3.3 Strict Completion
-----------------------

There are three different ways that <RET> can do completion, depending
on how the argument will be used.

   * "Strict" completion accepts only known completion candidates.  For
     example, when `C-x k' reads the name of a buffer to kill, only the
     name of an existing buffer makes sense.  In strict completion,
     <RET> refuses to exit if the text in the minibuffer does not
     complete to an exact match.

   * "Cautious" completion is similar to strict completion, except that
     <RET> exits only if the text is an already exact match.
     Otherwise, <RET> does not exit, but it does complete the text.  If
     that completes to an exact match, a second <RET> will exit.

     Cautious completion is used for reading file names for files that
     must already exist, for example.

   * "Permissive" completion allows any input; the completion
     candidates are just suggestions.  For example, when `C-x C-f'
     reads the name of a file to visit, any file name is allowed,
     including nonexistent file (in case you want to create a file).
     In permissive completion, <RET> does not complete, it just submits
     the argument as you have entered it.

   The completion commands display a list of all possible completions
whenever they can't determine even one more character by completion.
Also, typing `?' explicitly requests such a list.  You can scroll the
list with `C-M-v' (*note Other Window::).

File: emacs,  Node: Completion Options,  Prev: Strict Completion,  Up: Completion

9.3.4 Completion Options
------------------------

When completing file names, certain file names are usually ignored.
The variable `completion-ignored-extensions' contains a list of
strings; a file name ending in any of those strings is ignored as a
completion candidate.  The standard value of this variable has several
elements including `".o"', `".elc"', `".dvi"' and `"~"'.  The effect is
that, for example, `foo' can complete to `foo.c' even though `foo.o'
exists as well.  However, if _all_ the possible completions end in
"ignored" strings, then they are not ignored.  Displaying a list of
possible completions disregards `completion-ignored-extensions'; it
shows them all.

   If an element of `completion-ignored-extensions' ends in a slash
(`/'), it's a subdirectory name; then that directory and its contents
are ignored.  Elements of `completion-ignored-extensions' which do not
end in a slash are ordinary file names, and do not apply to names of
directories.

   If `completion-auto-help' is set to `nil', the completion commands
never display a list of possibilities; you must type `?' to display the
list.

   Partial Completion mode implements a more powerful kind of
completion that can complete multiple words in parallel.  For example,
it can complete the command name abbreviation `p-b' into `print-buffer'
if no other command starts with two words whose initials are `p' and
`b'.

   To enable this mode, use `M-x partial-completion-mode', or customize
the variable `partial-completion-mode'.  This mode binds special
partial completion commands to <TAB>, <SPC>, <RET>, and `?' in the
minibuffer.  The usual completion commands are available on `M-<TAB>'
(or `C-M-i'), `M-<SPC>', `M-<RET>' and `M-?'.

   Partial completion of directories in file names uses `*' to indicate
the places for completion; thus, `/u*/b*/f*' might complete to
`/usr/bin/foo'.  For remote files, partial completion enables
completion of methods, user names and host names.  *Note Remote Files::.

   Partial Completion mode also extends `find-file' so that `<INCLUDE>'
looks for the file named INCLUDE in the directories in the path
`PC-include-file-path'.  If you set `PC-disable-includes' to non-`nil',
this feature is disabled.

   Icomplete mode presents a constantly-updated display that tells you
what completions are available for the text you've entered so far.  The
command to enable or disable this minor mode is `M-x icomplete-mode'.

File: emacs,  Node: Minibuffer History,  Next: Repetition,  Prev: Completion,  Up: Minibuffer

9.4 Minibuffer History
======================

Every argument that you enter with the minibuffer is saved on a
"minibuffer history list" so you can easily use it again later.
Special commands fetch the text of an earlier argument into the
minibuffer, replacing the old minibuffer contents.  You can think of
them as moving through the history of previous arguments.

`<UP>'
`M-p'
     Move to the previous item in the minibuffer history, an earlier
     argument (`previous-history-element').

`<DOWN>'
`M-n'
     Move to the next item in the minibuffer history
     (`next-history-element').

`M-r REGEXP <RET>'
     Move to an earlier item in the minibuffer history that matches
     REGEXP (`previous-matching-history-element').

`M-s REGEXP <RET>'
     Move to a later item in the minibuffer history that matches REGEXP
     (`next-matching-history-element').

   To move through the minibuffer history list one item at a time, use
`M-p' or up-arrow (`previous-history-element') to fetch the next
earlier minibuffer input, and use `M-n' or down-arrow
(`next-history-element') to fetch the next later input.  These commands
don't move the cursor, they pull different saved strings into the
minibuffer.  But you can think of them as "moving" through the history
list.

   The input that you fetch from the history entirely replaces the
contents of the minibuffer.  To use it again unchanged, just type
<RET>.  You can also edit the text before you reuse it; this does not
change the history element that you "moved" to, but your new argument
does go at the end of the history list in its own right.

   For many minibuffer arguments there is a "default" value.  You can
insert the default value into the minibuffer as text by using `M-n'.
You can think of this as moving "into the future" in the history.

   There are also commands to search forward or backward through the
history; they search for history elements that match a regular
expression.  `M-r' (`previous-matching-history-element') searches older
elements in the history, while `M-s' (`next-matching-history-element')
searches newer elements.  These commands are unusual; they use the
minibuffer to read the regular expression even though they are invoked
from the minibuffer.  As with incremental searching, an upper-case
letter in the regular expression makes the search case-sensitive (*note
Search Case::).

   All uses of the minibuffer record your input on a history list, but
there are separate history lists for different kinds of arguments.  For
example, there is a list for file names, used by all the commands that
read file names.  (As a special feature, this history list records the
absolute file name, even if the name you entered was not absolute.)

   There are several other specific history lists, including one for
buffer names, one for arguments of commands like `query-replace', one
used by `M-x' for command names, and one used by `compile' for
compilation commands.  Finally, there is one "miscellaneous" history
list that most minibuffer arguments use.

   The variable `history-length' specifies the maximum length of a
minibuffer history list; adding a new element deletes the oldest
element if the list gets too long.  If the value of `history-length' is
`t', though, there is no maximum length.

   The variable `history-delete-duplicates' specifies whether to delete
duplicates in history.  If it is `t', adding a new element deletes from
the list all other elements that are equal to it.

File: emacs,  Node: Repetition,  Prev: Minibuffer History,  Up: Minibuffer

9.5 Repeating Minibuffer Commands
=================================

Every command that uses the minibuffer once is recorded on a special
history list, the "command history", together with the values of its
arguments, so that you can repeat the entire command.  In particular,
every use of `M-x' is recorded there, since `M-x' uses the minibuffer
to read the command name.

`C-x <ESC> <ESC>'
     Re-execute a recent minibuffer command from the command history
     (`repeat-complex-command').

`M-x list-command-history'
     Display the entire command history, showing all the commands `C-x
     <ESC> <ESC>' can repeat, most recent first.

   `C-x <ESC> <ESC>' is used to re-execute a recent command that used
the minibuffer.  With no argument, it repeats the last such command.  A
numeric argument specifies which command to repeat; 1 means the last
one, 2 the previous, and so on.

   `C-x <ESC> <ESC>' works by turning the previous command into a Lisp
expression and then entering a minibuffer initialized with the text for
that expression.  Even if you don't understand Lisp syntax, it will
probably be obvious which command is displayed for repetition.  If you
type just <RET>, that repeats the command unchanged.  You can also
change the command by editing the Lisp expression before you execute
it.  The repeated command is added to the front of the command history
unless it is identical to the most recently item.

   Once inside the minibuffer for `C-x <ESC> <ESC>', you can use the
minibuffer history commands (`M-p', `M-n', `M-r', `M-s'; *note
Minibuffer History::) to move through the history list of saved entire
commands.  After finding the desired previous command, you can edit its
expression as usual and then repeat it by typing <RET>.

   Incremental search does not, strictly speaking, use the minibuffer.
Therefore, although it behaves like a complex command, it normally does
not appear in the history list for `C-x <ESC> <ESC>'.  You can make
incremental search commands appear in the history by setting
`isearch-resume-in-command-history' to a non-`nil' value.  *Note
Incremental Search::.

   The list of previous minibuffer-using commands is stored as a Lisp
list in the variable `command-history'.  Each element is a Lisp
expression which describes one command and its arguments.  Lisp programs
can re-execute a command by calling `eval' with the `command-history'
element.

File: emacs,  Node: M-x,  Next: Help,  Prev: Minibuffer,  Up: Top

10 Running Commands by Name
***************************

Every Emacs command has a name that you can use to run it.  For
convenience, many commands also have key bindings.  You can run those
commands by typing the keys, or run them by name.  Most Emacs commands
have no key bindings, so the only way to run them is by name.  (*Note
Key Bindings::, for how to set up key bindings.)

   By convention, a command name consists of one or more words,
separated by hyphens; for example, `auto-fill-mode' or `manual-entry'.
Command names mostly use complete English words to make them easier to
remember.

   To run a command by name, start with `M-x', type the command name,
then terminate it with <RET>.  `M-x' uses the minibuffer to read the
command name.  The string `M-x' appears at the beginning of the
minibuffer as a "prompt" to remind you to enter a command name to be
run.  <RET> exits the minibuffer and runs the command.  *Note
Minibuffer::, for more information on the minibuffer.

   You can use completion to enter the command name.  For example, to
invoke the command `forward-char', you can type

     M-x forward-char <RET>

or

     M-x forw <TAB> c <RET>

Note that `forward-char' is the same command that you invoke with the
key `C-f'.  The existence of a key binding does not stop you from
running the command by name.

   To cancel the `M-x' and not run a command, type `C-g' instead of
entering the command name.  This takes you back to command level.

   To pass a numeric argument to the command you are invoking with
`M-x', specify the numeric argument before `M-x'.  The argument value
appears in the prompt while the command name is being read, and finally
`M-x' passes the argument to that command.

   When the command you run with `M-x' has a key binding, Emacs
mentions this in the echo area after running the command.  For example,
if you type `M-x forward-word', the message says that you can run the
same command by typing `M-f'.  You can turn off these messages by
setting the variable `suggest-key-bindings' to `nil'.

   In this manual, when we speak of running a command by name, we often
omit the <RET> that terminates the name.  Thus we might say `M-x
auto-fill-mode' rather than `M-x auto-fill-mode <RET>'.  We mention the
<RET> only for emphasis, such as when the command is followed by
arguments.

   `M-x' works by running the command `execute-extended-command', which
is responsible for reading the name of another command and invoking it.

File: emacs,  Node: Help,  Next: Mark,  Prev: M-x,  Up: Top

11 Help
*******

Emacs provides extensive help features, all accessible through the
"help character", `C-h'.  This is a prefix key that is used for
commands that display documentation; the next character you type should
be a "help options", to ask for a particular kind of help.  You can
cancel the `C-h' command with `C-g'.  The function key <F1> is
equivalent to `C-h'.

   `C-h' itself is one of the help options; `C-h C-h' displays a list
of help options, with a brief description of each one
(`help-for-help').  You can scroll the list with <SPC> and <DEL>, then
type the help option you want.  To cancel, type `C-g'.

   `C-h' or <F1> means "help" in various other contexts as well.  For
instance, you can type them after a prefix key to display list of the
keys that can follow the prefix key.  (A few prefix keys don't support
`C-h' in this way, because they define other meanings for it, but they
all support <F1> for help.)

   Most help buffers use a special major mode, Help mode, which lets
you scroll conveniently with <SPC> and <DEL>.  You can also follow
hyperlinks to URLs, and to other facilities including Info nodes and
customization buffers.  *Note Help Mode::.

   If you are looking for a certain feature, but don't know what it is
called or where to look, we recommend three methods.  First, try an
apropos command, then try searching the manual index, then look in the
FAQ and the package keywords.

`C-h a TOPICS <RET>'
     This searches for commands whose names match the argument TOPICS.
     The argument can be a keyword, a list of keywords, or a regular
     expression (*note Regexps::).  This command displays all the
     matches in a new buffer.  *Note Apropos::.

`C-h i d m emacs <RET> i TOPIC <RET>'
     This searches for TOPIC in the indices of the on-line Emacs
     manual, and displays the first match found.  Press `,' to see
     subsequent matches.  You can use a regular expression as TOPIC.

`C-h i d m emacs <RET> s TOPIC <RET>'
     Similar, but searches the _text_ of the manual rather than the
     indices.

`C-h C-f'
     This displays the Emacs FAQ.  You can use the Info commands to
     browse it.

`C-h p'
     This displays the available Emacs packages based on keywords.
     *Note Library Keywords::.

* Menu:

* Help Summary::	Brief list of all Help commands.
* Key Help::		Asking what a key does in Emacs.
* Name Help::		Asking about a command, variable or function name.
* Apropos::		Asking what pertains to a given topic.
* Help Mode::           Special features of Help mode and Help buffers.
* Library Keywords::	Finding Lisp libraries by keywords (topics).
* Language Help::       Help relating to international language support.
* Misc Help::		Other help commands.
* Help Files::          Commands to display pre-written help files.
* Help Echo::           Help on active text and tooltips (`balloon help')

File: emacs,  Node: Help Summary,  Next: Key Help,  Up: Help

11.1 Help Summary
=================

   Here is a summary of the Emacs interactive help commands.  (The
character that follows `C-h' is the "help option.")  *Note Help
Files::, for other help commands that display fixed files of
information.

`C-h a TOPICS <RET>'
     Display a list of commands whose names match TOPICS
     (`apropos-command'; *note Apropos::).

`C-h b'
     Display all active key bindings; minor mode bindings first, then
     those of the major mode, then global bindings
     (`describe-bindings').

`C-h c KEY'
     Given a key sequence KEY, show the name of the command that it
     runs (`describe-key-briefly').  Here `c' stands for "character."
     For more extensive information on KEY, use `C-h k'.

`C-h d TOPICS <RET>'
     Display the commands and variables whose documentation matches
     TOPICS (`apropos-documentation').

`C-h e'
     Display the `*Messages*' buffer (`view-echo-area-messages').

`C-h f FUNCTION <RET>'
     Display documentation on the Lisp function named FUNCTION
     (`describe-function').  Since commands are Lisp functions, this
     works for commands too.

`C-h h'
     Display the `HELLO' file, which shows examples of various character
     sets.

`C-h i'
     Run Info, the GNU documentation browser (`info').  The complete
     Emacs manual is available on-line in Info.

`C-h k KEY'
     Display the name and documentation of the command that KEY runs
     (`describe-key').

`C-h l'
     Display a description of the last 100 characters you typed
     (`view-lossage').

`C-h m'
     Display documentation of the current major mode (`describe-mode').

`C-h p'
     Find packages by topic keyword (`finder-by-keyword').

`C-h s'
     Display the current contents of the syntax table, with an
     explanation of what they mean (`describe-syntax').  *Note Syntax::.

`C-h t'
     Enter the Emacs interactive tutorial (`help-with-tutorial').

`C-h v VAR <RET>'
     Display the documentation of the Lisp variable VAR
     (`describe-variable').

`C-h w COMMAND <RET>'
     Show which keys run the command named COMMAND (`where-is').

`C-h C CODING <RET>'
     Describe the coding system CODING (`describe-coding-system').

`C-h C <RET>'
     Describe the coding systems currently in use.

`C-h I METHOD <RET>'
     Describe the input method METHOD (`describe-input-method').

`C-h L LANGUAGE-ENV <RET>'
     Display information on the character sets, coding systems, and
     input methods used in language environment LANGUAGE-ENV
     (`describe-language-environment').

`C-h F FUNCTION <RET>'
     Enter Info and goes to the node that documents the Emacs function
     FUNCTION (`Info-goto-emacs-command-node').

`C-h K KEY'
     Enter Info and goes to the node that documents the key sequence
     KEY (`Info-goto-emacs-key-command-node').

`C-h S SYMBOL <RET>'
     Display the Info documentation on symbol SYMBOL according to the
     programming language you are editing (`info-lookup-symbol').

`C-h .'
     Display the help message for a special text area, if point is in
     one (`display-local-help').  (These include, for example, links in
     `*Help*' buffers.)

File: emacs,  Node: Key Help,  Next: Name Help,  Prev: Help Summary,  Up: Help

11.2 Documentation for a Key
============================

The help commands to get information about a key sequence are `C-h c'
and `C-h k'.  `C-h c KEY' displays in the echo area the name of the
command that KEY is bound to.  For example, `C-h c C-f' displays
`forward-char'.  Since command names are chosen to describe what the
commands do, this gives you a very brief description of what KEY does.

   `C-h k KEY' is similar but gives more information: it displays the
documentation string of the command as well as its name.  It displays
this information in a window, since it may not fit in the echo area.

   To find the documentation of a key sequence KEY, type `C-h K KEY'.
This displays the appropriate manual section which contains the
documentation of KEY.

   `C-h c', `C-h k' and `C-h K' work for any sort of key sequences,
including function keys, menus, and mouse events.  For instance, after
`C-h k' you can select a menu item from the menu bar, to view the
documentation string of the command it runs.

   `C-h w COMMAND <RET>' lists the keys that are bound to COMMAND.  It
displays the list in the echo area.  If it says the command is not on
any key, that means you must use `M-x' to run it.  `C-h w' runs the
command `where-is'.

File: emacs,  Node: Name Help,  Next: Apropos,  Prev: Key Help,  Up: Help

11.3 Help by Command or Variable Name
=====================================

`C-h f FUNCTION <RET>' (`describe-function') displays the documentation
of Lisp function FUNCTION, in a window.  Since commands are Lisp
functions, you can use this method to view the documentation of any
command whose name you know.  For example,

     C-h f auto-fill-mode <RET>

displays the documentation of `auto-fill-mode'.  This is the only way
to get the documentation of a command that is not bound to any key (one
which you would normally run using `M-x').

   `C-h f' is also useful for Lisp functions that you use in a Lisp
program.  For example, if you have just written the expression
`(make-vector len)' and want to check that you are using `make-vector'
properly, type `C-h f make-vector <RET>'.  Because `C-h f' allows all
function names, not just command names, you may find that some of your
favorite completion abbreviations that work in `M-x' don't work in `C-h
f'.  An abbreviation that is unique among command names may not be
unique among all function names.

   If you type `C-h f <RET>', it describes the function called by the
innermost Lisp expression in the buffer around point, _provided_ that
function name is a valid, defined Lisp function.  (That name appears as
the default while you enter the argument.)  For example, if point is
located following the text `(make-vector (car x)', the innermost list
containing point is the one that starts with `(make-vector', so `C-h f
<RET>' will describe the function `make-vector'.

   `C-h f' is also useful just to verify that you spelled a function
name correctly.  If the minibuffer prompt for `C-h f' shows the
function name from the buffer as the default, it means that name is
defined as a Lisp function.  Type `C-g' to cancel the `C-h f' command
if you don't really want to view the documentation.

   `C-h v' (`describe-variable') is like `C-h f' but describes Lisp
variables instead of Lisp functions.  Its default is the Lisp symbol
around or before point, if that is the name of a defined Lisp variable.
*Note Variables::.

   Help buffers that describe Emacs variables and functions normally
have hyperlinks to the corresponding source definition, if you have the
source files installed.  (*Note Hyperlinking::.)  If you know Lisp (or
C), this provides the ultimate documentation.  If you don't know Lisp,
you should learn it.  (The Introduction to Emacs Lisp Programming,
available from the FSF through fsf.org, is a good way to get started.)
If Emacs feels you are just _using_ it, treating it as an object
program, its feelings may be hurt.  For real intimacy, read the Emacs
source code.

   To find a function's documentation in a manual, use `C-h F'
(`Info-goto-emacs-command-node').  This knows about various manuals,
not just the Emacs manual, and finds the right one.

File: emacs,  Node: Apropos,  Next: Help Mode,  Prev: Name Help,  Up: Help

11.4 Apropos
============

The "apropos" commands answer questions like, "What are the commands
for working with files?"  More precisely, you specify an "apropos
pattern", which means either a word, a list of words, or a regular
expression.  Each apropos command displays a list of items that match
the pattern, in a separate buffer.

`C-h a PATTERN <RET>'
     Search for commands whose names match PATTERN.

`M-x apropos <RET> PATTERN <RET>'
     Search for functions and variables whose names match PATTERN.
     Both interactive functions (commands) and noninteractive functions
     can be found by this command.

`M-x apropos-variable <RET> PATTERN <RET>'
     Search for user-option variables whose names match PATTERN.

`M-x apropos-value <RET> PATTERN <RET>'
     Search for functions whose definitions PATTERN, and variables
     whose values match PATTERN.

`C-h d PATTERN <RET>'
     Search for functions and variables whose *documentation strings*
     match PATTERN.

   The simplest kind of apropos pattern is one word.  Anything which
contains that word matches the pattern.  Thus, to find the commands
that work on files, type `C-h a file <RET>'.  This displays a list of
all command names that contain `file', including `copy-file',
`find-file', and so on.  Each command name comes with a brief
description and a list of keys you can currently invoke it with.  In
our example, it would say that you can invoke `find-file' by typing
`C-x C-f'.

   The `a' in `C-h a' stands for "Apropos"; `C-h a' runs the command
`apropos-command'.  This command normally checks only commands
(interactive functions); if you specify a prefix argument, it checks
noninteractive functions as well.

   For more information about a function definition, variable or symbol
property listed in the apropos buffer, you can click on it with
`Mouse-1' or `Mouse-2', or move there and type <RET>.

   When you specify more than one word in the apropos pattern, a name
must contain at least two of the words in order to match.  Thus, if you
are looking for commands to kill a chunk of text before point, you
could try `C-h a kill back backward behind before <RET>'.  The real
command name `kill-backward' will match that; if there were a command
`kill-text-before', it would also match, since it contains two of the
specified words.

   For even greater flexibility, you can specify a regular expression
(*note Regexps::).  An apropos pattern is interpreted as a regular
expression if it contains any of the regular expression special
characters, `^$*+?.\['.

   Following the conventions for naming Emacs commands, here are some
words that you'll find useful in apropos patterns.  By using them in
`C-h a', you will also get a feel for the naming conventions.

     char, line, word, sentence, paragraph, region, page, sexp, list,
     defun, rect, buffer, frame, window, face, file, dir, register,
     mode, beginning, end, forward, backward, next, previous, up, down,
     search, goto, kill, delete, mark, insert, yank, fill, indent,
     case, change, set, what, list, find, view, describe, default.

   Use `M-x apropos' instead of `C-h a' to list all the Lisp symbols
that match an apropos pattern, not just the symbols that are commands.
This command does not list key bindings by default; specify a numeric
argument if you want it to list them.

   Use `M-x apropos-variable' to list user-customizable variables that
match an apropos pattern.  If you specify a prefix argument, it lists
all matching variables.

   The `apropos-documentation' command is like `apropos' except that it
searches documentation strings instead of symbol names for matches.

   The `apropos-value' command is like `apropos' except that it
searches variables' values for matches for the apropos pattern.  With a
prefix argument, it also checks symbols' function definitions and
property lists.

   If the variable `apropos-do-all' is non-`nil', the apropos commands
always behave as if they had been given a prefix argument.

   By default, apropos lists the search results in alphabetical order.
If the variable `apropos-sort-by-scores' is non-`nil', the apropos
commands try to guess the relevance of each result, and display the
most relevant ones first.

   By default, apropos lists the search results for
`apropos-documentation' in order of relevance of the match.  If the
variable `apropos-documentation-sort-by-scores' is `nil', apropos lists
the symbols found in alphabetical order.

File: emacs,  Node: Help Mode,  Next: Library Keywords,  Prev: Apropos,  Up: Help

11.5 Help Mode Commands
=======================

Help buffers provide the same commands as View mode (*note Misc File
Ops::), plus a few special commands of their own.

`<SPC>'
     Scroll forward.

`<DEL>'
     Scroll backward.

`<RET>'
     Follow a cross reference at point.

`<TAB>'
     Move point forward to the next cross reference.

`S-<TAB>'
     Move point back to the previous cross reference.

`Mouse-1'
`Mouse-2'
     Follow a cross reference that you click on.

`C-c C-c'
     Show all documentation about the symbol at point.

   When a function name (*note Running Commands by Name: M-x.),
variable name (*note Variables::), or face name (*note Faces::) appears
in the documentation, it normally appears inside paired single-quotes.
To view the documentation of that command, variable or face, you can
click on the name with `Mouse-1' or `Mouse-2', or move point there and
type <RET>.  Use `C-c C-b' to retrace your steps.

   You can follow cross references to URLs (web pages) also.  This uses
the `browse-url' command to view the page in the browser you choose.
*Note Browse-URL::.

   There are convenient commands to move point to cross references in
the help text.  <TAB> (`help-next-ref') moves point down to the next
cross reference.  `S-<TAB>' moves up to the previous cross reference
(`help-previous-ref').

   To view all documentation about any symbol name that appears in the
text, move point to the symbol name and type `C-c C-c'
(`help-follow-symbol').  This shows all available documentation about
the symbol as a variable, function and/or face.  As above, use `C-c
C-b' to retrace your steps.

File: emacs,  Node: Library Keywords,  Next: Language Help,  Prev: Help Mode,  Up: Help

11.6 Keyword Search for Lisp Libraries
======================================

The `C-h p' command lets you search the standard Emacs Lisp libraries
by topic keywords.  Here is a partial list of keywords you can use:

abbrev        abbreviation handling, typing shortcuts, macros.
bib           code related to the `bib' bibliography processor.
c             support for the C language and related languages.
calendar      calendar and time management support.
comm          communications, networking, remote access to files.
convenience   convenience features for faster editing.
data          support for editing files of data.
docs          support for Emacs documentation.
emulations    emulations of other editors.
extensions    Emacs Lisp language extensions.
faces         support for multiple fonts.
files         support for editing and manipulating files.
frames        support for Emacs frames and window systems.
games         games, jokes and amusements.
hardware      support for interfacing with exotic hardware.
help          support for on-line help systems.
hypermedia    support for links between text or other media types.
i18n          internationalization and alternate character-set support.
internal      code for Emacs internals, build process, defaults.
languages     specialized modes for editing programming languages.
lisp          Lisp support, including Emacs Lisp.
local         code local to your site.
maint         maintenance aids for the Emacs development group.
mail          modes for electronic-mail handling.
matching      various sorts of searching and matching.
mouse         mouse support.
multimedia    images and sound support.
news          support for netnews reading and posting.
oop           support for object-oriented programming.
outlines      support for hierarchical outlining.
processes     process, subshell, compilation, and job control support.
terminals     support for terminal types.
tex           supporting code for the TeX formatter.
tools         programming tools.
unix          front-ends/assistants for, or emulators of, UNIX-like
              features.
wp            word processing.

File: emacs,  Node: Language Help,  Next: Misc Help,  Prev: Library Keywords,  Up: Help

11.7 Help for International Language Support
============================================

You can use the command `C-h L' (`describe-language-environment') to
get information about a specific language environment.  *Note Language
Environments::.  This tells you which languages this language
environment supports.  It also lists the character sets, coding
systems, and input methods that work with this language environment,
and finally shows some sample text to illustrate scripts.

   The command `C-h h' (`view-hello-file') displays the file
`etc/HELLO', which shows how to say "hello" in many languages.

   The command `C-h I' (`describe-input-method') describes an input
method--either a specified input method, or by default the input method
currently in use.  *Note Input Methods::.

   The command `C-h C' (`describe-coding-system') describes coding
systems--either a specified coding system, or the ones currently in
use.  *Note Coding Systems::.

File: emacs,  Node: Misc Help,  Next: Help Files,  Prev: Language Help,  Up: Help

11.8 Other Help Commands
========================

`C-h i' (`info') runs the Info program, which browses structured
documentation files.  The entire Emacs manual is available within Info,
along with many other manuals for the GNU system.  Type `h' after
entering Info to run a tutorial on using Info.

   With a numeric argument N, `C-h i' selects the Info buffer
`*info*<N>'.  This is useful if you want to browse multiple Info
manuals simultaneously.  If you specify just `C-u' as the prefix
argument, `C-h i' prompts for the name of a documentation file, so you
can browse a file which doesn't have an entry in the top-level Info
menu.

   The help commands `C-h F FUNCTION <RET>' and `C-h K KEY', described
above, enter Info and go straight to the documentation of FUNCTION or
KEY.

   When editing a program, if you have an Info version of the manual
for the programming language, you can use `C-h S'
(`info-lookup-symbol') to find symbol (keyword, function or variable)
in the proper manual.  The details of how this command works depend on
the major mode.

   If something surprising happens, and you are not sure what you
typed, use `C-h l' (`view-lossage').  `C-h l' displays the last 100
characters you typed in Emacs.  If you see commands that you don't
know, you can use `C-h c' to find out what they do.

   To review recent echo area messages, use `C-h e'
(`view-echo-area-messages').  This displays the buffer `*Messages*',
where those messages are kept.

   Each Emacs major mode typically redefines a few keys and makes other
changes in how editing works.  `C-h m' (`describe-mode') displays
documentation on the current major mode, which normally describes the
commands and features that are changed in this mode.

   `C-h b' (`describe-bindings') and `C-h s' (`describe-syntax') show
other information about the current environment within Emacs.  `C-h b'
displays a list of all the key bindings now in effect: first the local
bindings of the current minor modes, then the local bindings defined by
the current major mode, and finally the global bindings (*note Key
Bindings::).  `C-h s' displays the contents of the syntax table, with
explanations of each character's syntax (*note Syntax::).

   You can get a list of subcommands for a particular prefix key by
typing `C-h' after the prefix key.  (There are a few prefix keys for
which this does not work--those that provide their own bindings for
`C-h'.  One of these is <ESC>, because `<ESC> C-h' is actually `C-M-h',
which marks a defun.)

File: emacs,  Node: Help Files,  Next: Help Echo,  Prev: Misc Help,  Up: Help

11.9 Help Files
===============

The Emacs help commands described above display dynamic help based on
the current state within Emacs, or refer to manuals.  Other help
commands display pre-written, static help files.  These commands all
have the form `C-h C-CHAR'; that is, `C-h' followed by a control
character.

`C-h C-c'
     Display the Emacs copying conditions (`describe-copying').  These
     are the rules under which you can copy and redistribute Emacs.

`C-h C-d'
     Display how to download or order the latest version of Emacs and
     other GNU software (`describe-distribution').

`C-h C-e'
     Display the list of known Emacs problems, sometimes with suggested
     workarounds (`view-emacs-problems').

`C-h C-f'
     Display the Emacs frequently-answered-questions list
     (`view-emacs-FAQ').

`C-h C-n'
     Display the Emacs "news" file, which lists new features in the most
     recent version of Emacs (`view-emacs-news').

`C-h C-p'
     Display general information about the GNU Project
     (`describe-gnu-project').

`C-h C-t'
     Display the Emacs to-do list (`view-emacs-todo').

`C-h C-w'
     Display the full details on the complete absence of warranty for
     GNU Emacs (`describe-no-warranty').

File: emacs,  Node: Help Echo,  Prev: Help Files,  Up: Help

11.10 Help on Active Text and Tooltips
======================================

When a region of text is "active," so that you can select it with the
mouse or a key like `RET', it often has associated help text.  For
instance, most parts of the mode line have help text.  On graphical
displays, the help text is displayed as a "tooltip" (sometimes known as
"balloon help"), when you move the mouse over the active text.  *Note
Tooltips::.  On some systems, it is shown in the echo area.  On
text-only terminals, if Emacs cannot follow the mouse, it cannot show
the help text on mouse-over.

   You can also access text region help info using the keyboard.  The
command `C-h .' (`display-local-help') displays any help text
associated with the text at point, using the echo area.  If you want
help text to be displayed automatically whenever it is available at
point, set the variable `help-at-pt-display-when-idle' to `t'.

File: emacs,  Node: Mark,  Next: Killing,  Prev: Help,  Up: Top

12 The Mark and the Region
**************************

Many Emacs commands operate on an arbitrary contiguous part of the
current buffer.  To specify the text for such a command to operate on,
you set "the mark" at one end of it, and move point to the other end.
The text between point and the mark is called "the region".  Emacs
highlights the region whenever there is one, if you enable Transient
Mark mode (*note Transient Mark::).

   Certain Emacs commands set the mark; other editing commands do not
affect it, so the mark remains where you set it last.  Each Emacs
buffer has its own mark, and setting the mark in one buffer has no
effect on other buffers' marks.  When you return to a buffer that was
current earlier, its mark is at the same place as before.

   The ends of the region are always point and the mark.  It doesn't
matter which of them was put in its current place first, or which one
comes earlier in the text--the region starts from point or the mark
(whichever comes first), and ends at point or the mark (whichever comes
last).  Every time you move point, or set the mark in a new place, the
region changes.

   Many commands that insert text, such as `C-y' (`yank') and `M-x
insert-buffer', position point and the mark at opposite ends of the
inserted text, so that the region consists of the text just inserted.

   Aside from delimiting the region, the mark is also useful for
remembering a spot that you may want to go back to.  To make this
feature more useful, each buffer remembers 16 previous locations of the
mark in the "mark ring".

* Menu:

* Setting Mark::	Commands to set the mark.
* Transient Mark::	How to make Emacs highlight the region--
			  when there is one.
* Momentary Mark::      Enabling Transient Mark mode momentarily.
* Using Region::	Summary of ways to operate on contents of the region.
* Marking Objects::	Commands to put region around textual units.
* Mark Ring::   	Previous mark positions saved so you can go back there.
* Global Mark Ring::    Previous mark positions in various buffers.

File: emacs,  Node: Setting Mark,  Next: Transient Mark,  Up: Mark

12.1 Setting the Mark
=====================

Here are some commands for setting the mark:

`C-<SPC>'
     Set the mark where point is (`set-mark-command').

`C-@'
     The same.

`C-x C-x'
     Interchange mark and point (`exchange-point-and-mark').

`Drag-Mouse-1'
     Set point and the mark around the text you drag across.

`Mouse-3'
     Set the mark where point is, then move point to where you click
     (`mouse-save-then-kill').

   For example, suppose you wish to convert part of the buffer to upper
case, using the `C-x C-u' (`upcase-region') command, which operates on
the text in the region.  You can first go to the beginning of the text
to be capitalized, type `C-<SPC>' to put the mark there, move to the
end, and then type `C-x C-u'.  Or, you can set the mark at the end of
the text, move to the beginning, and then type `C-x C-u'.

   The most common way to set the mark is with the `C-<SPC>' command
(`set-mark-command').  This sets the mark where point is.  Then you can
move point away, leaving the mark behind.

   There are two ways to set the mark with the mouse.  You can drag
mouse button one across a range of text; that puts point where you
release the mouse button, and sets the mark at the other end of that
range.  Or you can click mouse button three, which sets the mark at
point (like `C-<SPC>') and then moves point where you clicked (like
`Mouse-1').

   Using the mouse to mark a region copies the region into the kill
ring in addition to setting the mark; that gives behavior consistent
with other window-driven applications.  If you don't want to modify the
kill ring, you must use keyboard commands to set the mark.  *Note Mouse
Commands::.

   When Emacs was developed, terminals had only one cursor, so Emacs
does not show where the mark is located-you have to remember.  If you
enable Transient Mark mode (see below), then the region is highlighted
when it is active; you can tell mark is at the other end of the
highlighted region.  But this only applies when the mark is active.

   The usual solution to this problem is to set the mark and then use
it soon, before you forget where it is.  Alternatively, you can see
where the mark is with the command `C-x C-x'
(`exchange-point-and-mark') which puts the mark where point was and
point where the mark was.  The extent of the region is unchanged, but
the cursor and point are now at the previous position of the mark.  In
Transient Mark mode, this command also reactivates the mark.

   `C-x C-x' is also useful when you are satisfied with the position of
point but want to move the other end of the region (where the mark is);
do `C-x C-x' to put point at that end of the region, and then move it.
Using `C-x C-x' a second time, if necessary, puts the mark at the new
position with point back at its original position.

   For more facilities that allow you to go to previously set marks, see
*note Mark Ring::.

   There is no such character as `C-<SPC>' in ASCII; when you type
<SPC> while holding down <CTRL> on a text terminal, what you get is the
character `C-@'.  This key is also bound to `set-mark-command'-so
unless you are unlucky enough to have a text terminal where typing
`C-<SPC>' does not produce `C-@', you might as well think of this
character as `C-<SPC>'.

File: emacs,  Node: Transient Mark,  Next: Momentary Mark,  Prev: Setting Mark,  Up: Mark

12.2 Transient Mark Mode
========================

On a terminal that supports colors, Emacs has the ability to highlight
the current region.  But normally it does not.  Why not?

   In the normal mode of use, every command that sets the mark also
activates it, and nothing ever deactivates it.  Thus, once you have set
the mark in a buffer, there is _always_ a region in that buffer.
Highlighting the region all the time would be a nuisance.  So normally
Emacs highlights the region only immediately after you have selected
one with the mouse.

   If you want region highlighting, you can use Transient Mark mode.
This is a more rigid mode of operation in which the region "lasts" only
until you use it; operating on the region text deactivates the mark, so
there is no region any more.  Therefore, you must explicitly set up a
region for each command that uses one.

   When Transient Mark mode is enabled, Emacs highlights the region,
whenever there is a region.  In Transient Mark mode, most of the time
there is no region; therefore, highlighting the region when it exists
is useful and not annoying.

   To enable Transient Mark mode, type `M-x transient-mark-mode'.  This
command toggles the mode; you can use the same command to turn the mode
off again.

   Here are the details of Transient Mark mode:

   * To set the mark, type `C-<SPC>' (`set-mark-command').  This makes
     the mark active and thus begins highlighting of the region.  As
     you move point, you will see the highlighted region grow and
     shrink.

   * The mouse commands for specifying the mark also make it active.
     So do keyboard commands whose purpose is to specify a region,
     including `M-@', `C-M-@', `M-h', `C-M-h', `C-x C-p', and `C-x h'.

   * You can tell that the mark is active because the region is
     highlighted.

   * When the mark is active, you can execute commands that operate on
     the region, such as killing, indenting, or writing to a file.

   * Any change to the buffer, such as inserting or deleting a
     character, deactivates the mark.  This means any subsequent
     command that operates on a region will get an error and refuse to
     operate.  You can make the region active again by typing `C-x C-x'.

   * If Delete Selection mode is also enabled, some commands delete the
     region when used while the mark is active.  *Note Mouse Commands::.

   * Quitting with `C-g' deactivates the mark.

   * Commands like `M->' and `C-s', that "leave the mark behind" in
     addition to some other primary purpose, do not activate the new
     mark.  You can activate the new region by executing `C-x C-x'
     (`exchange-point-and-mark').

   * Commands that normally set the mark before moving long distances
     (like `M-<' and `C-s') do not alter the mark in Transient Mark mode
     when the mark is active.

   * Some commands operate on the region if a region is active.  For
     instance, `C-x u' in Transient Mark mode operates on the region,
     when there is a region.  (Outside Transient Mark mode, you must
     type `C-u C-x u' if you want it to operate on the region.)  *Note
     Undo::.  Other commands that act this way are identified in their
     own documentation.

   The highlighting of the region uses the `region' face; you can
customize the appearance of the highlighted region by changing this
face.  *Note Face Customization::.

   When multiple windows show the same buffer, they can have different
regions, because they can have different values of point (though they
all share one common mark position).  Ordinarily, only the selected
window highlights its region (*note Windows::).  However, if the
variable `highlight-nonselected-windows' is non-`nil', then each window
highlights its own region (provided that Transient Mark mode is enabled
and the mark in the window's buffer is active).

   If the variable `mark-even-if-inactive' is non-`nil' in Transient
Mark mode, then commands can use the mark and the region even when it
is inactive.  Region highlighting appears and disappears just as it
normally does in Transient Mark mode, but the mark doesn't really go
away when the highlighting disappears, so you can still use region
commands.

   Transient Mark mode is also sometimes known as "Zmacs mode" because
the Zmacs editor on the MIT Lisp Machine handled the mark in a similar
way.

File: emacs,  Node: Momentary Mark,  Next: Using Region,  Prev: Transient Mark,  Up: Mark

12.3 Using Transient Mark Mode Momentarily
==========================================

If you don't like Transient Mark mode in general, you might still want
to use it once in a while.  To do this, type `C-<SPC> C-<SPC>' or `C-u
C-x C-x'.  These commands set or activate the mark, and enable
Transient Mark mode only until the mark is deactivated.

`C-<SPC> C-<SPC>'
     Set the mark at point (like plain `C-<SPC>'), and enable Transient
     Mark mode just once until the mark is deactivated.  (This is not
     really a separate command; you are using the `C-<SPC>' command
     twice.)

`C-u C-x C-x'
     Activate the mark without changing it; enable Transient Mark mode
     just once, until the mark is deactivated.  (This is the `C-x C-x'
     command, `exchange-point-and-mark', with a prefix argument.)

   One of the secondary features of Transient Mark mode is that certain
commands operate only on the region, when there is an active region.
If you don't use Transient Mark mode, the region once set never becomes
inactive, so there is no way for these commands to make such a
distinction.  Enabling Transient Mark mode momentarily gives you a way
to use these commands on the region.

   Momentary use of Transient Mark mode is also a way to highlight the
region for the time being.

File: emacs,  Node: Using Region,  Next: Marking Objects,  Prev: Momentary Mark,  Up: Mark

12.4 Operating on the Region
============================

Once you have a region and the mark is active, here are some of the
ways you can operate on the region:

   * Kill it with `C-w' (*note Killing::).

   * Save it in a register with `C-x r s' (*note Registers::).

   * Save it in a buffer or a file (*note Accumulating Text::).

   * Convert case with `C-x C-l' or `C-x C-u' (*note Case::).

   * Indent it with `C-x <TAB>' or `C-M-\' (*note Indentation::).

   * Fill it as text with `M-x fill-region' (*note Filling::).

   * Print hardcopy with `M-x print-region' (*note Printing::).

   * Evaluate it as Lisp code with `M-x eval-region' (*note Lisp
     Eval::).

   * Undo changes within it using `C-u C-x u' (*note Undo::).

   Most commands that operate on the text in the region have the word
`region' in their names.

File: emacs,  Node: Marking Objects,  Next: Mark Ring,  Prev: Using Region,  Up: Mark

12.5 Commands to Mark Textual Objects
=====================================

Here are the commands for placing point and the mark around a textual
object such as a word, list, paragraph or page.

`M-@'
     Set mark after end of next word (`mark-word').  This command and
     the following one do not move point.

`C-M-@'
     Set mark after end of following balanced expression (`mark-sexp').

`M-h'
     Put region around current paragraph (`mark-paragraph').

`C-M-h'
     Put region around current defun (`mark-defun').

`C-x h'
     Put region around the entire buffer (`mark-whole-buffer').

`C-x C-p'
     Put region around current page (`mark-page').

   `M-@' (`mark-word') puts the mark at the end of the next word, while
`C-M-@' (`mark-sexp') puts it at the end of the next balanced
expression (*note Expressions::).  These commands handle arguments just
like `M-f' and `C-M-f'.  Repeating these commands extends the region.
For example, you can type either `C-u 2 M-@' or `M-@ M-@' to mark the
next two words.  These commands also extend the region in Transient
Mark mode, regardless of the last command.

   Other commands set both point and mark, to delimit an object in the
buffer.  For example, `M-h' (`mark-paragraph') moves point to the
beginning of the paragraph that surrounds or follows point, and puts
the mark at the end of that paragraph (*note Paragraphs::).  It
prepares the region so you can indent, case-convert, or kill a whole
paragraph.  With a prefix argument, if the argument's value is positive,
`M-h' marks that many paragraphs starting with the one surrounding
point.  If the prefix argument is -N, `M-h' also marks N paragraphs,
running back form the one surrounding point.  In that last case, point
moves forward to the end of that paragraph, and the mark goes at the
start of the region.  Repeating the `M-h' command extends the region to
subsequent paragraphs.

   `C-M-h' (`mark-defun') similarly puts point before, and the mark
after, the current (or following) major top-level definition, or defun
(*note Moving by Defuns::).  Repeating `C-M-h' extends the region to
subsequent defuns.

   `C-x C-p' (`mark-page') puts point before the current page, and mark
at the end (*note Pages::).  The mark goes after the terminating page
delimiter (to include it in the region), while point goes after the
preceding page delimiter (to exclude it).  A numeric argument specifies
a later page (if positive) or an earlier page (if negative) instead of
the current page.

   Finally, `C-x h' (`mark-whole-buffer') sets up the entire buffer as
the region, by putting point at the beginning and the mark at the end.
(In some programs this is called "select all.")

   In Transient Mark mode, all of these commands activate the mark.

File: emacs,  Node: Mark Ring,  Next: Global Mark Ring,  Prev: Marking Objects,  Up: Mark

12.6 The Mark Ring
==================

Aside from delimiting the region, the mark is also useful for
remembering a spot that you may want to go back to.  To make this
feature more useful, each buffer remembers 16 previous locations of the
mark, in the "mark ring".  Commands that set the mark also push the old
mark onto this ring.  To return to a marked location, use `C-u C-<SPC>'
(or `C-u C-@'); this is the command `set-mark-command' given a numeric
argument.  It moves point to where the mark was, and restores the mark
from the ring of former marks.

   If you set `set-mark-command-repeat-pop' to non-`nil', then when you
repeat the character `C-<SPC>' after typing `C-u C-<SPC>', each
repetition moves point to a previous mark position from the ring.  The
mark positions you move through in this way are not lost; they go to
the end of the ring.

   Each buffer has its own mark ring.  All editing commands use the
current buffer's mark ring.  In particular, `C-u C-<SPC>' always stays
in the same buffer.

   Many commands that can move long distances, such as `M-<'
(`beginning-of-buffer'), start by setting the mark and saving the old
mark on the mark ring.  This is to make it easier for you to move back
later.  Searches set the mark if they move point.  However, in
Transient Mark mode, these commands do not set the mark when the mark
is already active.  You can tell when a command sets the mark because
it displays `Mark set' in the echo area.

   If you want to move back to the same place over and over, the mark
ring may not be convenient enough.  If so, you can record the position
in a register for later retrieval (*note Saving Positions in Registers:
RegPos.).

   The variable `mark-ring-max' specifies the maximum number of entries
to keep in the mark ring.  If that many entries exist and another one
is pushed, the earliest one in the list is discarded.  Repeating `C-u
C-<SPC>' cycles through the positions currently in the ring.

   The variable `mark-ring' holds the mark ring itself, as a list of
marker objects, with the most recent first.  This variable is local in
every buffer.

File: emacs,  Node: Global Mark Ring,  Prev: Mark Ring,  Up: Mark

12.7 The Global Mark Ring
=========================

In addition to the ordinary mark ring that belongs to each buffer,
Emacs has a single "global mark ring".  It records a sequence of
buffers in which you have recently set the mark, so you can go back to
those buffers.

   Setting the mark always makes an entry on the current buffer's mark
ring.  If you have switched buffers since the previous mark setting, the
new mark position makes an entry on the global mark ring also.  The
result is that the global mark ring records a sequence of buffers that
you have been in, and, for each buffer, a place where you set the mark.

   The command `C-x C-<SPC>' (`pop-global-mark') jumps to the buffer
and position of the latest entry in the global ring.  It also rotates
the ring, so that successive uses of `C-x C-<SPC>' take you to earlier
and earlier buffers.

File: emacs,  Node: Killing,  Next: Yanking,  Prev: Mark,  Up: Top

13 Killing and Moving Text
**************************

"Killing" means erasing text and copying it into the "kill ring", from
which you can bring it back into the buffer by "yanking" it.  (Some
systems use the terms "cutting" and "pasting" for these operations.)
This is the most common way of moving or copying text within Emacs.
Killing and yanking is very safe because Emacs remembers several recent
kills, not just the last one.  It is versatile, because the many
commands for killing syntactic units can also be used for moving those
units.  But there are other ways of copying text for special purposes.

   Most commands which erase text from the buffer save it in the kill
ring.  These commands are known as "kill" commands.  The commands that
erase text but do not save it in the kill ring are known as "delete"
commands.  The `C-x u' (`undo') command (*note Undo::) can undo both
kill and delete commands; the importance of the kill ring is that you
can also yank the text in a different place or places.  Emacs has only
one kill ring for all buffers, so you can kill text in one buffer and
yank it in another buffer.

   The delete commands include `C-d' (`delete-char') and <DEL>
(`delete-backward-char'), which delete only one character at a time,
and those commands that delete only spaces or newlines.  Commands that
can erase significant amounts of nontrivial data generally do a kill
operation instead.  The commands' names and individual descriptions use
the words `kill' and `delete' to say which kind of operation they
perform.

   You cannot kill read-only text, since such text does not allow any
kind of modification.  But some users like to use the kill commands to
copy read-only text into the kill ring, without actually changing it.
Therefore, the kill commands work specially in a read-only buffer: they
move over text, and copy it to the kill ring, without actually deleting
it from the buffer.  Normally, kill commands beep and display an error
message when this happens.  But if you set the variable
`kill-read-only-ok' to a non-`nil' value, they just print a message in
the echo area to explain why the text has not been erased.

   You can also use the mouse to kill and yank.  *Note Cut and Paste::.

* Menu:

* Deletion::            Commands for deleting small amounts of text and
                          blank areas.
* Killing by Lines::    How to kill entire lines of text at one time.
* Other Kill Commands:: Commands to kill large regions of text and
                          syntactic units such as words and sentences.

File: emacs,  Node: Deletion,  Next: Killing by Lines,  Up: Killing

13.1 Deletion
=============

Deletion means erasing text and not saving it in the kill ring.  For
the most part, the Emacs commands that delete text are those that erase
just one character or only whitespace.

`C-d'
`<DELETE>'
     Delete next character (`delete-char').  If your keyboard has a
     <DELETE> function key (usually located in the edit keypad), Emacs
     binds it to `delete-char' as well.

`<DEL>'
`<BS>'
     Delete previous character (`delete-backward-char').

`M-\'
     Delete spaces and tabs around point (`delete-horizontal-space').

`M-<SPC>'
     Delete spaces and tabs around point, leaving one space
     (`just-one-space').

`C-x C-o'
     Delete blank lines around the current line (`delete-blank-lines').

`M-^'
     Join two lines by deleting the intervening newline, along with any
     indentation following it (`delete-indentation').

   The most basic delete commands are `C-d' (`delete-char') and <DEL>
(`delete-backward-char').  `C-d' deletes the character after point, the
one the cursor is "on top of."  This doesn't move point.  <DEL> deletes
the character before the cursor, and moves point back.  You can delete
newlines like any other characters in the buffer; deleting a newline
joins two lines.  Actually, `C-d' and <DEL> aren't always delete
commands; when given arguments, they kill instead, since they can erase
more than one character this way.

   Every keyboard has a large key which is a short distance above the
<RET> or <ENTER> key and is normally used for erasing what you have
typed.  It may be labeled <DEL>, <BACKSPACE>, <BS>, <DELETE>, or even
with a left arrow.  Regardless of the label on the key, in Emacs it
called <DEL>, and it should delete one character backwards.

   Many keyboards (including standard PC keyboards) have a <BACKSPACE>
key a short ways above <RET> or <ENTER>, and a <DELETE> key elsewhere.
In that case, the <BACKSPACE> key is <DEL>, and the <DELETE> key is
equivalent to `C-d'--or it should be.

   Why do we say "or it should be"?  When Emacs starts up using a
graphical display, it determines automatically which key or keys should
be equivalent to <DEL>.  As a result, <BACKSPACE> and/or <DELETE> keys
normally do the right things.  But in some unusual cases Emacs gets the
wrong information from the system.  If these keys don't do what they
ought to do, you need to tell Emacs which key to use for <DEL>.  *Note
DEL Does Not Delete::, for how to do this.

   On most text-only terminals, Emacs cannot tell which keys the
keyboard really has, so it follows a uniform plan which may or may not
fit your keyboard.  The uniform plan is that the ASCII <DEL> character
deletes, and the ASCII <BS> (backspace) character asks for help (it is
the same as `C-h').  If this is not right for your keyboard, such as if
you find that the key which ought to delete backwards enters Help
instead, see *note DEL Does Not Delete::.

   The other delete commands are those which delete only whitespace
characters: spaces, tabs and newlines.  `M-\'
(`delete-horizontal-space') deletes all the spaces and tab characters
before and after point.  With a prefix argument, this only deletes
spaces and tab characters before point.  `M-<SPC>' (`just-one-space')
does likewise but leaves a single space after point, regardless of the
number of spaces that existed previously (even if there were none
before).  With a numeric argument N, it leaves N spaces after point.

   `C-x C-o' (`delete-blank-lines') deletes all blank lines after the
current line.  If the current line is blank, it deletes all blank lines
preceding the current line as well (leaving one blank line, the current
line).  On a solitary blank line, it deletes that line.

   `M-^' (`delete-indentation') joins the current line and the previous
line, by deleting a newline and all surrounding spaces, usually leaving
a single space.  *Note M-^: Indentation.

File: emacs,  Node: Killing by Lines,  Next: Other Kill Commands,  Prev: Deletion,  Up: Killing

13.2 Killing by Lines
=====================

`C-k'
     Kill rest of line or one or more lines (`kill-line').

`C-S-backspace'
     Kill an entire line at once (`kill-whole-line')

   The simplest kill command is `C-k'.  If given at the beginning of a
line, it kills all the text on the line, leaving it blank.  When used
on a blank line, it kills the whole line including its newline.  To kill
an entire non-blank line, go to the beginning and type `C-k' twice.

   More generally, `C-k' kills from point up to the end of the line,
unless it is at the end of a line.  In that case it kills the newline
following point, thus merging the next line into the current one.
Spaces and tabs that you can't see at the end of the line are ignored
when deciding which case applies, so if point appears to be at the end
of the line, you can be sure `C-k' will kill the newline.

   When `C-k' is given a positive argument, it kills that many lines
and the newlines that follow them (however, text on the current line
before point is not killed).  With a negative argument -N, it kills N
lines preceding the current line (together with the text on the current
line before point).  Thus, `C-u - 2 C-k' at the front of a line kills
the two previous lines.

   `C-k' with an argument of zero kills the text before point on the
current line.

   If the variable `kill-whole-line' is non-`nil', `C-k' at the very
beginning of a line kills the entire line including the following
newline.  This variable is normally `nil'.

   `C-S-backspace' (`kill-whole-line') will kill a whole line including
its newline regardless of the position of point within the line.  Note
that many character terminals will prevent you from typing the key
sequence `C-S-backspace'.

File: emacs,  Node: Other Kill Commands,  Prev: Killing by Lines,  Up: Killing

13.3 Other Kill Commands
========================

`C-w'
     Kill region (from point to the mark) (`kill-region').

`M-d'
     Kill word (`kill-word').  *Note Words::.

`M-<DEL>'
     Kill word backwards (`backward-kill-word').

`C-x <DEL>'
     Kill back to beginning of sentence (`backward-kill-sentence').
     *Note Sentences::.

`M-k'
     Kill to end of sentence (`kill-sentence').

`C-M-k'
     Kill the following balanced expression (`kill-sexp').  *Note
     Expressions::.

`M-z CHAR'
     Kill through the next occurrence of CHAR (`zap-to-char').

   The most general kill command is `C-w' (`kill-region'), which kills
everything between point and the mark.  With this command, you can kill
any contiguous sequence of characters, if you first set the region
around them.

   A convenient way of killing is combined with searching: `M-z'
(`zap-to-char') reads a character and kills from point up to (and
including) the next occurrence of that character in the buffer.  A
numeric argument acts as a repeat count.  A negative argument means to
search backward and kill text before point.

   Other syntactic units can be killed: words, with `M-<DEL>' and `M-d'
(*note Words::); balanced expressions, with `C-M-k' (*note
Expressions::); and sentences, with `C-x <DEL>' and `M-k' (*note
Sentences::).

File: emacs,  Node: Yanking,  Next: Accumulating Text,  Prev: Killing,  Up: Top

14 Yanking
**********

"Yanking" means reinserting text previously killed.  This is what some
systems call "pasting."  The usual way to move or copy text is to kill
it and then yank it elsewhere one or more times.  This is very safe
because Emacs remembers many recent kills, not just the last one.

`C-y'
     Yank last killed text (`yank').

`M-y'
     Replace text just yanked with an earlier batch of killed text
     (`yank-pop').

`M-w'
     Save region as last killed text without actually killing it
     (`kill-ring-save').  Some systems call this "copying."

`C-M-w'
     Append next kill to last batch of killed text (`append-next-kill').

   On graphical displays with window systems, if there is a current
selection in some other application, and you selected it more recently
than you killed any text in Emacs, `C-y' copies the selection instead
of text killed within Emacs.

* Menu:

* Kill Ring::		Where killed text is stored.  Basic yanking.
* Appending Kills::	Several kills in a row all yank together.
* Earlier Kills::	Yanking something killed some time ago.

File: emacs,  Node: Kill Ring,  Next: Appending Kills,  Up: Yanking

14.1 The Kill Ring
==================

All killed text is recorded in the "kill ring", a list of blocks of
text that have been killed.  There is only one kill ring, shared by all
buffers, so you can kill text in one buffer and yank it in another
buffer.  This is the usual way to move text from one file to another.
(*Note Accumulating Text::, for some other ways.)

   The command `C-y' (`yank') reinserts the text of the most recent
kill.  It leaves the cursor at the end of the text.  It sets the mark at
the beginning of the text.  *Note Mark::.

   `C-u C-y' leaves the cursor in front of the text, and sets the mark
after it.  This happens only if the argument is specified with just a
`C-u', precisely.  Any other sort of argument, including `C-u' and
digits, specifies an earlier kill to yank (*note Earlier Kills::).

   The yank commands discard certain text properties from the text that
is yanked, those that might lead to annoying results.  For instance,
they discard text properties that respond to the mouse or specify key
bindings.  The variable `yank-excluded-properties' specifies the
properties to discard.  Yanking of register contents and rectangles
also discard these properties.

   To copy a block of text, you can use `M-w' (`kill-ring-save'), which
copies the region into the kill ring without removing it from the
buffer.  This is approximately equivalent to `C-w' followed by `C-x u',
except that `M-w' does not alter the undo history and does not
temporarily change the screen.

File: emacs,  Node: Appending Kills,  Next: Earlier Kills,  Prev: Kill Ring,  Up: Yanking

14.2 Appending Kills
====================

Normally, each kill command pushes a new entry onto the kill ring.
However, two or more kill commands in a row combine their text into a
single entry, so that a single `C-y' yanks all the text as a unit, just
as it was before it was killed.

   Thus, if you want to yank text as a unit, you need not kill all of it
with one command; you can keep killing line after line, or word after
word, until you have killed it all, and you can still get it all back at
once.

   Commands that kill forward from point add onto the end of the
previous killed text.  Commands that kill backward from point add text
onto the beginning.  This way, any sequence of mixed forward and
backward kill commands puts all the killed text into one entry without
rearrangement.  Numeric arguments do not break the sequence of
appending kills.  For example, suppose the buffer contains this text:

     This is a line -!-of sample text.

with point shown by -!-.  If you type `M-d M-<DEL> M-d M-<DEL>',
killing alternately forward and backward, you end up with `a line of
sample' as one entry in the kill ring, and `This is  text.' in the
buffer.  (Note the double space between `is' and `text', which you can
clean up with `M-<SPC>' or `M-q'.)

   Another way to kill the same text is to move back two words with
`M-b M-b', then kill all four words forward with `C-u M-d'.  This
produces exactly the same results in the buffer and in the kill ring.
`M-f M-f C-u M-<DEL>' kills the same text, all going backward; once
again, the result is the same.  The text in the kill ring entry always
has the same order that it had in the buffer before you killed it.

   If a kill command is separated from the last kill command by other
commands (not just numeric arguments), it starts a new entry on the kill
ring.  But you can force it to append by first typing the command
`C-M-w' (`append-next-kill') right before it.  The `C-M-w' tells the
following command, if it is a kill command, to append the text it kills
to the last killed text, instead of starting a new entry.  With
`C-M-w', you can kill several separated pieces of text and accumulate
them to be yanked back in one place.

   A kill command following `M-w' does not append to the text that
`M-w' copied into the kill ring.

File: emacs,  Node: Earlier Kills,  Prev: Appending Kills,  Up: Yanking

14.3 Yanking Earlier Kills
==========================

To recover killed text that is no longer the most recent kill, use the
`M-y' command (`yank-pop').  It takes the text previously yanked and
replaces it with the text from an earlier kill.  So, to recover the
text of the next-to-the-last kill, first use `C-y' to yank the last
kill, and then use `M-y' to replace it with the previous kill.  `M-y'
is allowed only after a `C-y' or another `M-y'.

   You can understand `M-y' in terms of a "last yank" pointer which
points at an entry in the kill ring.  Each time you kill, the "last
yank" pointer moves to the newly made entry at the front of the ring.
`C-y' yanks the entry which the "last yank" pointer points to.  `M-y'
moves the "last yank" pointer to a different entry, and the text in the
buffer changes to match.  Enough `M-y' commands can move the pointer to
any entry in the ring, so you can get any entry into the buffer.
Eventually the pointer reaches the end of the ring; the next `M-y'
loops back around to the first entry again.

   `M-y' moves the "last yank" pointer around the ring, but it does not
change the order of the entries in the ring, which always runs from the
most recent kill at the front to the oldest one still remembered.

   `M-y' can take a numeric argument, which tells it how many entries
to advance the "last yank" pointer by.  A negative argument moves the
pointer toward the front of the ring; from the front of the ring, it
moves "around" to the last entry and continues forward from there.

   Once the text you are looking for is brought into the buffer, you can
stop doing `M-y' commands and it will stay there.  It's just a copy of
the kill ring entry, so editing it in the buffer does not change what's
in the ring.  As long as no new killing is done, the "last yank"
pointer remains at the same place in the kill ring, so repeating `C-y'
will yank another copy of the same previous kill.

   If you know how many `M-y' commands it would take to find the text
you want, you can yank that text in one step using `C-y' with a numeric
argument.  `C-y' with an argument restores the text from the specified
kill ring entry, counting back from the most recent as 1.  Thus, `C-u 2
C-y' gets the next-to-the-last block of killed text--it is equivalent
to `C-y M-y'.  `C-y' with a numeric argument starts counting from the
"last yank" pointer, and sets the "last yank" pointer to the entry that
it yanks.

   The length of the kill ring is controlled by the variable
`kill-ring-max'; no more than that many blocks of killed text are saved.

   The actual contents of the kill ring are stored in a variable named
`kill-ring'; you can view the entire contents of the kill ring with the
command `C-h v kill-ring'.

File: emacs,  Node: Accumulating Text,  Next: Rectangles,  Prev: Yanking,  Up: Top

15 Accumulating Text
********************

Usually we copy or move text by killing it and yanking it, but there
are other convenient methods for copying one block of text in many
places, or for copying many scattered blocks of text into one place.  To
copy one block to many places, store it in a register (*note
Registers::).  Here we describe the commands to accumulate scattered
pieces of text into a buffer or into a file.

`M-x append-to-buffer'
     Append region to the contents of a specified buffer.

`M-x prepend-to-buffer'
     Prepend region to the contents of a specified buffer.

`M-x copy-to-buffer'
     Copy region into a specified buffer, deleting that buffer's old
     contents.

`M-x insert-buffer'
     Insert the contents of a specified buffer into current buffer at
     point.

`M-x append-to-file'
     Append region to the contents of a specified file, at the end.

   To accumulate text into a buffer, use `M-x append-to-buffer'.  This
reads a buffer name, then inserts a copy of the region into the buffer
specified.  If you specify a nonexistent buffer, `append-to-buffer'
creates the buffer.  The text is inserted wherever point is in that
buffer.  If you have been using the buffer for editing, the copied text
goes into the middle of the text of the buffer, starting from wherever
point happens to be at that moment.

   Point in that buffer is left at the end of the copied text, so
successive uses of `append-to-buffer' accumulate the text in the
specified buffer in the same order as they were copied.  Strictly
speaking, `append-to-buffer' does not always append to the text already
in the buffer--it appends only if point in that buffer is at the end.
However, if `append-to-buffer' is the only command you use to alter a
buffer, then point is always at the end.

   `M-x prepend-to-buffer' is just like `append-to-buffer' except that
point in the other buffer is left before the copied text, so successive
prependings add text in reverse order.  `M-x copy-to-buffer' is
similar, except that any existing text in the other buffer is deleted,
so the buffer is left containing just the text newly copied into it.

   To retrieve the accumulated text from another buffer, use the
command `M-x insert-buffer'; this too takes BUFFERNAME as an argument.
It inserts a copy of the whole text in buffer BUFFERNAME into the
current buffer at point, and sets the mark after the inserted text.
Alternatively, you can select the other buffer for editing, then copy
text from it by killing.  *Note Buffers::, for background information
on buffers.

   Instead of accumulating text within Emacs, in a buffer, you can
append text directly into a file with `M-x append-to-file', which takes
FILENAME as an argument.  It adds the text of the region to the end of
the specified file.  The file is changed immediately on disk.

   You should use `append-to-file' only with files that are _not_ being
visited in Emacs.  Using it on a file that you are editing in Emacs
would change the file behind Emacs's back, which can lead to losing
some of your editing.

File: emacs,  Node: Rectangles,  Next: CUA Bindings,  Prev: Accumulating Text,  Up: Top

16 Rectangles
*************

The rectangle commands operate on rectangular areas of the text: all
the characters between a certain pair of columns, in a certain range of
lines.  Commands are provided to kill rectangles, yank killed
rectangles, clear them out, fill them with blanks or text, or delete
them.  Rectangle commands are useful with text in multicolumn formats,
and for changing text into or out of such formats.

   When you must specify a rectangle for a command to work on, you do it
by putting the mark at one corner and point at the opposite corner.  The
rectangle thus specified is called the "region-rectangle" because you
control it in much the same way as the region is controlled.  But
remember that a given combination of point and mark values can be
interpreted either as a region or as a rectangle, depending on the
command that uses them.

   If point and the mark are in the same column, the rectangle they
delimit is empty.  If they are in the same line, the rectangle is one
line high.  This asymmetry between lines and columns comes about
because point (and likewise the mark) is between two columns, but within
a line.

`C-x r k'
     Kill the text of the region-rectangle, saving its contents as the
     "last killed rectangle" (`kill-rectangle').

`C-x r d'
     Delete the text of the region-rectangle (`delete-rectangle').

`C-x r y'
     Yank the last killed rectangle with its upper left corner at point
     (`yank-rectangle').

`C-x r o'
     Insert blank space to fill the space of the region-rectangle
     (`open-rectangle').  This pushes the previous contents of the
     region-rectangle rightward.

`C-x r c'
     Clear the region-rectangle by replacing all of its contents with
     spaces (`clear-rectangle').

`M-x delete-whitespace-rectangle'
     Delete whitespace in each of the lines on the specified rectangle,
     starting from the left edge column of the rectangle.

`C-x r t STRING <RET>'
     Replace rectangle contents with STRING on each line
     (`string-rectangle').

`M-x string-insert-rectangle <RET> STRING <RET>'
     Insert STRING on each line of the rectangle.

   The rectangle operations fall into two classes: commands for
deleting and inserting rectangles, and commands for blank rectangles.

   There are two ways to get rid of the text in a rectangle: you can
discard the text (delete it) or save it as the "last killed" rectangle.
The commands for these two ways are `C-x r d' (`delete-rectangle') and
`C-x r k' (`kill-rectangle').  In either case, the portion of each line
that falls inside the rectangle's boundaries is deleted, causing any
following text on the line to move left into the gap.

   Note that "killing" a rectangle is not killing in the usual sense;
the rectangle is not stored in the kill ring, but in a special place
that can only record the most recent rectangle killed.  This is because
yanking a rectangle is so different from yanking linear text that
different yank commands have to be used.  It is hard to define
yank-popping for rectangles, so we do not try.

   To yank the last killed rectangle, type `C-x r y'
(`yank-rectangle').  Yanking a rectangle is the opposite of killing
one.  Point specifies where to put the rectangle's upper left corner.
The rectangle's first line is inserted there, the rectangle's second
line is inserted at the same horizontal position, but one line
vertically down, and so on.  The number of lines affected is determined
by the height of the saved rectangle.

   You can convert single-column lists into double-column lists using
rectangle killing and yanking; kill the second half of the list as a
rectangle and then yank it beside the first line of the list.  *Note
Two-Column::, for another way to edit multi-column text.

   You can also copy rectangles into and out of registers with `C-x r r
R' and `C-x r i R'.  *Note Rectangle Registers: RegRect.

   There are two commands you can use for making blank rectangles: `C-x
r c' (`clear-rectangle') which blanks out existing text, and `C-x r o'
(`open-rectangle') which inserts a blank rectangle.  Clearing a
rectangle is equivalent to deleting it and then inserting a blank
rectangle of the same size.

   The command `M-x delete-whitespace-rectangle' deletes horizontal
whitespace starting from a particular column.  This applies to each of
the lines in the rectangle, and the column is specified by the left
edge of the rectangle.  The right edge of the rectangle does not make
any difference to this command.

   The command `C-x r t' (`string-rectangle') replaces the contents of
a region-rectangle with a string on each line.  The string's width need
not be the same as the width of the rectangle.  If the string's width
is less, the text after the rectangle shifts left; if the string is
wider than the rectangle, the text after the rectangle shifts right.

   The command `M-x string-insert-rectangle' is similar to
`string-rectangle', but inserts the string on each line, shifting the
original text to the right.

File: emacs,  Node: Registers,  Next: Display,  Prev: CUA Bindings,  Up: Top

18 Registers
************

Emacs "registers" are compartments where you can save text, rectangles,
positions, and other things for later use.  Once you save text or a
rectangle in a register, you can copy it into the buffer once, or many
times; you can move point to a position saved in a register once, or
many times.

   Each register has a name, which consists of a single character.  A
register can store a number, a piece of text, a rectangle, a position,
a window configuration, or a file name, but only one thing at any given
time.  Whatever you store in a register remains there until you store
something else in that register.  To see what a register R contains,
use `M-x view-register'.

`M-x view-register <RET> R'
     Display a description of what register R contains.

   "Bookmarks" record files and positions in them, so you can return to
those positions when you look at the file again.  Bookmarks are similar
enough in spirit to registers that they seem to belong in this chapter.

* Menu:

* Position: RegPos.           Saving positions in registers.
* Text: RegText.              Saving text in registers.
* Rectangle: RegRect.         Saving rectangles in registers.
* Configurations: RegConfig.  Saving window configurations in registers.
* Numbers: RegNumbers.        Numbers in registers.
* Files: RegFiles.            File names in registers.
* Bookmarks::                 Bookmarks are like registers, but persistent.

File: emacs,  Node: RegPos,  Next: RegText,  Up: Registers

18.1 Saving Positions in Registers
==================================

Saving a position records a place in a buffer so that you can move back
there later.  Moving to a saved position switches to that buffer and
moves point to that place in it.

`C-x r <SPC> R'
     Save position of point in register R (`point-to-register').

`C-x r j R'
     Jump to the position saved in register R (`jump-to-register').

   To save the current position of point in a register, choose a name R
and type `C-x r <SPC> R'.  The register R retains the position thus
saved until you store something else in that register.

   The command `C-x r j R' moves point to the position recorded in
register R.  The register is not affected; it continues to hold the
same position.  You can jump to the saved position any number of times.

   If you use `C-x r j' to go to a saved position, but the buffer it
was saved from has been killed, `C-x r j' tries to create the buffer
again by visiting the same file.  Of course, this works only for buffers
that were visiting files.

File: emacs,  Node: RegText,  Next: RegRect,  Prev: RegPos,  Up: Registers

18.2 Saving Text in Registers
=============================

When you want to insert a copy of the same piece of text several times,
it may be inconvenient to yank it from the kill ring, since each
subsequent kill moves that entry further down the ring.  An alternative
is to store the text in a register and later retrieve it.

`C-x r s R'
     Copy region into register R (`copy-to-register').

`C-x r i R'
     Insert text from register R (`insert-register').

`M-x append-to-register <RET> R'
     Append region to text in register R.

`M-x prepend-to-register <RET> R'
     Prepend region to text in register R.

   `C-x r s R' stores a copy of the text of the region into the
register named R.  `C-u C-x r s R', the same command with a numeric
argument, deletes the text from the buffer as well; you can think of
this as "moving" the region text into the register.

   `M-x append-to-register <RET> R' appends the copy of the text in the
region to the text already stored in the register named R.  If invoked
with a numeric argument, it deletes the region after appending it to
the register.  The command `prepend-to-register' is similar, except
that it _prepends_ the region text to the text in the register, rather
than _appending_ it.

   `C-x r i R' inserts in the buffer the text from register R.
Normally it leaves point before the text and places the mark after, but
with a numeric argument (`C-u') it puts point after the text and the
mark before.

File: emacs,  Node: RegRect,  Next: RegConfig,  Prev: RegText,  Up: Registers

18.3 Saving Rectangles in Registers
===================================

A register can contain a rectangle instead of linear text.  The
rectangle is represented as a list of strings.  *Note Rectangles::, for
basic information on how to specify a rectangle in the buffer.

`C-x r r R'
     Copy the region-rectangle into register R
     (`copy-rectangle-to-register').  With numeric argument, delete it
     as well.

`C-x r i R'
     Insert the rectangle stored in register R (if it contains a
     rectangle) (`insert-register').

   The `C-x r i R' command inserts a text string if the register
contains one, and inserts a rectangle if the register contains one.

   See also the command `sort-columns', which you can think of as
sorting a rectangle.  *Note Sorting::.

File: emacs,  Node: RegConfig,  Next: RegNumbers,  Prev: RegRect,  Up: Registers

18.4 Saving Window Configurations in Registers
==============================================

You can save the window configuration of the selected frame in a
register, or even the configuration of all windows in all frames, and
restore the configuration later.

`C-x r w R'
     Save the state of the selected frame's windows in register R
     (`window-configuration-to-register').

`C-x r f R'
     Save the state of all frames, including all their windows, in
     register R (`frame-configuration-to-register').

   Use `C-x r j R' to restore a window or frame configuration.  This is
the same command used to restore a cursor position.  When you restore a
frame configuration, any existing frames not included in the
configuration become invisible.  If you wish to delete these frames
instead, use `C-u C-x r j R'.

File: emacs,  Node: RegNumbers,  Next: RegFiles,  Prev: RegConfig,  Up: Registers

18.5 Keeping Numbers in Registers
=================================

There are commands to store a number in a register, to insert the
number in the buffer in decimal, and to increment it.  These commands
can be useful in keyboard macros (*note Keyboard Macros::).

`C-u NUMBER C-x r n R'
     Store NUMBER into register R (`number-to-register').

`C-u NUMBER C-x r + R'
     Increment the number in register R by NUMBER
     (`increment-register').

`C-x r i R'
     Insert the number from register R into the buffer.

   `C-x r i' is the same command used to insert any other sort of
register contents into the buffer.  `C-x r +' with no numeric argument
increments the register value by 1; `C-x r n' with no numeric argument
stores zero in the register.

File: emacs,  Node: RegFiles,  Next: Bookmarks,  Prev: RegNumbers,  Up: Registers

18.6 Keeping File Names in Registers
====================================

If you visit certain file names frequently, you can visit them more
conveniently if you put their names in registers.  Here's the Lisp code
used to put a file name in a register:

     (set-register ?R '(file . NAME))

For example,

     (set-register ?z '(file . "/gd/gnu/emacs/19.0/src/ChangeLog"))

puts the file name shown in register `z'.

   To visit the file whose name is in register R, type `C-x r j R'.
(This is the same command used to jump to a position or restore a frame
configuration.)

File: emacs,  Node: Bookmarks,  Prev: RegFiles,  Up: Registers

18.7 Bookmarks
==============

"Bookmarks" are somewhat like registers in that they record positions
you can jump to.  Unlike registers, they have long names, and they
persist automatically from one Emacs session to the next.  The
prototypical use of bookmarks is to record "where you were reading" in
various files.

`C-x r m <RET>'
     Set the bookmark for the visited file, at point.

`C-x r m BOOKMARK <RET>'
     Set the bookmark named BOOKMARK at point (`bookmark-set').

`C-x r b BOOKMARK <RET>'
     Jump to the bookmark named BOOKMARK (`bookmark-jump').

`C-x r l'
     List all bookmarks (`list-bookmarks').

`M-x bookmark-save'
     Save all the current bookmark values in the default bookmark file.

   The prototypical use for bookmarks is to record one current position
in each of several files.  So the command `C-x r m', which sets a
bookmark, uses the visited file name as the default for the bookmark
name.  If you name each bookmark after the file it points to, then you
can conveniently revisit any of those files with `C-x r b', and move to
the position of the bookmark at the same time.

   To display a list of all your bookmarks in a separate buffer, type
`C-x r l' (`list-bookmarks').  If you switch to that buffer, you can
use it to edit your bookmark definitions or annotate the bookmarks.
Type `C-h m' in the bookmark buffer for more information about its
special editing commands.

   When you kill Emacs, Emacs offers to save your bookmark values in
your default bookmark file, `~/.emacs.bmk', if you have changed any
bookmark values.  You can also save the bookmarks at any time with the
`M-x bookmark-save' command.  The bookmark commands load your default
bookmark file automatically.  This saving and loading is how bookmarks
persist from one Emacs session to the next.

   If you set the variable `bookmark-save-flag' to 1, then each command
that sets a bookmark will also save your bookmarks; this way, you don't
lose any bookmark values even if Emacs crashes.  (The value, if a
number, says how many bookmark modifications should go by between
saving.)

   Bookmark position values are saved with surrounding context, so that
`bookmark-jump' can find the proper position even if the file is
modified slightly.  The variable `bookmark-search-size' says how many
characters of context to record on each side of the bookmark's position.

   Here are some additional commands for working with bookmarks:

`M-x bookmark-load <RET> FILENAME <RET>'
     Load a file named FILENAME that contains a list of bookmark
     values.  You can use this command, as well as `bookmark-write', to
     work with other files of bookmark values in addition to your
     default bookmark file.

`M-x bookmark-write <RET> FILENAME <RET>'
     Save all the current bookmark values in the file FILENAME.

`M-x bookmark-delete <RET> BOOKMARK <RET>'
     Delete the bookmark named BOOKMARK.

`M-x bookmark-insert-location <RET> BOOKMARK <RET>'
     Insert in the buffer the name of the file that bookmark BOOKMARK
     points to.

`M-x bookmark-insert <RET> BOOKMARK <RET>'
     Insert in the buffer the _contents_ of the file that bookmark
     BOOKMARK points to.

File: emacs,  Node: Display,  Next: Search,  Prev: Registers,  Up: Top

19 Controlling the Display
**************************

Since only part of a large buffer fits in the window, Emacs tries to
show a part that is likely to be interesting.  Display-control commands
allow you to specify which part of the text you want to see, and how to
display it.  Many variables also affect the details of redisplay.
Unless otherwise stated, the variables described in this chapter have
their effect by customizing redisplay itself; therefore, their values
only make a difference at the time of redisplay.

* Menu:

* Scrolling::	           Commands to move text up and down in a window.
* Auto Scrolling::         Redisplay scrolls text automatically when needed.
* Horizontal Scrolling::   Moving text left and right in a window.
* Follow Mode::            Follow mode lets two windows scroll as one.
* Faces::	           How to change the display style using faces.
* Standard Faces::         Emacs' predefined faces.
* Font Lock::              Minor mode for syntactic highlighting using faces.
* Highlight Interactively:: Tell Emacs what text to highlight.
* Fringes::                Enabling or disabling window fringes.
* Displaying Boundaries::  Displaying top and bottom of the buffer.
* Useless Whitespace::     Showing possibly-spurious trailing whitespace.
* Selective Display::      Hiding lines with lots of indentation.
* Optional Mode Line::     Optional mode line display features.
* Text Display::           How text characters are normally displayed.
* Cursor Display::         Features for displaying the cursor.
* Line Truncation::        Truncating lines to fit the screen width instead
                             of continuing them to multiple screen lines.
* Display Custom::         Information on variables for customizing display.

File: emacs,  Node: Scrolling,  Next: Auto Scrolling,  Up: Display

19.1 Scrolling
==============

If a buffer contains text that is too large to fit entirely within a
window that is displaying the buffer, Emacs shows a contiguous portion
of the text.  The portion shown always contains point.

   "Scrolling" means moving text up or down in the window so that
different parts of the text are visible.  Scrolling "forward" or "up"
means that text moves up, and new text appears at the bottom.
Scrolling "backward" or "down" moves text down, and new text appears at
the top.

   Scrolling happens automatically if you move point past the bottom or
top of the window.  You can also scroll explicitly with the commands in
this section.

`C-l'
     Clear screen and redisplay, scrolling the selected window to center
     point vertically within it (`recenter').

`C-v'
     Scroll forward (a windowful or a specified number of lines)
     (`scroll-up').

`<NEXT>'
`<PAGEDOWN>'
     Likewise, scroll forward.

`M-v'
     Scroll backward (`scroll-down').

`<PRIOR>'
`<PAGEUP>'
     Likewise, scroll backward.

`ARG C-l'
     Scroll so point is on line ARG (`recenter').

`C-M-l'
     Scroll heuristically to bring useful information onto the screen
     (`reposition-window').

   The most basic scrolling command is `C-l' (`recenter') with no
argument.  It scrolls the selected window so that point is halfway down
from the top of the window.  On a text terminal, it also clears the
screen and redisplays all windows.  That is useful in case the screen
is garbled (*note Screen Garbled::).

   To read the buffer a windowful at a time, use `C-v' (`scroll-up')
with no argument.  This scrolls forward by nearly the whole window
height.  The effect is to take the two lines at the bottom of the
window and put them at the top, followed by nearly a whole windowful of
lines that were not previously visible.  If point was in the text that
scrolled off the top, it ends up at the new top of the window.

   `M-v' (`scroll-down') with no argument scrolls backward in a similar
way, also with overlap.  The number of lines of overlap that the `C-v'
or `M-v' commands leave is controlled by the variable
`next-screen-context-lines'; by default, it is 2.  The function keys
<NEXT> and <PRIOR>, or <PAGEDOWN> and <PAGEUP>, are equivalent to `C-v'
and `M-v'.

   The commands `C-v' and `M-v' with a numeric argument scroll the text
in the selected window up or down a few lines.  `C-v' with an argument
moves the text and point up, together, that many lines; it brings the
same number of new lines into view at the bottom of the window.  `M-v'
with numeric argument scrolls the text downward, bringing that many new
lines into view at the top of the window.  `C-v' with a negative
argument is like `M-v' and vice versa.

   The names of scroll commands are based on the direction that the
text moves in the window.  Thus, the command to scroll forward is
called `scroll-up' because it moves the text upward on the screen.  The
keys <PAGEDOWN> and <PAGEUP> derive their names and customary meanings
from a different convention that developed elsewhere; hence the strange
result that <PAGEDOWN> runs `scroll-up'.

   Some users like the full-screen scroll commands to keep point at the
same screen line.  To enable this behavior, set the variable
`scroll-preserve-screen-position' to a non-`nil' value.  In this mode,
when these commands would scroll the text around point off the screen,
or within `scroll-margin' lines of the edge, they move point to keep
the same vertical position within the window.  This mode is convenient
for browsing through a file by scrolling by screenfuls; if you come
back to the screen where you started, point goes back to the line where
it started.  However, this mode is inconvenient when you move to the
next screen in order to move point to the text there.

   Another way to do scrolling is with `C-l' with a numeric argument.
`C-l' does not clear the screen when given an argument; it only scrolls
the selected window.  With a positive argument N, it repositions text
to put point N lines down from the top.  An argument of zero puts point
on the very top line.  Point does not move with respect to the text;
rather, the text and point move rigidly on the screen.  `C-l' with a
negative argument puts point that many lines from the bottom of the
window.  For example, `C-u - 1 C-l' puts point on the bottom line, and
`C-u - 5 C-l' puts it five lines from the bottom.  `C-u C-l' scrolls to
put point at the center (vertically) of the selected window.

   The `C-M-l' command (`reposition-window') scrolls the current window
heuristically in a way designed to get useful information onto the
screen.  For example, in a Lisp file, this command tries to get the
entire current defun onto the screen if possible.

File: emacs,  Node: Auto Scrolling,  Next: Horizontal Scrolling,  Prev: Scrolling,  Up: Display

19.2 Automatic Scrolling
========================

Redisplay scrolls the buffer automatically when point moves out of the
visible portion of the text.  The purpose of automatic scrolling is to
make point visible, but you can customize many aspects of how this is
done.

   Normally, automatic scrolling centers point vertically within the
window.  However, if you set `scroll-conservatively' to a small number
N, then if you move point just a little off the screen--less than N
lines--then Emacs scrolls the text just far enough to bring point back
on screen.  By default, `scroll-conservatively' is 0.

   When the window does scroll by a longer distance, you can control
how aggressively it scrolls, by setting the variables
`scroll-up-aggressively' and `scroll-down-aggressively'.  The value of
`scroll-up-aggressively' should be either `nil', or a fraction F
between 0 and 1.  A fraction specifies where on the screen to put point
when scrolling upward.  More precisely, when a window scrolls up
because point is above the window start, the new start position is
chosen to put point F part of the window height from the top.  The
larger F, the more aggressive the scrolling.

   `nil', which is the default, scrolls to put point at the center.  So
it is equivalent to .5.

   Likewise, `scroll-down-aggressively' is used for scrolling down.
The value, F, specifies how far point should be placed from the bottom
of the window; thus, as with `scroll-up-aggressively', a larger value
is more aggressive.

   The variable `scroll-margin' restricts how close point can come to
the top or bottom of a window.  Its value is a number of screen lines;
if point comes within that many lines of the top or bottom of the
window, Emacs recenters the window.  By default, `scroll-margin' is 0.

File: emacs,  Node: Horizontal Scrolling,  Next: Follow Mode,  Prev: Auto Scrolling,  Up: Display

19.3 Horizontal Scrolling
=========================

"Horizontal scrolling" means shifting all the lines sideways within a
window--so that some of the text near the left margin is not displayed
at all.  When the text in a window is scrolled horizontally, text lines
are truncated rather than continued (*note Line Truncation::).
Whenever a window shows truncated lines, Emacs automatically updates
its horizontal scrolling whenever point moves off the left or right
edge of the screen.  You can also use these commands to do explicit
horizontal scrolling.

`C-x <'
     Scroll text in current window to the left (`scroll-left').

`C-x >'
     Scroll to the right (`scroll-right').

   The command `C-x <' (`scroll-left') scrolls the selected window to
the left by N columns with argument N.  This moves part of the
beginning of each line off the left edge of the window.  With no
argument, it scrolls by almost the full width of the window (two
columns less, to be precise).

   `C-x >' (`scroll-right') scrolls similarly to the right.  The window
cannot be scrolled any farther to the right once it is displayed
normally (with each line starting at the window's left margin);
attempting to do so has no effect.  This means that you don't have to
calculate the argument precisely for `C-x >'; any sufficiently large
argument will restore the normal display.

   If you use those commands to scroll a window horizontally, that sets
a lower bound for automatic horizontal scrolling.  Automatic scrolling
will continue to scroll the window, but never farther to the right than
the amount you previously set by `scroll-left'.

   The value of the variable `hscroll-margin' controls how close to the
window's edges point is allowed to get before the window will be
automatically scrolled.  It is measured in columns.  If the value is 5,
then moving point within 5 columns of the edge causes horizontal
scrolling away from that edge.

   The variable `hscroll-step' determines how many columns to scroll
the window when point gets too close to the edge.  If it's zero,
horizontal scrolling centers point horizontally within the window.  If
it's a positive integer, it specifies the number of columns to scroll
by.  If it's a floating-point number, it specifies the fraction of the
window's width to scroll by.  The default is zero.

   To disable automatic horizontal scrolling, set the variable
`auto-hscroll-mode' to `nil'.

File: emacs,  Node: Follow Mode,  Next: Faces,  Prev: Horizontal Scrolling,  Up: Display

19.4 Follow Mode
================

"Follow mode" is a minor mode that makes two windows, both showing the
same buffer, scroll as a single tall "virtual window."  To use Follow
mode, go to a frame with just one window, split it into two
side-by-side windows using `C-x 3', and then type `M-x follow-mode'.
From then on, you can edit the buffer in either of the two windows, or
scroll either one; the other window follows it.

   In Follow mode, if you move point outside the portion visible in one
window and into the portion visible in the other window, that selects
the other window--again, treating the two as if they were parts of one
large window.

   To turn off Follow mode, type `M-x follow-mode' a second time.

File: emacs,  Node: Faces,  Next: Standard Faces,  Prev: Follow Mode,  Up: Display

19.5 Faces: Controlling Text Display Style
==========================================

You can specify various styles for displaying text using "faces".  Each
face can specify various "face attributes", such as the font family,
the height, weight and slant of the characters, the foreground and
background color, and underlining or overlining.  A face does not have
to specify all of these attributes; often it inherits most of them from
another face.

   On graphical display, all the Emacs face attributes are meaningful.
On a text-only terminal, only some of them work.  Some text-only
terminals support inverse video, bold, and underline attributes; some
support colors.  Text-only terminals generally do not support changing
the height and width or the font family.

   Most major modes assign faces to the text automatically through the
work of Font Lock mode.  *Note Font Lock::, for more information about
Font Lock mode and syntactic highlighting.  You can print the current
buffer with the highlighting that appears on your screen using the
command `ps-print-buffer-with-faces'.  *Note PostScript::.

   You control the appearance of a part of the text in the buffer by
specifying the face or faces to use for it.  The style of display used
for any given character is determined by combining the attributes of
all the applicable faces specified for that character.  Any attribute
that isn't specified by these faces is taken from the `default' face,
whose attributes reflect the default settings of the frame itself.

   Enriched mode, the mode for editing formatted text, includes several
commands and menus for specifying faces for text in the buffer.  *Note
Format Faces::, for how to specify the font for text in the buffer.
*Note Format Colors::, for how to specify the foreground and background
color.

   To alter the appearance of a face, use the customization buffer.
*Note Face Customization::.  You can also use X resources to specify
attributes of particular faces (*note Resources::).  Alternatively, you
can change the foreground and background colors of a specific face with
`M-x set-face-foreground' and `M-x set-face-background'.  These
commands prompt in the minibuffer for a face name and a color name,
with completion, and then set that face to use the specified color.
Changing the colors of the `default' face also changes the foreground
and background colors on all frames, both existing and those to be
created in the future.  (You can also set foreground and background
colors for the current frame only; see *note Frame Parameters::.)

   If you want to alter the appearance of all Emacs frames, you need to
customize the frame parameters in the variable `default-frame-alist';
see *note default-frame-alist: Creating Frames.

   Emacs can correctly display variable-width fonts, but Emacs commands
that calculate width and indentation do not know how to calculate
variable widths.  This can sometimes lead to incorrect results when you
use variable-width fonts.  In particular, indentation commands can give
inconsistent results, so we recommend you avoid variable-width fonts
for editing program source code.  Filling will sometimes make lines too
long or too short.  We plan to address these issues in future Emacs
versions.

File: emacs,  Node: Standard Faces,  Next: Font Lock,  Prev: Faces,  Up: Display

19.6 Standard Faces
===================

To see what faces are currently defined, and what they look like, type
`M-x list-faces-display'.  It's possible for a given face to look
different in different frames; this command shows the appearance in the
frame in which you type it.  With a prefix argument, this prompts for a
regular expression, and displays only faces with names matching that
regular expression.

   Here are the standard faces for specifying text appearance.  You can
apply them to specific text when you want the effects they produce.

`default'
     This face is used for ordinary text that doesn't specify any face.

`bold'
     This face uses a bold variant of the default font, if it has one.
     It's up to you to choose a default font that has a bold variant,
     if you want to use one.

`italic'
     This face uses an italic variant of the default font, if it has
     one.

`bold-italic'
     This face uses a bold italic variant of the default font, if it
     has one.

`underline'
     This face underlines text.

`fixed-pitch'
     This face forces use of a particular fixed-width font.

`variable-pitch'
     This face forces use of a particular variable-width font.  It's
     reasonable to customize this face to use a different
     variable-width font, if you like, but you should not make it a
     fixed-width font.

`shadow'
     This face is used for making the text less noticeable than the
     surrounding ordinary text.  Usually this can be achieved by using
     shades of gray in contrast with either black or white default
     foreground color.

   Here's an incomplete list of faces used to highlight parts of the
text temporarily for specific purposes.  (Many other modes define their
own faces for this purpose.)

`highlight'
     This face is used for highlighting portions of text, in various
     modes.  For example, mouse-sensitive text is highlighted using
     this face.

`isearch'
     This face is used for highlighting the current Isearch match.

`query-replace'
     This face is used for highlighting the current Query Replace match.

`lazy-highlight'
     This face is used for lazy highlighting of Isearch and Query
     Replace matches other than the current one.

`region'
     This face is used for displaying a selected region (when Transient
     Mark mode is enabled--see below).

`secondary-selection'
     This face is used for displaying a secondary X selection (*note
     Secondary Selection::).

`trailing-whitespace'
     The face for highlighting excess spaces and tabs at the end of a
     line when `show-trailing-whitespace' is non-`nil'; see *note
     Useless Whitespace::.

`nobreak-space'
     The face for displaying the character "nobreak space."

`escape-glyph'
     The face for highlighting the `\' or `^' that indicates a control
     character.  It's also used when `\' indicates a nobreak space or
     nobreak (soft) hyphen.

   When Transient Mark mode is enabled, the text of the region is
highlighted when the mark is active.  This uses the face named
`region'; you can control the style of highlighting by changing the
style of this face (*note Face Customization::).  *Note Transient
Mark::, for more information about Transient Mark mode and activation
and deactivation of the mark.

   These faces control the appearance of parts of the Emacs frame.
They exist as faces to provide a consistent way to customize the
appearance of these parts of the frame.

`mode-line'
`modeline'
     This face is used for the mode line of the currently selected
     window, and for menu bars when toolkit menus are not used.  By
     default, it's drawn with shadows for a "raised" effect on
     graphical displays, and drawn as the inverse of the default face
     on non-windowed terminals.  `modeline' is an alias for the
     `mode-line' face, for compatibility with old Emacs versions.

`mode-line-inactive'
     Like `mode-line', but used for mode lines of the windows other
     than the selected one (if `mode-line-in-non-selected-windows' is
     non-`nil').  This face inherits from `mode-line', so changes in
     that face affect mode lines in all windows.

`mode-line-highlight'
     Like `highlight', but used for portions of text on mode lines.

`mode-line-buffer-id'
     This face is used for buffer identification parts in the mode line.

`header-line'
     Similar to `mode-line' for a window's header line, which appears
     at the top of a window just as the mode line appears at the bottom.
     Most windows do not have a header line--only some special modes,
     such Info mode, create one.

`vertical-border'
     This face is used for the vertical divider between windows.  By
     default this face inherits from the `mode-line-inactive' face on
     character terminals.  On graphical displays the foreground color of
     this face is used for the vertical line between windows without
     scrollbars.

`minibuffer-prompt'
     This face is used for the prompt strings displayed in the
     minibuffer.  By default, Emacs automatically adds this face to the
     value of `minibuffer-prompt-properties', which is a list of text
     properties used to display the prompt text.  (This variable takes
     effect when you enter the minibuffer.)

`fringe'
     The face for the fringes to the left and right of windows on
     graphic displays.  (The fringes are the narrow portions of the
     Emacs frame between the text area and the window's right and left
     borders.)  *Note Fringes::.

`scroll-bar'
     This face determines the visual appearance of the scroll bar.
     *Note Scroll Bars::.

`border'
     This face determines the color of the frame border.

`cursor'
     This face determines the color of the cursor.

`mouse'
     This face determines the color of the mouse pointer.

`tool-bar'
     This face determines the color of tool bar icons.  *Note Tool
     Bars::.

`tooltip'
     This face is used for tooltips.  *Note Tooltips::.

`menu'
     This face determines the colors and font of Emacs's menus.  *Note
     Menu Bars::.  Setting the font of LessTif/Motif menus is currently
     not supported; attempts to set the font are ignored in this case.
     Likewise, attempts to customize this face in Emacs built with GTK
     and in the MS-Windows/Mac ports are ignored by the respective GUI
     toolkits; you need to use system-wide styles and options to change
     the appearance of the menus.

File: emacs,  Node: Font Lock,  Next: Highlight Interactively,  Prev: Standard Faces,  Up: Display

19.7 Font Lock mode
===================

Font Lock mode is a minor mode, always local to a particular buffer,
which highlights (or "fontifies") the buffer contents according to the
syntax of the text you are editing.  It can recognize comments and
strings in most languages; in several languages, it can also recognize
and properly highlight various other important constructs--for example,
names of functions being defined or reserved keywords.  Some special
modes, such as Occur mode and Info mode, have completely specialized
ways of assigning fonts for Font Lock mode.

   Font Lock mode is turned on by default in all modes which support it.
You can toggle font-lock for each buffer with the command `M-x
font-lock-mode'.  Using a positive argument unconditionally turns Font
Lock mode on, and a negative or zero argument turns it off.

   If you do not wish Font Lock mode to be turned on by default,
customize the variable `global-font-lock-mode' using the Customize
interface (*note Easy Customization::), or use the function
`global-font-lock-mode' in your `.emacs' file, like this:

     (global-font-lock-mode 0)

This variable, like all the variables that control Font Lock mode, take
effect whenever fontification is done; that is, potentially at any time.

   If you have disabled Global Font Lock mode, you can still enable Font
Lock for specific major modes by adding the function
`turn-on-font-lock' to the mode hooks (*note Hooks::).  For example, to
enable Font Lock mode for editing C files, you can do this:

     (add-hook 'c-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)

   Font Lock mode uses several specifically named faces to do its job,
including `font-lock-string-face', `font-lock-comment-face', and
others.  The easiest way to find them all is to use `M-x
customize-group <RET> font-lock-faces <RET>'.  You can then use that
customization buffer to customize the appearance of these faces.  *Note
Face Customization::.

   You can also customize these faces using `M-x set-face-foreground'
or `M-x set-face-background'.  *Note Faces::.

   The variable `font-lock-maximum-decoration' specifies the preferred
level of fontification, for modes that provide multiple levels.  Level
1 is the least amount of fontification; some modes support levels as
high as 3.  The normal default is "as high as possible."  You can
specify an integer, which applies to all modes, or you can specify
different numbers for particular major modes; for example, to use level
1 for C/C++ modes, and the default level otherwise, use this:

     (setq font-lock-maximum-decoration
           '((c-mode . 1) (c++-mode . 1)))

   Fontification can be too slow for large buffers, so you can suppress
it for buffers above a certain size.  The variable
`font-lock-maximum-size' specifies a buffer size, beyond which buffer
fontification is suppressed.

   Comment and string fontification (or "syntactic" fontification)
relies on analysis of the syntactic structure of the buffer text.  For
the sake of speed, some modes, including Lisp mode, rely on a special
convention: an open-parenthesis or open-brace in the leftmost column
always defines the beginning of a defun, and is thus always outside any
string or comment.  (*Note Left Margin Paren::.)  If you don't follow
this convention, Font Lock mode can misfontify the text that follows an
open-parenthesis or open-brace in the leftmost column that is inside a
string or comment.

   The variable `font-lock-beginning-of-syntax-function' (always
buffer-local) specifies how Font Lock mode can find a position
guaranteed to be outside any comment or string.  In modes which use the
leftmost column parenthesis convention, the default value of the
variable is `beginning-of-defun'--that tells Font Lock mode to use the
convention.  If you set this variable to `nil', Font Lock no longer
relies on the convention.  This avoids incorrect results, but the price
is that, in some cases, fontification for a changed text must rescan
buffer text from the beginning of the buffer.  This can considerably
slow down redisplay while scrolling, particularly if you are close to
the end of a large buffer.

   Font Lock highlighting patterns already exist for many modes, but you
may want to fontify additional patterns.  You can use the function
`font-lock-add-keywords', to add your own highlighting patterns for a
particular mode.  For example, to highlight `FIXME:' words in C
comments, use this:

     (font-lock-add-keywords
      'c-mode
      '(("\\<\\(FIXME\\):" 1 font-lock-warning-face t)))

   To remove keywords from the font-lock highlighting patterns, use the
function `font-lock-remove-keywords'.  *Note Search-based
Fontification: (elisp)Search-based Fontification, for documentation of
the format of this list.

   Fontifying large buffers can take a long time.  To avoid large
delays when a file is visited, Emacs fontifies only the visible portion
of a buffer.  As you scroll through the buffer, each portion that
becomes visible is fontified as soon as it is displayed.  The parts of
the buffer that are not displayed are fontified "stealthily," in the
background, i.e. when Emacs is idle.  You can control this background
fontification, also called "Just-In-Time" (or "JIT") Lock, by
customizing variables in the customization group `jit-lock'.  *Note
Specific Customization::.

File: emacs,  Node: Highlight Interactively,  Next: Fringes,  Prev: Font Lock,  Up: Display

19.8 Interactive Highlighting
=============================

Use `M-x highlight-changes-mode' to enable (or disable) Highlight
Changes mode, a minor mode that uses faces (colors, typically) to
indicate which parts of the buffer were changed most recently.

   Hi Lock mode highlights text that matches regular expressions you
specify.  For example, you might wish to see all the references to a
certain variable in a program source file, highlight certain parts in a
voluminous output of some program, or make certain names stand out in
an article.  Use the `M-x hi-lock-mode' command to enable (or disable)
Hi Lock mode.  To enable Hi Lock mode for all buffers, use `M-x
global-hi-lock-mode' or place `(global-hi-lock-mode 1)' in your
`.emacs' file.

   Hi Lock mode works like Font Lock mode (*note Font Lock::), except
that you specify explicitly the regular expressions to highlight.  You
control them with these commands:

`C-x w h REGEXP <RET> FACE <RET>'
     Highlight text that matches REGEXP using face FACE
     (`highlight-regexp').  The highlighting will remain as long as the
     buffer is loaded.  For example, to highlight all occurrences of
     the word "whim" using the default face (a yellow background) `C-x
     w h whim <RET> <RET>'.  Any face can be used for highlighting, Hi
     Lock provides several of its own and these are pre-loaded into a
     history list.  While being prompted for a face use `M-p' and `M-n'
     to cycle through them.

     You can use this command multiple times, specifying various regular
     expressions to highlight in different ways.

`C-x w r REGEXP <RET>'
     Unhighlight REGEXP (`unhighlight-regexp').

     If you invoke this from the menu, you select the expression to
     unhighlight from a list.  If you invoke this from the keyboard, you
     use the minibuffer.  It will show the most recently added regular
     expression; use `M-p' to show the next older expression and `M-n'
     to select the next newer expression.  (You can also type the
     expression by hand, with completion.)  When the expression you
     want to unhighlight appears in the minibuffer, press `<RET>' to
     exit the minibuffer and unhighlight it.

`C-x w l REGEXP <RET> FACE <RET>'
     Highlight entire lines containing a match for REGEXP, using face
     FACE (`highlight-lines-matching-regexp').

`C-x w b'
     Insert all the current highlighting regexp/face pairs into the
     buffer at point, with comment delimiters to prevent them from
     changing your program.  (This key binding runs the
     `hi-lock-write-interactive-patterns' command.)

     These patterns are extracted from the comments, if appropriate, if
     you invoke `M-x hi-lock-find-patterns', or if you visit the file
     while Hi Lock mode is enabled (since that runs
     `hi-lock-find-patterns').

`C-x w i'
     Extract regexp/face pairs from comments in the current buffer
     (`hi-lock-find-patterns').  Thus, you can enter patterns
     interactively with `highlight-regexp', store them into the file
     with `hi-lock-write-interactive-patterns', edit them (perhaps
     including different faces for different parenthesized parts of the
     match), and finally use this command (`hi-lock-find-patterns') to
     have Hi Lock highlight the edited patterns.

     The variable `hi-lock-file-patterns-policy' controls whether Hi
     Lock mode should automatically extract and highlight patterns
     found in a file when it is visited.  Its value can be `nil' (never
     highlight), `t' (highlight the patterns), `ask' (query the user),
     or a function.  If it is a function, `hi-lock-find-patterns' calls
     it with the patterns as argument; if the function returns
     non-`nil', the patterns are used.  The default is `nil'.  Note
     that patterns are always highlighted if you call
     `hi-lock-find-patterns' directly, regardless of the value of this
     variable.

     Also, `hi-lock-find-patterns' does nothing if the current major
     mode's symbol is a member of the list `hi-lock-exclude-modes'.

File: emacs,  Node: Fringes,  Next: Displaying Boundaries,  Prev: Highlight Interactively,  Up: Display

19.9 Window Fringes
===================

On a graphical display, each Emacs window normally has narrow "fringes"
on the left and right edges.  The fringes display indications about the
text in the window.

   The most common use of the fringes is to indicate a continuation
line, when one line of text is split into multiple lines on the screen.
The left fringe shows a curving arrow for each screen line except the
first, indicating that "this is not the real beginning."  The right
fringe shows a curving arrow for each screen line except the last,
indicating that "this is not the real end."

   The fringes indicate line truncation with short horizontal arrows
meaning "there's more text on this line which is scrolled horizontally
out of view;" clicking the mouse on one of the arrows scrolls the
display horizontally in the direction of the arrow.   The fringes can
also indicate other things, such as empty lines, or where a program you
are debugging is executing (*note Debuggers::).

   You can enable and disable the fringes for all frames using `M-x
fringe-mode'.  To enable and disable the fringes for the selected
frame, use `M-x set-fringe-style'.

File: emacs,  Node: Displaying Boundaries,  Next: Useless Whitespace,  Prev: Fringes,  Up: Display

19.10 Displaying Boundaries
===========================

On a graphical display, Emacs can indicate the buffer boundaries in the
fringes.  It indicates the first line and the last line with angle
images in the fringes.  This can be combined with up and down arrow
images which say whether it is possible to scroll the window up and
down.

   The buffer-local variable `indicate-buffer-boundaries' controls how
the buffer boundaries and window scrolling is indicated in the fringes.
If the value is `left' or `right', both angle and arrow bitmaps are
displayed in the left or right fringe, respectively.

   If value is an alist, each element `(INDICATOR .  POSITION)'
specifies the position of one of the indicators.  The INDICATOR must be
one of `top', `bottom', `up', `down', or `t' which specifies the default
position for the indicators not present in the alist.  The POSITION is
one of `left', `right', or `nil' which specifies not to show this
indicator.

   For example, `((top . left) (t . right))' places the top angle
bitmap in left fringe, the bottom angle bitmap in right fringe, and
both arrow bitmaps in right fringe.  To show just the angle bitmaps in
the left fringe, but no arrow bitmaps, use `((top .  left) (bottom .
left))'.

   The value of the variable `default-indicate-buffer-boundaries' is
the default value for `indicate-buffer-boundaries' in buffers that do
not override it.

File: emacs,  Node: Useless Whitespace,  Next: Selective Display,  Prev: Displaying Boundaries,  Up: Display

19.11 Useless Whitespace
========================

It is easy to leave unnecessary spaces at the end of a line, or empty
lines at the end of a file, without realizing it.  In most cases, this
"trailing whitespace" has no effect, but there are special
circumstances where it matters.  It can also be a nuisance that the
line has "changed," when the change is just spaces added or removed at
the end.

   You can make trailing whitespace at the end of a line visible on the
screen by setting the buffer-local variable `show-trailing-whitespace'
to `t'.  Then Emacs displays trailing whitespace in the face
`trailing-whitespace'.

   This feature does not apply when point is at the end of the line
containing the whitespace.  Strictly speaking, that is "trailing
whitespace" nonetheless, but displaying it specially in that case looks
ugly while you are typing in new text.  In this special case, the
location of point is enough to show you that the spaces are present.

   To delete all trailing whitespace within the current buffer's
accessible portion (*note Narrowing::), type `M-x
delete-trailing-whitespace <RET>'.  (This command does not remove the
form-feed characters.)

   Emacs can indicate unused lines at the end of the window with a
small image in the left fringe (*note Fringes::).  The image appears
for window lines that do not correspond to any buffer text.  Blank
lines at the end of the buffer then stand out because they do not have
this image in the fringe.

   To enable this feature, set the buffer-local variable
`indicate-empty-lines' to a non-`nil' value.  The default value of this
variable is controlled by the variable `default-indicate-empty-lines';
by setting that variable, you can enable or disable this feature for
all new buffers.  (This feature currently doesn't work on text-only
terminals.)

File: emacs,  Node: Selective Display,  Next: Optional Mode Line,  Prev: Useless Whitespace,  Up: Display

19.12 Selective Display
=======================

Emacs has the ability to hide lines indented more than a certain number
of columns (you specify how many columns).  You can use this to get an
overview of a part of a program.

   To hide lines in the current buffer, type `C-x $'
(`set-selective-display') with a numeric argument N.  Then lines with
at least N columns of indentation disappear from the screen.  The only
indication of their presence is that three dots (`...') appear at the
end of each visible line that is followed by one or more hidden ones.

   The commands `C-n' and `C-p' move across the hidden lines as if they
were not there.

   The hidden lines are still present in the buffer, and most editing
commands see them as usual, so you may find point in the middle of the
hidden text.  When this happens, the cursor appears at the end of the
previous line, after the three dots.  If point is at the end of the
visible line, before the newline that ends it, the cursor appears before
the three dots.

   To make all lines visible again, type `C-x $' with no argument.

   If you set the variable `selective-display-ellipses' to `nil', the
three dots do not appear at the end of a line that precedes hidden
lines.  Then there is no visible indication of the hidden lines.  This
variable becomes local automatically when set.

   See also *note Outline Mode:: for another way to hide part of the
text in a buffer.

File: emacs,  Node: Optional Mode Line,  Next: Text Display,  Prev: Selective Display,  Up: Display

19.13 Optional Mode Line Features
=================================

The buffer percentage POS indicates the percentage of the buffer above
the top of the window.  You can additionally display the size of the
buffer by typing `M-x size-indication-mode' to turn on Size Indication
mode.  The size will be displayed immediately following the buffer
percentage like this:

     POS of SIZE

Here SIZE is the human readable representation of the number of
characters in the buffer, which means that `k' for 10^3, `M' for 10^6,
`G' for 10^9, etc., are used to abbreviate.

   If you have narrowed the buffer (*note Narrowing::), the size of the
accessible part of the buffer is shown.

   The current line number of point appears in the mode line when Line
Number mode is enabled.  Use the command `M-x line-number-mode' to turn
this mode on and off; normally it is on.  The line number appears after
the buffer percentage POS, with the letter `L' to indicate what it is.

   Similarly, you can display the current column number by turning on
Column number mode with `M-x column-number-mode'.  The column number is
indicated by the letter `C'.  However, when both of these modes are
enabled, the line and column numbers are displayed in parentheses, the
line number first, rather than with `L' and `C'.  For example:
`(561,2)'.  *Note Minor Modes::, for more information about minor modes
and about how to use these commands.

   If you have narrowed the buffer (*note Narrowing::), the displayed
line number is relative to the accessible portion of the buffer.  Thus,
it isn't suitable as an argument to `goto-line'.  (Use `what-line'
command to see the line number relative to the whole file.)

   If the buffer is very large (larger than the value of
`line-number-display-limit'), then the line number doesn't appear.
Emacs doesn't compute the line number when the buffer is large, because
that would be too slow.  Set it to `nil' to remove the limit.

   Line-number computation can also be slow if the lines in the buffer
are too long.  For this reason, Emacs normally doesn't display line
numbers if the average width, in characters, of lines near point is
larger than the value of the variable
`line-number-display-limit-width'.  The default value is 200 characters.

   Emacs can optionally display the time and system load in all mode
lines.  To enable this feature, type `M-x display-time' or customize
the option `display-time-mode'.  The information added to the mode line
usually appears after the buffer name, before the mode names and their
parentheses.  It looks like this:

     HH:MMpm L.LL

Here HH and MM are the hour and minute, followed always by `am' or
`pm'.  L.LL is the average number of running processes in the whole
system recently.  (Some fields may be missing if your operating system
cannot support them.)  If you prefer time display in 24-hour format,
set the variable `display-time-24hr-format' to `t'.

   The word `Mail' appears after the load level if there is mail for
you that you have not read yet.  On a graphical display you can use an
icon instead of `Mail' by customizing `display-time-use-mail-icon';
this may save some space on the mode line.  You can customize
`display-time-mail-face' to make the mail indicator prominent.  Use
`display-time-mail-file' to specify the mail file to check, or set
`display-time-mail-directory' to specify the directory to check for
incoming mail (any nonempty regular file in the directory is considered
as "newly arrived mail").

   By default, the mode line is drawn on graphics displays with
3D-style highlighting, like that of a button when it is not being
pressed.  If you don't like this effect, you can disable the 3D
highlighting of the mode line, by customizing the attributes of the
`mode-line' face.  *Note Face Customization::.

   By default, the mode line of nonselected windows is displayed in a
different face, called `mode-line-inactive'.  Only the selected window
is displayed in the `mode-line' face.  This helps show which window is
selected.  When the minibuffer is selected, since it has no mode line,
the window from which you activated the minibuffer has its mode line
displayed using `mode-line'; as a result, ordinary entry to the
minibuffer does not change any mode lines.

   You can disable use of `mode-line-inactive' by setting variable
`mode-line-in-non-selected-windows' to `nil'; then all mode lines are
displayed in the `mode-line' face.

   You can customize the mode line display for each of the end-of-line
formats by setting each of the variables `eol-mnemonic-unix',
`eol-mnemonic-dos', `eol-mnemonic-mac', and `eol-mnemonic-undecided' to
the strings you prefer.

File: emacs,  Node: Text Display,  Next: Cursor Display,  Prev: Optional Mode Line,  Up: Display

19.14 How Text Is Displayed
===========================

ASCII printing characters (octal codes 040 through 0176) in Emacs
buffers are displayed with their graphics, as are non-ASCII multibyte
printing characters (octal codes above 0400).

   Some ASCII control characters are displayed in special ways.  The
newline character (octal code 012) is displayed by starting a new line.
The tab character (octal code 011) is displayed by moving to the next
tab stop column (normally every 8 columns).

   Other ASCII control characters are normally displayed as a caret
(`^') followed by the non-control version of the character; thus,
control-A is displayed as `^A'.  The caret appears in face
`escape-glyph'.

   Non-ASCII characters 0200 through 0237 (octal) are displayed with
octal escape sequences; thus, character code 0230 (octal) is displayed
as `\230'.  The backslash appears in face `escape-glyph'.

   If the variable `ctl-arrow' is `nil', control characters in the
buffer are displayed with octal escape sequences, except for newline
and tab.  Altering the value of `ctl-arrow' makes it local to the
current buffer; until that time, the default value is in effect.  The
default is initially `t'.

   The display of character codes 0240 through 0377 (octal) may be
either as escape sequences or as graphics.  They do not normally occur
in multibyte buffers, but if they do, they are displayed as Latin-1
graphics.  In unibyte mode, if you enable European display they are
displayed using their graphics (assuming your terminal supports them),
otherwise as escape sequences.  *Note Unibyte Mode::.

   Some character sets define "no-break" versions of the space and
hyphen characters, which are used where a line should not be broken.
Emacs normally displays these characters with special faces
(respectively, `nobreak-space' and `escape-glyph') to distinguish them
from ordinary spaces and hyphens.  You can turn off this feature by
setting the variable `nobreak-char-display' to `nil'.  If you set the
variable to any other value, that means to prefix these characters with
an escape character.

   Normally, a tab character in the buffer is displayed as whitespace
which extends to the next display tab stop position, and display tab
stops come at intervals equal to eight spaces.  The number of spaces
per tab is controlled by the variable `tab-width', which is made local
by changing it.  Note that how the tab character in the buffer is
displayed has nothing to do with the definition of <TAB> as a command.
The variable `tab-width' must have an integer value between 1 and 1000,
inclusive.  The variable `default-tab-width' controls the default value
of this variable for buffers where you have not set it locally.

   You can customize the way any particular character code is displayed
by means of a display table.  *Note Display Tables: (elisp)Display
Tables.

File: emacs,  Node: Cursor Display,  Next: Line Truncation,  Prev: Text Display,  Up: Display

19.15 Displaying the Cursor
===========================

You can customize the cursor's color, and whether it blinks, using the
`cursor' Custom group (*note Easy Customization::).  On a graphical
display, the command `M-x blink-cursor-mode' enables or disables the
blinking of the cursor.  (On text terminals, the terminal itself blinks
the cursor, and Emacs has no control over it.)  You can control how the
cursor appears when it blinks off by setting the variable
`blink-cursor-alist'.

   Some text terminals offer two different cursors: the normal cursor
and the very visible cursor, where the latter may be e.g. bigger or
blinking.  By default Emacs uses the very visible cursor, and switches
to it when you start or resume Emacs.  If the variable `visible-cursor'
is `nil' when Emacs starts or resumes, it doesn't switch, so it uses
the normal cursor.

   Normally, the cursor appears in non-selected windows without
blinking, with the same appearance as when the blinking cursor blinks
"off."  For a box cursor, this is a hollow box; for a bar cursor, this
is a thinner bar.  To turn off cursors in non-selected windows,
customize the variable `cursor-in-non-selected-windows' and assign it a
`nil' value.

   On graphical displays, Emacs can optionally draw the block cursor as
wide as the character under the cursor--for example, if the cursor is
on a tab character, it would cover the full width occupied by that tab
character.  To enable this feature, set the variable `x-stretch-cursor'
to a non-`nil' value.

   To make the cursor even more visible, you can use HL Line mode, a
minor mode that highlights the line containing point.  Use `M-x
hl-line-mode' to enable or disable it in the current buffer.  `M-x
global-hl-line-mode' enables or disables the same mode globally.

File: emacs,  Node: Line Truncation,  Next: Display Custom,  Prev: Cursor Display,  Up: Display

19.16 Truncation of Lines
=========================

As an alternative to continuation, Emacs can display long lines by
"truncation".  This means that all the characters that do not fit in
the width of the screen or window do not appear at all.  On graphical
displays, a small straight arrow in the fringe indicates truncation at
either end of the line.  On text-only terminals, `$' appears in the
first column when there is text truncated to the left, and in the last
column when there is text truncated to the right.

   Horizontal scrolling automatically causes line truncation (*note
Horizontal Scrolling::).  You can explicitly enable line truncation for
a particular buffer with the command `M-x toggle-truncate-lines'.  This
works by locally changing the variable `truncate-lines'.  If that
variable is non-`nil', long lines are truncated; if it is `nil', they
are continued onto multiple screen lines.  Setting the variable
`truncate-lines' in any way makes it local to the current buffer; until
that time, the default value is in effect.  The default value is
normally `nil'.

   If the variable `truncate-partial-width-windows' is non-`nil', it
forces truncation rather than continuation in any window less than the
full width of the screen or frame, regardless of the value of
`truncate-lines'.  For information about side-by-side windows, see
*note Split Window::.  See also *note Display: (elisp)Display.

   If the variable `overflow-newline-into-fringe' is non-`nil' on a
graphical display, then Emacs does not continue or truncate a line
which is exactly as wide as the window.  Instead, the newline overflows
into the right fringe, and the cursor appears in the fringe when
positioned on that newline.

File: emacs,  Node: Display Custom,  Prev: Line Truncation,  Up: Display

19.17 Customization of Display
==============================

This section describes variables (*note Variables::) that you can
change to customize how Emacs displays.  Beginning users can skip it.

   If the variable `inverse-video' is non-`nil', Emacs attempts to
invert all the lines of the display from what they normally are.

   If the variable `visible-bell' is non-`nil', Emacs attempts to make
the whole screen blink when it would normally make an audible bell
sound.  This variable has no effect if your terminal does not have a way
to make the screen blink.

   The variable `echo-keystrokes' controls the echoing of
multi-character keys; its value is the number of seconds of pause
required to cause echoing to start, or zero, meaning don't echo at all.
The value takes effect when there is someting to echo.  *Note Echo
Area::.

   The variable `baud-rate' holds the output speed of the terminal, as
far as Emacs knows.  Setting this variable does not change the speed of
actual data transmission, but the value is used for calculations.  On
text-only terminals, it affects padding, and decisions about whether to
scroll part of the screen or redraw it instead.  It also affects the
behavior of incremental search.

   On graphical displays, `baud-rate' is only used to determine how
frequently to look for pending input during display updating.  A higher
value of `baud-rate' means that check for pending input will be done
less frequently.

   On graphical display, Emacs can optionally display the mouse pointer
in a special shape to say that Emacs is busy.  To turn this feature on
or off, customize the group `cursor'.  You can also control the amount
of time Emacs must remain busy before the busy indicator is displayed,
by setting the variable `hourglass-delay'.

   On graphical display, the variable `overline-margin' specifies the
vertical position of an overline above the text, including the height
of the overline itself (1 pixel).  The default value is 2 pixels.

   On graphical display, Emacs normally draws an underline at the
baseline level of the font.  If `x-underline-at-descent-line' is
non-`nil', Emacs draws the underline at the same height as the font's
descent line.

   On some text-only terminals, bold face and inverse video together
result in text that is hard to read.  Call the function
`tty-suppress-bold-inverse-default-colors' with a non-`nil' argument to
suppress the effect of bold-face in this case.

   On a text-only terminal, when you reenter Emacs after suspending,
Emacs normally clears the screen and redraws the entire display.  On
some terminals with more than one page of memory, it is possible to
arrange the termcap entry so that the `ti' and `te' strings (output to
the terminal when Emacs is entered and exited, respectively) switch
between pages of memory so as to use one page for Emacs and another
page for other output.  On such terminals, you might want to set the
variable `no-redraw-on-reenter' non-`nil'; this tells Emacs to assume,
when resumed, that the screen page it is using still contains what
Emacs last wrote there.

File: emacs,  Node: Search,  Next: Fixit,  Prev: Display,  Up: Top

20 Searching and Replacement
****************************

Like other editors, Emacs has commands for searching for occurrences of
a string.  The principal search command is unusual in that it is
"incremental"; it begins to search before you have finished typing the
search string.  There are also nonincremental search commands more like
those of other editors.

   Besides the usual `replace-string' command that finds all
occurrences of one string and replaces them with another, Emacs has a
more flexible replacement command called `query-replace', which asks
interactively which occurrences to replace.  There are also commands to
find and operate on all matches for a pattern.

   You can also search multiple files under control of a tags table
(*note Tags Search::) or through the Dired `A' command (*note Operating
on Files::), or ask the `grep' program to do it (*note Grep
Searching::).

* Menu:

* Incremental Search::		Search happens as you type the string.
* Nonincremental Search::	Specify entire string and then search.
* Word Search::			Search for sequence of words.
* Regexp Search::		Search for match for a regexp.
* Regexps::			Syntax of regular expressions.
* Regexp Backslash::            Regular expression constructs starting with `\'.
* Regexp Example::              A complex regular expression explained.
* Search Case::			To ignore case while searching, or not.
* Replace::			Search, and replace some or all matches.
* Other Repeating Search::	Operating on all matches for some regexp.

File: emacs,  Node: Incremental Search,  Next: Nonincremental Search,  Up: Search

20.1 Incremental Search
=======================

An incremental search begins searching as soon as you type the first
character of the search string.  As you type in the search string, Emacs
shows you where the string (as you have typed it so far) would be
found.  When you have typed enough characters to identify the place you
want, you can stop.  Depending on what you plan to do next, you may or
may not need to terminate the search explicitly with <RET>.

`C-s'
     Incremental search forward (`isearch-forward').

`C-r'
     Incremental search backward (`isearch-backward').

* Menu:

* Basic Isearch::       Basic incremental search commands.
* Repeat Isearch::      Searching for the same string again.
* Error in Isearch::    When your string is not found.
* Special Isearch::     Special input in incremental search.
* Non-ASCII Isearch::   How to search for non-ASCII characters.
* Isearch Yank::        Commands that grab text into the search string
                          or else edit the search string.
* Highlight Isearch::   Isearch highlights the other possible matches.
* Isearch Scroll::      Scrolling during an incremental search.
* Slow Isearch::        Incremental search features for slow terminals.

File: emacs,  Node: Basic Isearch,  Next: Repeat Isearch,  Up: Incremental Search

20.1.1 Basics of Incremental Search
-----------------------------------

`C-s' starts a forward incremental search.  It reads characters from
the keyboard, and moves point past the next occurrence of those
characters.  If you type `C-s' and then `F', that puts the cursor after
the first `F' (the first following the starting point, since this is a
forward search).  Then if you type an `O', you will see the cursor move
to just after the first `FO' (the `F' in that `FO' may or may not be
the first `F').  After another `O', the cursor moves to just after the
first `FOO' after the place where you started the search.  At each
step, the buffer text that matches the search string is highlighted, if
the terminal can do that; the current search string is always displayed
in the echo area.

   If you make a mistake in typing the search string, you can cancel
characters with <DEL>.  Each <DEL> cancels the last character of search
string.  This does not happen until Emacs is ready to read another
input character; first it must either find, or fail to find, the
character you want to erase.  If you do not want to wait for this to
happen, use `C-g' as described below.

   When you are satisfied with the place you have reached, you can type
<RET>, which stops searching, leaving the cursor where the search
brought it.  Also, any command not specially meaningful in searches
stops the searching and is then executed.  Thus, typing `C-a' would
exit the search and then move to the beginning of the line.  <RET> is
necessary only if the next command you want to type is a printing
character, <DEL>, <RET>, or another character that is special within
searches (`C-q', `C-w', `C-r', `C-s', `C-y', `M-y', `M-r', `M-c',
`M-e', and some other meta-characters).

   When you exit the incremental search, it sets the mark where point
_was_ before the search.  That is convenient for moving back there.  In
Transient Mark mode, incremental search sets the mark without
activating it, and does so only if the mark is not already active.

File: emacs,  Node: Repeat Isearch,  Next: Error in Isearch,  Prev: Basic Isearch,  Up: Incremental Search

20.1.2 Repeating Incremental Search
-----------------------------------

Sometimes you search for `FOO' and find one, but not the one you
expected to find.  There was a second `FOO' that you forgot about,
before the one you were aiming for.  In this event, type another `C-s'
to move to the next occurrence of the search string.  You can repeat
this any number of times.  If you overshoot, you can cancel some `C-s'
characters with <DEL>.

   After you exit a search, you can search for the same string again by
typing just `C-s C-s': the first `C-s' is the key that invokes
incremental search, and the second `C-s' means "search again."

   If a search is failing and you ask to repeat it by typing another
`C-s', it starts again from the beginning of the buffer.  Repeating a
failing reverse search with `C-r' starts again from the end.  This is
called "wrapping around", and `Wrapped' appears in the search prompt
once this has happened.  If you keep on going past the original
starting point of the search, it changes to `Overwrapped', which means
that you are revisiting matches that you have already seen.

   To reuse earlier search strings, use the "search ring".  The
commands `M-p' and `M-n' move through the ring to pick a search string
to reuse.  These commands leave the selected search ring element in the
minibuffer, where you can edit it.  To edit the current search string
in the minibuffer without replacing it with items from the search ring,
type `M-e'.  Type `C-s' or `C-r' to terminate editing the string and
search for it.

   You can change to searching backwards with `C-r'.  For instance, if
you are searching forward but you realize you were looking for
something above the starting point, you can do this.  Repeated `C-r'
keeps looking for more occurrences backwards.  A `C-s' starts going
forwards again.  `C-r' in a search can be canceled with <DEL>.

   If you know initially that you want to search backwards, you can use
`C-r' instead of `C-s' to start the search, because `C-r' as a key runs
a command (`isearch-backward') to search backward.  A backward search
finds matches that end before the starting point, just as a forward
search finds matches that begin after it.

File: emacs,  Node: Error in Isearch,  Next: Special Isearch,  Prev: Repeat Isearch,  Up: Incremental Search

20.1.3 Errors in Incremental Search
-----------------------------------

If your string is not found at all, the echo area says `Failing
I-Search'.  The cursor is after the place where Emacs found as much of
your string as it could.  Thus, if you search for `FOOT', and there is
no `FOOT', you might see the cursor after the `FOO' in `FOOL'.  At this
point there are several things you can do.  If your string was
mistyped, you can rub some of it out and correct it.  If you like the
place you have found, you can type <RET> or some other Emacs command to
remain there.  Or you can type `C-g', which removes from the search
string the characters that could not be found (the `T' in `FOOT'),
leaving those that were found (the `FOO' in `FOOT').  A second `C-g' at
that point cancels the search entirely, returning point to where it was
when the search started.

   The `C-g' "quit" character does special things during searches; just
what it does depends on the status of the search.  If the search has
found what you specified and is waiting for input, `C-g' cancels the
entire search.  The cursor moves back to where you started the search.
If `C-g' is typed when there are characters in the search string that
have not been found--because Emacs is still searching for them, or
because it has failed to find them--then the search string characters
which have not been found are discarded from the search string.  With
them gone, the search is now successful and waiting for more input, so
a second `C-g' will cancel the entire search.

File: emacs,  Node: Special Isearch,  Next: Non-ASCII Isearch,  Prev: Error in Isearch,  Up: Incremental Search

20.1.4 Special Input for Incremental Search
-------------------------------------------

An upper-case letter in the search string makes the search
case-sensitive.  If you delete the upper-case character from the search
string, it ceases to have this effect.  *Note Search Case::.

   To search for a newline, type `C-j'.  To search for another control
character, such as control-S or carriage return, you must quote it by
typing `C-q' first.  This function of `C-q' is analogous to its use for
insertion (*note Inserting Text::): it causes the following character
to be treated the way any "ordinary" character is treated in the same
context.  You can also specify a character by its octal code: enter
`C-q' followed by a sequence of octal digits.

   `M-%' typed in incremental search invokes `query-replace' or
`query-replace-regexp' (depending on search mode) with the current
search string used as the string to replace.  *Note Query Replace::.

   Entering <RET> when the search string is empty launches
nonincremental search (*note Nonincremental Search::).

   To customize the special characters that incremental search
understands, alter their bindings in the keymap `isearch-mode-map'.
For a list of bindings, look at the documentation of `isearch-mode' with
`C-h f isearch-mode <RET>'.

File: emacs,  Node: Non-ASCII Isearch,  Next: Isearch Yank,  Prev: Special Isearch,  Up: Incremental Search

20.1.5 Isearch for Non-ASCII Characters
---------------------------------------

To enter non-ASCII characters in an incremental search, you can use
`C-q' (see the previous section), but it is easier to use an input
method (*note Input Methods::).  If an input method is enabled in the
current buffer when you start the search, you can use it in the search
string also.  Emacs indicates that by including the input method
mnemonic in its prompt, like this:

     I-search [IM]:

where IM is the mnemonic of the active input method.

   You can toggle (enable or disable) the input method while you type
the search string with `C-\' (`isearch-toggle-input-method').  You can
turn on a certain (non-default) input method with `C-^'
(`isearch-toggle-specified-input-method'), which prompts for the name
of the input method.  The input method you enable during incremental
search remains enabled in the current buffer afterwards.

File: emacs,  Node: Isearch Yank,  Next: Highlight Isearch,  Prev: Non-ASCII Isearch,  Up: Incremental Search

20.1.6 Isearch Yanking
----------------------

The characters `C-w' and `C-y' can be used in incremental search to
grab text from the buffer into the search string.  This makes it
convenient to search for another occurrence of text at point.  `C-w'
copies the character or word after point as part of the search string,
advancing point over it.  (The decision, whether to copy a character or
a word, is heuristic.)  Another `C-s' to repeat the search will then
search for a string including that character or word.

   `C-y' is similar to `C-w' but copies all the rest of the current
line into the search string.  If point is already at the end of a line,
it grabs the entire next line.  Both `C-y' and `C-w' convert the text
they copy to lower case if the search is currently not case-sensitive;
this is so the search remains case-insensitive.

   `C-M-w' and `C-M-y' modify the search string by only one character
at a time: `C-M-w' deletes the last character from the search string
and `C-M-y' copies the character after point to the end of the search
string.  An alternative method to add the character after point into
the search string is to enter the minibuffer by `M-e' and to type `C-f'
at the end of the search string in the minibuffer.

   The character `M-y' copies text from the kill ring into the search
string.  It uses the same text that `C-y' as a command would yank.
`Mouse-2' in the echo area does the same.  *Note Yanking::.

File: emacs,  Node: Highlight Isearch,  Next: Isearch Scroll,  Prev: Isearch Yank,  Up: Incremental Search

20.1.7 Lazy Search Highlighting
-------------------------------

When you pause for a little while during incremental search, it
highlights all other possible matches for the search string.  This
makes it easier to anticipate where you can get to by typing `C-s' or
`C-r' to repeat the search.  The short delay before highlighting other
matches helps indicate which match is the current one.  If you don't
like this feature, you can turn it off by setting
`isearch-lazy-highlight' to `nil'.

   You can control how this highlighting looks by customizing the faces
`isearch' (used for the current match) and `lazy-highlight' (for all
the other matches).

File: emacs,  Node: Isearch Scroll,  Next: Slow Isearch,  Prev: Highlight Isearch,  Up: Incremental Search

20.1.8 Scrolling During Incremental Search
------------------------------------------

You can enable the use of vertical scrolling during incremental search
(without exiting the search) by setting the customizable variable
`isearch-allow-scroll' to a non-`nil' value.  This applies to using the
vertical scroll-bar and to certain keyboard commands such as `<PRIOR>'
(`scroll-down'), `<NEXT>' (`scroll-up') and `C-l' (`recenter').  You
must run these commands via their key sequences to stay in the
search--typing `M-x' will terminate the search.  You can give prefix
arguments to these commands in the usual way.

   This feature won't let you scroll the current match out of
visibility, however.

   The feature also affects some other commands, such as `C-x 2'
(`split-window-vertically') and `C-x ^' (`enlarge-window') which don't
exactly scroll but do affect where the text appears on the screen.  In
general, it applies to any command whose name has a non-`nil'
`isearch-scroll' property.  So you can control which commands are
affected by changing these properties.

   For example, to make `C-h l' usable within an incremental search in
all future Emacs sessions, use `C-h c' to find what command it runs.
(You type `C-h c C-h l'; it says `view-lossage'.)  Then you can put the
following line in your `.emacs' file (*note Init File::):

     (put 'view-lossage 'isearch-scroll t)

This feature can be applied to any command that doesn't permanently
change point, the buffer contents, the match data, the current buffer,
or the selected window and frame.  The command must not itself attempt
an incremental search.

File: emacs,  Node: Slow Isearch,  Prev: Isearch Scroll,  Up: Incremental Search

20.1.9 Slow Terminal Incremental Search
---------------------------------------

Incremental search on a slow terminal uses a modified style of display
that is designed to take less time.  Instead of redisplaying the buffer
at each place the search gets to, it creates a new single-line window
and uses that to display the line that the search has found.  The
single-line window comes into play as soon as point moves outside of
the text that is already on the screen.

   When you terminate the search, the single-line window is removed.
Emacs then redisplays the window in which the search was done, to show
its new position of point.

   The slow terminal style of display is used when the terminal baud
rate is less than or equal to the value of the variable
`search-slow-speed', initially 1200.  See also the discussion of the
variable `baud-rate' (*note Customization of Display: baud-rate.).

   The number of lines to use in slow terminal search display is
controlled by the variable `search-slow-window-lines'.  Its normal
value is 1.

File: emacs,  Node: Nonincremental Search,  Next: Word Search,  Prev: Incremental Search,  Up: Search

20.2 Nonincremental Search
==========================

Emacs also has conventional nonincremental search commands, which
require you to type the entire search string before searching begins.

`C-s <RET> STRING <RET>'
     Search for STRING.

`C-r <RET> STRING <RET>'
     Search backward for STRING.

   To do a nonincremental search, first type `C-s <RET>'.  This enters
the minibuffer to read the search string; terminate the string with
<RET>, and then the search takes place.  If the string is not found,
the search command signals an error.

   When you type `C-s <RET>', the `C-s' invokes incremental search as
usual.  That command is specially programmed to invoke nonincremental
search, `search-forward', if the string you specify is empty.  (Such an
empty argument would otherwise be useless.)  But it does not call
`search-forward' right away.  First it checks the next input character
to see if is `C-w', which specifies a word search.  *Note Word Search::.
`C-r <RET>' does likewise, for a reverse incremental search.

   Forward and backward nonincremental searches are implemented by the
commands `search-forward' and `search-backward'.  These commands may be
bound to keys in the usual manner.  The feature that you can get to
them via the incremental search commands exists for historical reasons,
and to avoid the need to find separate key sequences for them.

File: emacs,  Node: Word Search,  Next: Regexp Search,  Prev: Nonincremental Search,  Up: Search

20.3 Word Search
================

Word search searches for a sequence of words without regard to how the
words are separated.  More precisely, you type a string of many words,
using single spaces to separate them, and the string can be found even
if there are multiple spaces, newlines, or other punctuation characters
between these words.

   Word search is useful for editing a printed document made with a text
formatter.  If you edit while looking at the printed, formatted version,
you can't tell where the line breaks are in the source file.  With word
search, you can search without having to know them.

`C-s <RET> C-w WORDS <RET>'
     Search for WORDS, ignoring details of punctuation.

`C-r <RET> C-w WORDS <RET>'
     Search backward for WORDS, ignoring details of punctuation.

   Word search as a special case of nonincremental search is invoked
with `C-s <RET> C-w'.  This is followed by the search string, which
must always be terminated with <RET>.  Being nonincremental, this
search does not start until the argument is terminated.  It works by
constructing a regular expression and searching for that; see *note
Regexp Search::.

   Use `C-r <RET> C-w' to do backward word search.

   You can also invoke word search with `C-s M-e C-w' or `C-r M-e C-w'
followed by the search string and terminated with <RET>, `C-s' or
`C-r'.  This puts word search into incremental mode where you can use
all keys available for incremental search.  However, when you type more
words in incremental word search, it will fail until you type complete
words.

   Forward and backward word searches are implemented by the commands
`word-search-forward' and `word-search-backward'.  These commands may
be bound to keys in the usual manner.  They are available via the
incremental search commands both for historical reasons and to avoid
the need to find separate key sequences for them.

File: emacs,  Node: Regexp Search,  Next: Regexps,  Prev: Word Search,  Up: Search

20.4 Regular Expression Search
==============================

A "regular expression" ("regexp", for short) is a pattern that denotes
a class of alternative strings to match, possibly infinitely many.  GNU
Emacs provides both incremental and nonincremental ways to search for a
match for a regexp.  The syntax of regular expressions is explained in
the following section.

   Incremental search for a regexp is done by typing `C-M-s'
(`isearch-forward-regexp'), by invoking `C-s' with a prefix argument
(whose value does not matter), or by typing `M-r' within a forward
incremental search.  This command reads a search string incrementally
just like `C-s', but it treats the search string as a regexp rather
than looking for an exact match against the text in the buffer.  Each
time you add text to the search string, you make the regexp longer, and
the new regexp is searched for.  To search backward for a regexp, use
`C-M-r' (`isearch-backward-regexp'), `C-r' with a prefix argument, or
`M-r' within a backward incremental search.

   All of the control characters that do special things within an
ordinary incremental search have the same function in incremental regexp
search.  Typing `C-s' or `C-r' immediately after starting the search
retrieves the last incremental search regexp used; that is to say,
incremental regexp and non-regexp searches have independent defaults.
They also have separate search rings that you can access with `M-p' and
`M-n'.

   If you type <SPC> in incremental regexp search, it matches any
sequence of whitespace characters, including newlines.  If you want to
match just a space, type `C-q <SPC>'.  You can control what a bare
space matches by setting the variable `search-whitespace-regexp' to the
desired regexp.

   In some cases, adding characters to the regexp in an incremental
regexp search can make the cursor move back and start again.  For
example, if you have searched for `foo' and you add `\|bar', the cursor
backs up in case the first `bar' precedes the first `foo'.

   Forward and backward regexp search are not symmetrical, because
regexp matching in Emacs always operates forward, starting with the
beginning of the regexp.  Thus, forward regexp search scans forward,
trying a forward match at each possible starting position.  Backward
regexp search scans backward, trying a forward match at each possible
starting position.  These search methods are not mirror images.

   Nonincremental search for a regexp is done by the functions
`re-search-forward' and `re-search-backward'.  You can invoke these
with `M-x', or bind them to keys, or invoke them by way of incremental
regexp search with `C-M-s <RET>' and `C-M-r <RET>'.

   If you use the incremental regexp search commands with a prefix
argument, they perform ordinary string search, like `isearch-forward'
and `isearch-backward'.  *Note Incremental Search::.

File: emacs,  Node: Regexps,  Next: Regexp Backslash,  Prev: Regexp Search,  Up: Search

20.5 Syntax of Regular Expressions
==================================

This manual describes regular expression features that users typically
want to use.  There are additional features that are mainly used in
Lisp programs; see *note Regular Expressions: (elisp)Regular
Expressions.

   Regular expressions have a syntax in which a few characters are
special constructs and the rest are "ordinary".  An ordinary character
is a simple regular expression which matches that same character and
nothing else.  The special characters are `$', `^', `.', `*', `+', `?',
`[', and `\'.  The character `]' is special if it ends a character
alternative (see later).  The character `-' is special inside a
character alternative.  Any other character appearing in a regular
expression is ordinary, unless a `\' precedes it.  (When you use
regular expressions in a Lisp program, each `\' must be doubled, see
the example near the end of this section.)

   For example, `f' is not a special character, so it is ordinary, and
therefore `f' is a regular expression that matches the string `f' and
no other string.  (It does _not_ match the string `ff'.)  Likewise, `o'
is a regular expression that matches only `o'.  (When case distinctions
are being ignored, these regexps also match `F' and `O', but we
consider this a generalization of "the same string," rather than an
exception.)

   Any two regular expressions A and B can be concatenated.  The result
is a regular expression which matches a string if A matches some amount
of the beginning of that string and B matches the rest of the string.

   As a simple example, we can concatenate the regular expressions `f'
and `o' to get the regular expression `fo', which matches only the
string `fo'.  Still trivial.  To do something nontrivial, you need to
use one of the special characters.  Here is a list of them.

`.' (Period)
     is a special character that matches any single character except a
     newline.  Using concatenation, we can make regular expressions
     like `a.b', which matches any three-character string that begins
     with `a' and ends with `b'.

`*'
     is not a construct by itself; it is a postfix operator that means
     to match the preceding regular expression repetitively as many
     times as possible.  Thus, `o*' matches any number of `o's
     (including no `o's).

     `*' always applies to the _smallest_ possible preceding
     expression.  Thus, `fo*' has a repeating `o', not a repeating
     `fo'.  It matches `f', `fo', `foo', and so on.

     The matcher processes a `*' construct by matching, immediately, as
     many repetitions as can be found.  Then it continues with the rest
     of the pattern.  If that fails, backtracking occurs, discarding
     some of the matches of the `*'-modified construct in case that
     makes it possible to match the rest of the pattern.  For example,
     in matching `ca*ar' against the string `caaar', the `a*' first
     tries to match all three `a's; but the rest of the pattern is `ar'
     and there is only `r' left to match, so this try fails.  The next
     alternative is for `a*' to match only two `a's.  With this choice,
     the rest of the regexp matches successfully.

`+'
     is a postfix operator, similar to `*' except that it must match
     the preceding expression at least once.  So, for example, `ca+r'
     matches the strings `car' and `caaaar' but not the string `cr',
     whereas `ca*r' matches all three strings.

`?'
     is a postfix operator, similar to `*' except that it can match the
     preceding expression either once or not at all.  For example,
     `ca?r' matches `car' or `cr'; nothing else.

`*?', `+?', `??'
     are non-greedy variants of the operators above.  The normal
     operators `*', `+', `?' are "greedy" in that they match as much as
     they can, as long as the overall regexp can still match.  With a
     following `?', they are non-greedy: they will match as little as
     possible.

     Thus, both `ab*' and `ab*?' can match the string `a' and the
     string `abbbb'; but if you try to match them both against the text
     `abbb', `ab*' will match it all (the longest valid match), while
     `ab*?'  will match just `a' (the shortest valid match).

     Non-greedy operators match the shortest possible string starting
     at a given starting point; in a forward search, though, the
     earliest possible starting point for match is always the one
     chosen.  Thus, if you search for `a.*?$' against the text `abbab'
     followed by a newline, it matches the whole string.  Since it
     _can_ match starting at the first `a', it does.

`\{N\}'
     is a postfix operator that specifies repetition N times--that is,
     the preceding regular expression must match exactly N times in a
     row.  For example, `x\{4\}' matches the string `xxxx' and nothing
     else.

`\{N,M\}'
     is a postfix operator that specifies repetition between N and M
     times--that is, the preceding regular expression must match at
     least N times, but no more than M times.  If M is omitted, then
     there is no upper limit, but the preceding regular expression must
     match at least N times.
     `\{0,1\}' is equivalent to `?'.
     `\{0,\}' is equivalent to `*'.
     `\{1,\}' is equivalent to `+'.

`[ ... ]'
     is a "character set", which begins with `[' and is terminated by
     `]'.  In the simplest case, the characters between the two
     brackets are what this set can match.

     Thus, `[ad]' matches either one `a' or one `d', and `[ad]*'
     matches any string composed of just `a's and `d's (including the
     empty string), from which it follows that `c[ad]*r' matches `cr',
     `car', `cdr', `caddaar', etc.

     You can also include character ranges in a character set, by
     writing the starting and ending characters with a `-' between
     them.  Thus, `[a-z]' matches any lower-case ASCII letter.  Ranges
     may be intermixed freely with individual characters, as in
     `[a-z$%.]', which matches any lower-case ASCII letter or `$', `%'
     or period.

     Note that the usual regexp special characters are not special
     inside a character set.  A completely different set of special
     characters exists inside character sets: `]', `-' and `^'.

     To include a `]' in a character set, you must make it the first
     character.  For example, `[]a]' matches `]' or `a'.  To include a
     `-', write `-' as the first or last character of the set, or put
     it after a range.  Thus, `[]-]' matches both `]' and `-'.

     To include `^' in a set, put it anywhere but at the beginning of
     the set.  (At the beginning, it complements the set--see below.)

     When you use a range in case-insensitive search, you should write
     both ends of the range in upper case, or both in lower case, or
     both should be non-letters.  The behavior of a mixed-case range
     such as `A-z' is somewhat ill-defined, and it may change in future
     Emacs versions.

`[^ ... ]'
     `[^' begins a "complemented character set", which matches any
     character except the ones specified.  Thus, `[^a-z0-9A-Z]' matches
     all characters _except_ ASCII letters and digits.

     `^' is not special in a character set unless it is the first
     character.  The character following the `^' is treated as if it
     were first (in other words, `-' and `]' are not special there).

     A complemented character set can match a newline, unless newline is
     mentioned as one of the characters not to match.  This is in
     contrast to the handling of regexps in programs such as `grep'.

`^'
     is a special character that matches the empty string, but only at
     the beginning of a line in the text being matched.  Otherwise it
     fails to match anything.  Thus, `^foo' matches a `foo' that occurs
     at the beginning of a line.

     For historical compatibility reasons, `^' can be used with this
     meaning only at the beginning of the regular expression, or after
     `\(' or `\|'.

`$'
     is similar to `^' but matches only at the end of a line.  Thus,
     `x+$' matches a string of one `x' or more at the end of a line.

     For historical compatibility reasons, `$' can be used with this
     meaning only at the end of the regular expression, or before `\)'
     or `\|'.

`\'
     has two functions: it quotes the special characters (including
     `\'), and it introduces additional special constructs.

     Because `\' quotes special characters, `\$' is a regular
     expression that matches only `$', and `\[' is a regular expression
     that matches only `[', and so on.

     See the following section for the special constructs that begin
     with `\'.

   Note: for historical compatibility, special characters are treated as
ordinary ones if they are in contexts where their special meanings make
no sense.  For example, `*foo' treats `*' as ordinary since there is no
preceding expression on which the `*' can act.  It is poor practice to
depend on this behavior; it is better to quote the special character
anyway, regardless of where it appears.

   As a `\' is not special inside a character alternative, it can never
remove the special meaning of `-' or `]'.  So you should not quote
these characters when they have no special meaning either.  This would
not clarify anything, since backslashes can legitimately precede these
characters where they _have_ special meaning, as in `[^\]' (`"[^\\]"'
for Lisp string syntax), which matches any single character except a
backslash.

File: emacs,  Node: Regexp Backslash,  Next: Regexp Example,  Prev: Regexps,  Up: Search

20.6 Backslash in Regular Expressions
=====================================

For the most part, `\' followed by any character matches only that
character.  However, there are several exceptions: two-character
sequences starting with `\' that have special meanings.  The second
character in the sequence is always an ordinary character when used on
its own.  Here is a table of `\' constructs.

`\|'
     specifies an alternative.  Two regular expressions A and B with
     `\|' in between form an expression that matches some text if
     either A matches it or B matches it.  It works by trying to match
     A, and if that fails, by trying to match B.

     Thus, `foo\|bar' matches either `foo' or `bar' but no other string.

     `\|' applies to the largest possible surrounding expressions.
     Only a surrounding `\( ... \)' grouping can limit the grouping
     power of `\|'.

     Full backtracking capability exists to handle multiple uses of
     `\|'.

`\( ... \)'
     is a grouping construct that serves three purposes:

       1. To enclose a set of `\|' alternatives for other operations.
          Thus, `\(foo\|bar\)x' matches either `foox' or `barx'.

       2. To enclose a complicated expression for the postfix operators
          `*', `+' and `?' to operate on.  Thus, `ba\(na\)*' matches
          `bananana', etc., with any (zero or more) number of `na'
          strings.

       3. To record a matched substring for future reference.

     This last application is not a consequence of the idea of a
     parenthetical grouping; it is a separate feature that is assigned
     as a second meaning to the same `\( ... \)' construct.  In practice
     there is usually no conflict between the two meanings; when there
     is a conflict, you can use a "shy" group.

`\(?: ... \)'
     specifies a "shy" group that does not record the matched substring;
     you can't refer back to it with `\D'.  This is useful in
     mechanically combining regular expressions, so that you can add
     groups for syntactic purposes without interfering with the
     numbering of the groups that are meant to be referred to.

`\D'
     matches the same text that matched the Dth occurrence of a `\( ...
     \)' construct.  This is called a "back reference".

     After the end of a `\( ... \)' construct, the matcher remembers
     the beginning and end of the text matched by that construct.  Then,
     later on in the regular expression, you can use `\' followed by the
     digit D to mean "match the same text matched the Dth time by the
     `\( ... \)' construct."

     The strings matching the first nine `\( ... \)' constructs
     appearing in a regular expression are assigned numbers 1 through 9
     in the order that the open-parentheses appear in the regular
     expression.  So you can use `\1' through `\9' to refer to the text
     matched by the corresponding `\( ... \)' constructs.

     For example, `\(.*\)\1' matches any newline-free string that is
     composed of two identical halves.  The `\(.*\)' matches the first
     half, which may be anything, but the `\1' that follows must match
     the same exact text.

     If a particular `\( ... \)' construct matches more than once
     (which can easily happen if it is followed by `*'), only the last
     match is recorded.

`\`'
     matches the empty string, but only at the beginning of the string
     or buffer (or its accessible portion) being matched against.

`\''
     matches the empty string, but only at the end of the string or
     buffer (or its accessible portion) being matched against.

`\='
     matches the empty string, but only at point.

`\b'
     matches the empty string, but only at the beginning or end of a
     word.  Thus, `\bfoo\b' matches any occurrence of `foo' as a
     separate word.  `\bballs?\b' matches `ball' or `balls' as a
     separate word.

     `\b' matches at the beginning or end of the buffer regardless of
     what text appears next to it.

`\B'
     matches the empty string, but _not_ at the beginning or end of a
     word.

`\<'
     matches the empty string, but only at the beginning of a word.
     `\<' matches at the beginning of the buffer only if a
     word-constituent character follows.

`\>'
     matches the empty string, but only at the end of a word.  `\>'
     matches at the end of the buffer only if the contents end with a
     word-constituent character.

`\w'
     matches any word-constituent character.  The syntax table
     determines which characters these are.  *Note Syntax::.

`\W'
     matches any character that is not a word-constituent.

`\_<'
     matches the empty string, but only at the beginning of a symbol.
     A symbol is a sequence of one or more symbol-constituent
     characters.  A symbol-constituent character is a character whose
     syntax is either `w' or `_'.  `\_<' matches at the beginning of the
     buffer only if a symbol-constituent character follows.

`\_>'
     matches the empty string, but only at the end of a symbol.  `\_>'
     matches at the end of the buffer only if the contents end with a
     symbol-constituent character.

`\sC'
     matches any character whose syntax is C.  Here C is a character
     that designates a particular syntax class: thus, `w' for word
     constituent, `-' or ` ' for whitespace, `.' for ordinary
     punctuation, etc.  *Note Syntax::.

`\SC'
     matches any character whose syntax is not C.

`\cC'
     matches any character that belongs to the category C.  For
     example, `\cc' matches Chinese characters, `\cg' matches Greek
     characters, etc.  For the description of the known categories,
     type `M-x describe-categories <RET>'.

`\CC'
     matches any character that does _not_ belong to category C.

   The constructs that pertain to words and syntax are controlled by the
setting of the syntax table (*note Syntax::).

File: emacs,  Node: Regexp Example,  Next: Search Case,  Prev: Regexp Backslash,  Up: Search

20.7 Regular Expression Example
===============================

Here is a complicated regexp--a simplified version of the regexp that
Emacs uses, by default, to recognize the end of a sentence together
with any whitespace that follows.  We show its Lisp syntax to
distinguish the spaces from the tab characters.  In Lisp syntax, the
string constant begins and ends with a double-quote.  `\"' stands for a
double-quote as part of the regexp, `\\' for a backslash as part of the
regexp, `\t' for a tab, and `\n' for a newline.

     "[.?!][]\"')]*\\($\\| $\\|\t\\|  \\)[ \t\n]*"

This contains four parts in succession: a character set matching
period, `?', or `!'; a character set matching close-brackets, quotes,
or parentheses, repeated zero or more times; a set of alternatives
within backslash-parentheses that matches either end-of-line, a space
at the end of a line, a tab, or two spaces; and a character set
matching whitespace characters, repeated any number of times.

   To enter the same regexp in incremental search, you would type <TAB>
to enter a tab, and `C-j' to enter a newline.  You would also type
single backslashes as themselves, instead of doubling them for Lisp
syntax.  In commands that use ordinary minibuffer input to read a
regexp, you would quote the `C-j' by preceding it with a `C-q' to
prevent `C-j' from exiting the minibuffer.

File: emacs,  Node: Search Case,  Next: Replace,  Prev: Regexp Example,  Up: Search

20.8 Searching and Case
=======================

Incremental searches in Emacs normally ignore the case of the text they
are searching through, if you specify the text in lower case.  Thus, if
you specify searching for `foo', then `Foo' and `foo' are also
considered a match.  Regexps, and in particular character sets, are
included: `[ab]' would match `a' or `A' or `b' or `B'.

   An upper-case letter anywhere in the incremental search string makes
the search case-sensitive.  Thus, searching for `Foo' does not find
`foo' or `FOO'.  This applies to regular expression search as well as
to string search.  The effect ceases if you delete the upper-case
letter from the search string.

   Typing `M-c' within an incremental search toggles the case
sensitivity of that search.  The effect does not extend beyond the
current incremental search to the next one, but it does override the
effect of including an upper-case letter in the current search.

   If you set the variable `case-fold-search' to `nil', then all
letters must match exactly, including case.  This is a per-buffer
variable; altering the variable affects only the current buffer, but
there is a default value in `default-case-fold-search' that you can
also set.  *Note Locals::.  This variable applies to nonincremental
searches also, including those performed by the replace commands (*note
Replace::) and the minibuffer history matching commands (*note
Minibuffer History::).

   Several related variables control case-sensitivity of searching and
matching for specific commands or activities.  For instance,
`tags-case-fold-search' controls case sensitivity for `find-tag'.  To
find these variables, do `M-x apropos-variable <RET> case-fold-search
<RET>'.

File: emacs,  Node: Replace,  Next: Other Repeating Search,  Prev: Search Case,  Up: Search

20.9 Replacement Commands
=========================

Global search-and-replace operations are not needed often in Emacs, but
they are available.  In addition to the simple `M-x replace-string'
command which replaces all occurrences, there is `M-%'
(`query-replace'), which presents each occurrence of the pattern and
asks you whether to replace it.

   The replace commands normally operate on the text from point to the
end of the buffer; however, in Transient Mark mode (*note Transient
Mark::), when the mark is active, they operate on the region.  The
basic replace commands replace one string (or regexp) with one
replacement string.  It is possible to perform several replacements in
parallel using the command `expand-region-abbrevs' (*note Expanding
Abbrevs::).

* Menu:

* Unconditional Replace::	Replacing all matches for a string.
* Regexp Replace::		Replacing all matches for a regexp.
* Replacement and Case::	How replacements preserve case of letters.
* Query Replace::		How to use querying.

File: emacs,  Node: Unconditional Replace,  Next: Regexp Replace,  Prev: Replace,  Up: Replace

20.9.1 Unconditional Replacement
--------------------------------

`M-x replace-string <RET> STRING <RET> NEWSTRING <RET>'
     Replace every occurrence of STRING with NEWSTRING.

   To replace every instance of `foo' after point with `bar', use the
command `M-x replace-string' with the two arguments `foo' and `bar'.
Replacement happens only in the text after point, so if you want to
cover the whole buffer you must go to the beginning first.  All
occurrences up to the end of the buffer are replaced; to limit
replacement to part of the buffer, narrow to that part of the buffer
before doing the replacement (*note Narrowing::).  In Transient Mark
mode, when the region is active, replacement is limited to the region
(*note Transient Mark::).

   When `replace-string' exits, it leaves point at the last occurrence
replaced.  It sets the mark to the prior position of point (where the
`replace-string' command was issued); use `C-u C-<SPC>' to move back
there.

   A numeric argument restricts replacement to matches that are
surrounded by word boundaries.  The argument's value doesn't matter.

   *Note Replacement and Case::, for details about case-sensitivity in
replace commands.

   What if you want to exchange `x' and `y': replace every `x' with a
`y' and vice versa?  You can do it this way:

     M-x replace-string <RET> x <RET> @TEMP@ <RET>
     M-< M-x replace-string <RET> y <RET> x <RET>
     M-< M-x replace-string <RET> @TEMP@ <RET> y <RET>

This works provided the string `@TEMP@' does not appear in your text.

File: emacs,  Node: Regexp Replace,  Next: Replacement and Case,  Prev: Unconditional Replace,  Up: Replace

20.9.2 Regexp Replacement
-------------------------

The `M-x replace-string' command replaces exact matches for a single
string.  The similar command `M-x replace-regexp' replaces any match
for a specified pattern.

`M-x replace-regexp <RET> REGEXP <RET> NEWSTRING <RET>'
     Replace every match for REGEXP with NEWSTRING.

   In `replace-regexp', the NEWSTRING need not be constant: it can
refer to all or part of what is matched by the REGEXP.  `\&' in
NEWSTRING stands for the entire match being replaced.  `\D' in
NEWSTRING, where D is a digit, stands for whatever matched the Dth
parenthesized grouping in REGEXP.  (This is called a "back reference.")
`\#' refers to the count of replacements already made in this command,
as a decimal number.  In the first replacement, `\#' stands for `0'; in
the second, for `1'; and so on.  For example,

     M-x replace-regexp <RET> c[ad]+r <RET> \&-safe <RET>

replaces (for example) `cadr' with `cadr-safe' and `cddr' with
`cddr-safe'.

     M-x replace-regexp <RET> \(c[ad]+r\)-safe <RET> \1 <RET>

performs the inverse transformation.  To include a `\' in the text to
replace with, you must enter `\\'.

   If you want to enter part of the replacement string by hand each
time, use `\?' in the replacement string.  Each replacement will ask
you to edit the replacement string in the minibuffer, putting point
where the `\?' was.

   The remainder of this subsection is intended for specialized tasks
and requires knowledge of Lisp.  Most readers can skip it.

   You can use Lisp expressions to calculate parts of the replacement
string.  To do this, write `\,' followed by the expression in the
replacement string.  Each replacement calculates the value of the
expression and converts it to text without quoting (if it's a string,
this means using the string's contents), and uses it in the replacement
string in place of the expression itself.  If the expression is a
symbol, one space in the replacement string after the symbol name goes
with the symbol name, so the value replaces them both.

   Inside such an expression, you can use some special sequences.  `\&'
and `\N' refer here, as usual, to the entire match as a string, and to
a submatch as a string.  N may be multiple digits, and the value of
`\N' is `nil' if subexpression N did not match.  You can also use `\#&'
and `\#N' to refer to those matches as numbers (this is valid when the
match or submatch has the form of a numeral).  `\#' here too stands for
the number of already-completed replacements.

   Repeating our example to exchange `x' and `y', we can thus do it
also this way:

     M-x replace-regexp <RET> \(x\)\|y <RET>
     \,(if \1 "y" "x") <RET>

   For computing replacement strings for `\,', the `format' function is
often useful (*note Formatting Strings: (elisp)Formatting Strings.).
For example, to add consecutively numbered strings like `ABC00042' to
columns 73 to 80 (unless they are already occupied), you can use

     M-x replace-regexp <RET> ^.\{0,72\}$ <RET>
     \,(format "%-72sABC%05d" \& \#) <RET>

File: emacs,  Node: Replacement and Case,  Next: Query Replace,  Prev: Regexp Replace,  Up: Replace

20.9.3 Replace Commands and Case
--------------------------------

If the first argument of a replace command is all lower case, the
command ignores case while searching for occurrences to
replace--provided `case-fold-search' is non-`nil'.  If
`case-fold-search' is set to `nil', case is always significant in all
searches.

   In addition, when the NEWSTRING argument is all or partly lower
case, replacement commands try to preserve the case pattern of each
occurrence.  Thus, the command

     M-x replace-string <RET> foo <RET> bar <RET>

replaces a lower case `foo' with a lower case `bar', an all-caps `FOO'
with `BAR', and a capitalized `Foo' with `Bar'.  (These three
alternatives--lower case, all caps, and capitalized, are the only ones
that `replace-string' can distinguish.)

   If upper-case letters are used in the replacement string, they remain
upper case every time that text is inserted.  If upper-case letters are
used in the first argument, the second argument is always substituted
exactly as given, with no case conversion.  Likewise, if either
`case-replace' or `case-fold-search' is set to `nil', replacement is
done without case conversion.

File: emacs,  Node: Query Replace,  Prev: Replacement and Case,  Up: Replace

20.9.4 Query Replace
--------------------

`M-% STRING <RET> NEWSTRING <RET>'
`M-x query-replace <RET> STRING <RET> NEWSTRING <RET>'
     Replace some occurrences of STRING with NEWSTRING.

`C-M-% REGEXP <RET> NEWSTRING <RET>'
`M-x query-replace-regexp <RET> REGEXP <RET> NEWSTRING <RET>'
     Replace some matches for REGEXP with NEWSTRING.

   If you want to change only some of the occurrences of `foo' to
`bar', not all of them, use `M-%' (`query-replace').  This command
finds occurrences of `foo' one by one, displays each occurrence and
asks you whether to replace it.  Aside from querying, `query-replace'
works just like `replace-string' (*note Unconditional Replace::).  In
particular, it preserves case provided `case-replace' is non-`nil', as
it normally is (*note Replacement and Case::).  A numeric argument
means consider only occurrences that are bounded by word-delimiter
characters.

   `C-M-%' performs regexp search and replace (`query-replace-regexp').
It works like `replace-regexp' except that it queries like
`query-replace'.

   These commands highlight the current match using the face
`query-replace'.  They highlight other matches using `lazy-highlight'
just like incremental search (*note Incremental Search::).

   The characters you can type when you are shown a match for the string
or regexp are:

`<SPC>'
     to replace the occurrence with NEWSTRING.

`<DEL>'
     to skip to the next occurrence without replacing this one.

`, (Comma)'
     to replace this occurrence and display the result.  You are then
     asked for another input character to say what to do next.  Since
     the replacement has already been made, <DEL> and <SPC> are
     equivalent in this situation; both move to the next occurrence.

     You can type `C-r' at this point (see below) to alter the replaced
     text.  You can also type `C-x u' to undo the replacement; this
     exits the `query-replace', so if you want to do further
     replacement you must use `C-x <ESC> <ESC> <RET>' to restart (*note
     Repetition::).

`<RET>'
     to exit without doing any more replacements.

`. (Period)'
     to replace this occurrence and then exit without searching for more
     occurrences.

`!'
     to replace all remaining occurrences without asking again.

`^'
     to go back to the position of the previous occurrence (or what
     used to be an occurrence), in case you changed it by mistake or
     want to reexamine it.

`C-r'
     to enter a recursive editing level, in case the occurrence needs
     to be edited rather than just replaced with NEWSTRING.  When you
     are done, exit the recursive editing level with `C-M-c' to proceed
     to the next occurrence.  *Note Recursive Edit::.

`C-w'
     to delete the occurrence, and then enter a recursive editing level
     as in `C-r'.  Use the recursive edit to insert text to replace the
     deleted occurrence of STRING.  When done, exit the recursive
     editing level with `C-M-c' to proceed to the next occurrence.

`e'
     to edit the replacement string in the minibuffer.  When you exit
     the minibuffer by typing <RET>, the minibuffer contents replace the
     current occurrence of the pattern.  They also become the new
     replacement string for any further occurrences.

`C-l'
     to redisplay the screen.  Then you must type another character to
     specify what to do with this occurrence.

`C-h'
     to display a message summarizing these options.  Then you must type
     another character to specify what to do with this occurrence.

   Some other characters are aliases for the ones listed above: `y',
`n' and `q' are equivalent to <SPC>, <DEL> and <RET>.

   Aside from this, any other character exits the `query-replace', and
is then reread as part of a key sequence.  Thus, if you type `C-k', it
exits the `query-replace' and then kills to end of line.

   To restart a `query-replace' once it is exited, use `C-x <ESC>
<ESC>', which repeats the `query-replace' because it used the
minibuffer to read its arguments.  *Note C-x ESC ESC: Repetition.

   *Note Operating on Files::, for the Dired `Q' command which performs
query replace on selected files.  See also *note Transforming File
Names::, for Dired commands to rename, copy, or link files by replacing
regexp matches in file names.

File: emacs,  Node: Other Repeating Search,  Prev: Replace,  Up: Search

20.10 Other Search-and-Loop Commands
====================================

Here are some other commands that find matches for a regular
expression.  They all ignore case in matching, if the pattern contains
no upper-case letters and `case-fold-search' is non-`nil'.  Aside from
`occur' and its variants, all operate on the text from point to the end
of the buffer, or on the active region in Transient Mark mode.

`M-x occur <RET> REGEXP <RET>'
     Display a list showing each line in the buffer that contains a
     match for REGEXP.  To limit the search to part of the buffer,
     narrow to that part (*note Narrowing::).  A numeric argument N
     specifies that N lines of context are to be displayed before and
     after each matching line.  Currently, `occur' can not correctly
     handle multiline matches.

     The buffer `*Occur*' containing the output serves as a menu for
     finding the occurrences in their original context.  Click
     `Mouse-2' on an occurrence listed in `*Occur*', or position point
     there and type <RET>; this switches to the buffer that was
     searched and moves point to the original of the chosen occurrence.
     `o' and `C-o' display the match in another window; `C-o' does not
     select it.

     After using `M-x occur', you can use `next-error' to visit the
     occurrences found, one by one.  *note Compilation Mode::.

`M-x list-matching-lines'
     Synonym for `M-x occur'.

`M-x multi-occur <RET> BUFFERS <RET> REGEXP <RET>'
     This function is just like `occur', except it is able to search
     through multiple buffers.  It asks you to specify the buffer names
     one by one.

`M-x multi-occur-in-matching-buffers <RET> BUFREGEXP <RET> REGEXP <RET>'
     This function is similar to `multi-occur', except the buffers to
     search are specified by a regular expression that matches visited
     file names.  With a prefix argument, it uses the regular
     expression to match buffer names instead.

`M-x how-many <RET> REGEXP <RET>'
     Print the number of matches for REGEXP that exist in the buffer
     after point.  In Transient Mark mode, if the region is active, the
     command operates on the region instead.

`M-x flush-lines <RET> REGEXP <RET>'
     This command deletes each line that contains a match for REGEXP,
     operating on the text after point; it deletes the current line if
     it contains a match starting after point.  In Transient Mark mode,
     if the region is active, the command operates on the region
     instead; it deletes a line partially contained in the region if it
     contains a match entirely contained in the region.

     If a match is split across lines, `flush-lines' deletes all those
     lines.  It deletes the lines before starting to look for the next
     match; hence, it ignores a match starting on the same line at which
     another match ended.

`M-x keep-lines <RET> REGEXP <RET>'
     This command deletes each line that _does not_ contain a match for
     REGEXP, operating on the text after point; if point is not at the
     beginning of a line, it always keeps the current line.  In
     Transient Mark mode, if the region is active, the command operates
     on the region instead; it never deletes lines that are only
     partially contained in the region (a newline that ends a line
     counts as part of that line).

     If a match is split across lines, this command keeps all those
     lines.

File: emacs,  Node: Fixit,  Next: Keyboard Macros,  Prev: Search,  Up: Top

21 Commands for Fixing Typos
****************************

In this chapter we describe the commands that are especially useful for
the times when you catch a mistake in your text just after you have made
it, or change your mind while composing text on the fly.

   The most fundamental command for correcting erroneous editing is the
undo command, `C-x u' or `C-_' or `C-/'.  This command undoes a single
command (usually), a part of a command (in the case of
`query-replace'), or several consecutive self-inserting characters.
Consecutive repetitions of the undo command undo earlier and earlier
changes, back to the limit of the undo information available.  *Note
Undo::, for more information.

* Menu:

* Undo::        The Undo commands.
* Kill Errors:: Commands to kill a batch of recently entered text.
* Transpose::   Exchanging two characters, words, lines, lists...
* Fixing Case:: Correcting case of last word entered.
* Spelling::    Apply spelling checker to a word, or a whole file.

File: emacs,  Node: Undo,  Next: Kill Errors,  Up: Fixit

21.1 Undo
=========

The "undo" commands undo recent changes in the buffer's text.  Each
buffer records changes individually, and the undo command always
applies to the current buffer.  You can undo all the changes in a
buffer for as far as back these records go.  Usually each editing
command makes a separate entry in the undo records, but some commands
such as `query-replace' divide their changes into multiple entries for
flexibility in undoing.  Meanwhile, self-inserting characters are
usually grouped to make undoing less tedious.

`C-x u'
`C-_'
`C-/'
     Undo one entry in the current buffer's undo records (`undo').

   To begin to undo, type the command `C-x u' (or its aliases, `C-_' or
`C-/').  This undoes the most recent change in the buffer, and moves
point back to where it was before that change.

   Consecutive repetitions of `C-x u' (or its aliases) undo earlier and
earlier changes in the current buffer, back to the limit of the current
buffer's undo records.  If all the recorded changes have already been
undone, the undo command just signals an error.

   If you notice that a buffer has been modified accidentally, the
easiest way to recover is to type `C-_' repeatedly until the stars
disappear from the front of the mode line.  At this time, all the
modifications you made have been canceled.  Whenever an undo command
makes the stars disappear from the mode line, it means that the buffer
contents are the same as they were when the file was last read in or
saved.

   If you do not remember whether you changed the buffer deliberately,
type `C-_' once.  When you see the last change you made undone, you
will see whether it was an intentional change.  If it was an accident,
leave it undone.  If it was deliberate, redo the change as described
below.

   Any command other than an undo command breaks the sequence of undo
commands.  Starting from that moment, the previous undo commands become
ordinary changes that you can undo.  Thus, to redo changes you have
undone, type `C-f' or any other command that will harmlessly break the
sequence of undoing, then type undo commands again.  On the other hand,
if you want to resume undoing, without redoing previous undo commands,
use `M-x undo-only'.  This is like `undo', but will not redo changes
you have just undone.

   Ordinary undo applies to all changes made in the current buffer.  You
can also perform "selective undo", limited to the region.

   To do this, specify the region you want, then run the `undo' command
with a prefix argument (the value does not matter): `C-u C-x u' or `C-u
C-_'.  This undoes the most recent change in the region.  To undo
further changes in the same region, repeat the `undo' command (no
prefix argument is needed).  In Transient Mark mode (*note Transient
Mark::), any use of `undo' when there is an active region performs
selective undo; you do not need a prefix argument.

   Some specialized buffers do not make undo records.  Buffers whose
names start with spaces never do; these buffers are used internally by
Emacs and its extensions to hold text that users don't normally look at
or edit.

   When the undo records for a buffer becomes too large, Emacs discards
the oldest undo records from time to time (during garbage collection).
You can specify how much undo records to keep by setting three
variables: `undo-limit', `undo-strong-limit', and `undo-outer-limit'.
Their values are expressed in units of bytes of space.

   The variable `undo-limit' sets a soft limit: Emacs keeps undo data
for enough commands to reach this size, and perhaps exceed it, but does
not keep data for any earlier commands beyond that.  Its default value
is 20000.  The variable `undo-strong-limit' sets a stricter limit: a
previous command (not the most recent one) which pushes the size past
this amount is itself forgotten.  The default value of
`undo-strong-limit' is 30000.

   Regardless of the values of those variables, the most recent change
is never discarded unless it gets bigger than `undo-outer-limit'
(normally 3,000,000).  At that point, Emacs discards the undo data and
warns you about it.  This is the only situation in which you cannot
undo the last command.  If this happens, you can increase the value of
`undo-outer-limit' to make it even less likely to happen in the future.
But if you didn't expect the command to create such large undo data,
then it is probably a bug and you should report it.  *Note Reporting
Bugs: Bugs.

   The reason the `undo' command has three key bindings, `C-x u', `C-_'
and `C-/', is that it is worthy of a single-character key, but `C-x u'
is more straightforward for beginners to remember and type.  Meanwhile,
`C--' on a text-only terminal is really `C-_', which makes it a natural
and easily typed binding for undoing.

File: emacs,  Node: Kill Errors,  Next: Transpose,  Prev: Undo,  Up: Fixit

21.2 Killing Your Mistakes
==========================

`<DEL>'
     Delete last character (`delete-backward-char').

`M-<DEL>'
     Kill last word (`backward-kill-word').

`C-x <DEL>'
     Kill to beginning of sentence (`backward-kill-sentence').

   The <DEL> character (`delete-backward-char') is the most important
correction command.  It deletes the character before point.  When <DEL>
follows a self-inserting character command, you can think of it as
canceling that command.  However, avoid the confusion of thinking of
<DEL> as a general way to cancel a command!

   When your mistake is longer than a couple of characters, it might be
more convenient to use `M-<DEL>' or `C-x <DEL>'.  `M-<DEL>' kills back
to the start of the last word, and `C-x <DEL>' kills back to the start
of the last sentence.  `C-x <DEL>' is particularly useful when you
change your mind about the phrasing of the text you are writing.
`M-<DEL>' and `C-x <DEL>' save the killed text for `C-y' and `M-y' to
retrieve.  *Note Yanking::.

   `M-<DEL>' is often useful even when you have typed only a few
characters wrong, if you know you are confused in your typing and aren't
sure exactly what you typed.  At such a time, you cannot correct with
<DEL> except by looking at the screen to see what you did.  Often it
requires less thought to kill the whole word and start again.

File: emacs,  Node: Transpose,  Next: Fixing Case,  Prev: Kill Errors,  Up: Fixit

21.3 Transposing Text
=====================

`C-t'
     Transpose two characters (`transpose-chars').

`M-t'
     Transpose two words (`transpose-words').

`C-M-t'
     Transpose two balanced expressions (`transpose-sexps').

`C-x C-t'
     Transpose two lines (`transpose-lines').

   The common error of transposing two characters can be fixed, when
they are adjacent, with the `C-t' command (`transpose-chars').
Normally, `C-t' transposes the two characters on either side of point.
When given at the end of a line, rather than transposing the last
character of the line with the newline, which would be useless, `C-t'
transposes the last two characters on the line.  So, if you catch your
transposition error right away, you can fix it with just a `C-t'.  If
you don't catch it so fast, you must move the cursor back between the
two transposed characters before you type `C-t'.  If you transposed a
space with the last character of the word before it, the word motion
commands are a good way of getting there.  Otherwise, a reverse search
(`C-r') is often the best way.  *Note Search::.

   `M-t' transposes the word before point with the word after point
(`transpose-words').  It moves point forward over a word, dragging the
word preceding or containing point forward as well.  The punctuation
characters between the words do not move.  For example, `FOO, BAR'
transposes into `BAR, FOO' rather than `BAR FOO,'.

   `C-M-t' (`transpose-sexps') is a similar command for transposing two
expressions (*note Expressions::), and `C-x C-t' (`transpose-lines')
exchanges lines.  They work like `M-t' except as regards what units of
text they transpose.

   A numeric argument to a transpose command serves as a repeat count:
it tells the transpose command to move the character (word, expression,
line) before or containing point across several other characters (words,
expressions, lines).  For example, `C-u 3 C-t' moves the character
before point forward across three other characters.  It would change
`f-!-oobar' into `oobf-!-ar'.  This is equivalent to repeating `C-t'
three times.  `C-u - 4 M-t' moves the word before point backward across
four words.  `C-u - C-M-t' would cancel the effect of plain `C-M-t'.

   A numeric argument of zero is assigned a special meaning (because
otherwise a command with a repeat count of zero would do nothing): to
transpose the character (word, expression, line) ending after point
with the one ending after the mark.

File: emacs,  Node: Fixing Case,  Next: Spelling,  Prev: Transpose,  Up: Fixit

21.4 Case Conversion
====================

`M-- M-l'
     Convert last word to lower case.  Note `Meta--' is Meta-minus.

`M-- M-u'
     Convert last word to all upper case.

`M-- M-c'
     Convert last word to lower case with capital initial.

   A very common error is to type words in the wrong case.  Because of
this, the word case-conversion commands `M-l', `M-u' and `M-c' have a
special feature when used with a negative argument: they do not move the
cursor.  As soon as you see you have mistyped the last word, you can
simply case-convert it and go on typing.  *Note Case::.

File: emacs,  Node: Spelling,  Prev: Fixing Case,  Up: Fixit

21.5 Checking and Correcting Spelling
=====================================

This section describes the commands to check the spelling of a single
word or of a portion of a buffer.  These commands work with the spelling
checker programs Aspell and Ispell, which are not part of Emacs.  *Note
Aspell: (aspell)Top.

`M-x flyspell-mode'
     Enable Flyspell mode, which highlights all misspelled words.

`M-x flyspell-prog-mode'
     Enable Flyspell mode for comments and strings only.

`M-$'
     Check and correct spelling of the word at point (`ispell-word').

`M-<TAB>'
`<ESC> <TAB>'
     Complete the word before point based on the spelling dictionary
     (`ispell-complete-word').

`M-x ispell'
     Spell-check the active region or the current buffer.

`M-x ispell-buffer'
     Check and correct spelling of each word in the buffer.

`M-x ispell-region'
     Check and correct spelling of each word in the region.

`M-x ispell-message'
     Check and correct spelling of each word in a draft mail message,
     excluding cited material.

`M-x ispell-change-dictionary <RET> DICT <RET>'
     Restart the Aspell or Ispell process, using DICT as the dictionary.

`M-x ispell-kill-ispell'
     Kill the Aspell or Ispell subprocess.

   Flyspell mode is a fully-automatic way to check spelling as you edit
in Emacs.  It operates by checking words as you change or insert them.
When it finds a word that it does not recognize, it highlights that
word.  This does not interfere with your editing, but when you see the
highlighted word, you can move to it and fix it.  Type `M-x
flyspell-mode' to enable or disable this mode in the current buffer.

   When Flyspell mode highlights a word as misspelled, you can click on
it with `Mouse-2' to display a menu of possible corrections and
actions.  You can also correct the word by editing it manually in any
way you like.

   Flyspell Prog mode works just like ordinary Flyspell mode, except
that it only checks words in comments and string constants.  This
feature is useful for editing programs.  Type `M-x flyspell-prog-mode'
to enable or disable this mode in the current buffer.

   The other Emacs spell-checking features check or look up words when
you give an explicit command to do so.

   To check the spelling of the word around or before point, and
optionally correct it as well, use the command `M-$' (`ispell-word').
If the word is not correct, the command offers you various alternatives
for what to do about it.

   To check the entire current buffer, use `M-x ispell-buffer'.  Use
`M-x ispell-region' to check just the current region.  To check
spelling in an email message you are writing, use `M-x ispell-message';
that command checks the whole buffer, except for material that is
indented or appears to be cited from other messages.

   The `M-x ispell' command spell-checks the active region if the
Transient Mark mode is on (*note Transient Mark::), otherwise it
spell-checks the current buffer.

   Each time these commands encounter an incorrect word, they ask you
what to do.  They display a list of alternatives, usually including
several "near-misses"--words that are close to the word being checked.
Then you must type a single-character response.  Here are the valid
responses:

`<SPC>'
     Skip this word--continue to consider it incorrect, but don't
     change it here.

`r NEW <RET>'
     Replace the word (just this time) with NEW.  (The replacement
     string will be rescanned for more spelling errors.)

`R NEW <RET>'
     Replace the word with NEW, and do a `query-replace' so you can
     replace it elsewhere in the buffer if you wish.  (The replacements
     will be rescanned for more spelling errors.)

`DIGIT'
     Replace the word (just this time) with one of the displayed
     near-misses.  Each near-miss is listed with a digit; type that
     digit to select it.

`a'
     Accept the incorrect word--treat it as correct, but only in this
     editing session.

`A'
     Accept the incorrect word--treat it as correct, but only in this
     editing session and for this buffer.

`i'
     Insert this word in your private dictionary file so that Aspell or
     Ispell will consider it correct from now on, even in future
     sessions.

`u'
     Insert the lower-case version of this word in your private
     dictionary file.

`m'
     Like `i', but you can also specify dictionary completion
     information.

`l WORD <RET>'
     Look in the dictionary for words that match WORD.  These words
     become the new list of "near-misses"; you can select one of them as
     the replacement by typing a digit.  You can use `*' in WORD as a
     wildcard.

`C-g'
     Quit interactive spell checking, leaving point at the word that was
     being checked.  You can restart checking again afterward with `C-u
     M-$'.

`X'
     Same as `C-g'.

`x'
     Quit interactive spell checking and move point back to where it was
     when you started spell checking.

`q'
     Quit interactive spell checking and kill the Ispell subprocess.

`C-l'
     Refresh the screen.

`C-z'
     This key has its normal command meaning (suspend Emacs or iconify
     this frame).

`?'
     Show the list of options.

   The command `ispell-complete-word', which is bound to the key
`M-<TAB>' in Text mode and related modes, shows a list of completions
based on spelling correction.  Insert the beginning of a word, and then
type `M-<TAB>'; the command displays a completion list window.  (If
your window manager intercepts `M-<TAB>', type `<ESC> <TAB>' or
`C-M-i'.)  To choose one of the completions listed, click `Mouse-2' or
`Mouse-1' fast on it, or move the cursor there in the completions
window and type <RET>.  *Note Text Mode::.

   Once started, the Aspell or Ispell subprocess continues to run
(waiting for something to do), so that subsequent spell checking
commands complete more quickly.  If you want to get rid of the process,
use `M-x ispell-kill-ispell'.  This is not usually necessary, since the
process uses no time except when you do spelling correction.

   Ispell and Aspell use two dictionaries together for spell checking:
the standard dictionary and your private dictionary.  The variable
`ispell-dictionary' specifies the file name to use for the standard
dictionary; a value of `nil' selects the default dictionary.  The
command `M-x ispell-change-dictionary' sets this variable and then
restarts the subprocess, so that it will use a different standard
dictionary.

   Aspell and Ispell use a separate dictionary for word completion.
The variable `ispell-complete-word-dict' specifies the file name of
this dictionary.  The completion dictionary must be different because
it cannot use root and affix information.  For some languages there is
a spell checking dictionary but no word completion dictionary.

File: emacs,  Node: Keyboard Macros,  Next: Files,  Prev: Fixit,  Up: Top

22 Keyboard Macros
******************

In this chapter we describe how to record a sequence of editing
commands so you can repeat it conveniently later.

   A "keyboard macro" is a command defined by an Emacs user to stand for
another sequence of keys.  For example, if you discover that you are
about to type `C-n M-d C-d' forty times, you can speed your work by
defining a keyboard macro to do `C-n M-d C-d', and then executing it 39
more times.

   You define a keyboard macro by executing and recording the commands
which are its definition.  Put differently, as you define a keyboard
macro, the definition is being executed for the first time.  This way,
you can see the effects of your commands, so that you don't have to
figure them out in your head.  When you close the definition, the
keyboard macro is defined and also has been, in effect, executed once.
You can then do the whole thing over again by invoking the macro.

   Keyboard macros differ from ordinary Emacs commands in that they are
written in the Emacs command language rather than in Lisp.  This makes
it easier for the novice to write them, and makes them more convenient
as temporary hacks.  However, the Emacs command language is not powerful
enough as a programming language to be useful for writing anything
intelligent or general.  For such things, Lisp must be used.

* Menu:

* Basic Keyboard Macro::     Defining and running keyboard macros.
* Keyboard Macro Ring::      Where previous keyboard macros are saved.
* Keyboard Macro Counter::   Inserting incrementing numbers in macros.
* Keyboard Macro Query::     Making keyboard macros do different things each time.
* Save Keyboard Macro::      Giving keyboard macros names; saving them in files.
* Edit Keyboard Macro::      Editing keyboard macros.
* Keyboard Macro Step-Edit:: Interactively executing and editing a keyboard
                               macro.

File: emacs,  Node: Basic Keyboard Macro,  Next: Keyboard Macro Ring,  Up: Keyboard Macros

22.1 Basic Use
==============

`<F3>'
`C-x ('
     Start defining a keyboard macro (`kmacro-start-macro').

`<F4>'
     If a keyboard macro is being defined, end the definition;
     otherwise, execute the most recent keyboard macro
     (`kmacro-end-or-call-macro').

`C-x )'
     End the definition of a keyboard macro (`kmacro-end-macro').

`C-x e'
     Execute the most recent keyboard macro
     (`kmacro-end-and-call-macro').  First end the definition of the
     keyboard macro, if currently defining it.  To immediately execute
     the keyboard macro again, just repeat the `e'.

`C-u C-x ('
     Re-execute last keyboard macro, then add more keys to its
     definition.

`C-u C-u C-x ('
     Add more keys to the last keyboard macro without re-executing it.

`C-x C-k r'
     Run the last keyboard macro on each line that begins in the region
     (`apply-macro-to-region-lines').

   To start defining a keyboard macro, type the `F3' or `C-x (' command
(`kmacro-start-macro').  From then on, your keys continue to be
executed, but also become part of the definition of the macro.  `Def'
appears in the mode line to remind you of what is going on.  When you
are finished, the `F4' or `C-x )' command (`kmacro-end-macro')
terminates the definition (without becoming part of it!).  For example,

     C-x ( M-f foo C-x )

defines a macro to move forward a word and then insert `foo'.

   The macro thus defined can be invoked again with the `C-x e' command
(`kmacro-end-and-call-macro'), which may be given a repeat count as a
numeric argument to execute the macro many times.  If you enter `C-x e'
while defining a macro, the macro is terminated and executed
immediately.

   After executing the macro with `C-x e', you can use `e' repeatedly
to immediately repeat the macro one or more times.  For example,

     C-x ( xyz C-x e e e

inserts `xyzxyzxyzxyz' in the current buffer.

   `C-x )' can also be given a repeat count as an argument, in which
case it repeats the macro that many times right after defining it, but
defining the macro counts as the first repetition (since it is executed
as you define it).  Therefore, giving `C-x )' an argument of 4 executes
the macro immediately 3 additional times.  An argument of zero to `C-x
e' or `C-x )' means repeat the macro indefinitely (until it gets an
error or you type `C-g' or, on MS-DOS, `C-<BREAK>').

   The key <F4> is like a combination of `C-x )' and `C-x e'.  If
you're defining a macro, <F4> ends the definition.  Otherwise it
executes the last macro.  For example,

     F3 xyz F4 F4 F4

inserts `xyzxyzxyz' in the current buffer.

   If you wish to repeat an operation at regularly spaced places in the
text, define a macro and include as part of the macro the commands to
move to the next place you want to use it.  For example, if you want to
change each line, you should position point at the start of a line, and
define a macro to change that line and leave point at the start of the
next line.  Then repeating the macro will operate on successive lines.

   When a command reads an argument with the minibuffer, your
minibuffer input becomes part of the macro along with the command.  So
when you replay the macro, the command gets the same argument as when
you entered the macro.  For example,

     C-x ( C-a C-<SPC> C-n M-w C-x b f o o <RET> C-y C-x b <RET> C-x )

defines a macro that copies the current line into the buffer `foo',
then returns to the original buffer.

   You can use function keys in a keyboard macro, just like keyboard
keys.  You can even use mouse events, but be careful about that: when
the macro replays the mouse event, it uses the original mouse position
of that event, the position that the mouse had while you were defining
the macro.  The effect of this may be hard to predict.  (Using the
current mouse position would be even less predictable.)

   One thing that sometimes works badly in a keyboard macro is the
command `C-M-c' (`exit-recursive-edit').  When this command exits a
recursive edit that started within the macro, it works as you'd expect.
But if it exits a recursive edit that started before you invoked the
keyboard macro, it also necessarily exits the keyboard macro as part of
the process.

   After you have terminated the definition of a keyboard macro, you
can add to the end of its definition by typing `C-u F3' or `C-u C-x ('.
This is equivalent to plain `C-x (' followed by retyping the whole
definition so far.  As a consequence it re-executes the macro as
previously defined.

   You can also add to the end of the definition of the last keyboard
macro without re-executing it by typing `C-u C-u C-x ('.

   The variable `kmacro-execute-before-append' specifies whether a
single `C-u' prefix causes the existing macro to be re-executed before
appending to it.

   The command `C-x C-k r' (`apply-macro-to-region-lines') repeats the
last defined keyboard macro on each line that begins in the region.  It
does this line by line, by moving point to the beginning of the line
and then executing the macro.

File: emacs,  Node: Keyboard Macro Ring,  Next: Keyboard Macro Counter,  Prev: Basic Keyboard Macro,  Up: Keyboard Macros

22.2 The Keyboard Macro Ring
============================

All defined keyboard macros are recorded in the "keyboard macro ring,"
a list of sequences of keys.  There is only one keyboard macro ring,
shared by all buffers.

`C-x C-k C-k'
     Execute the keyboard macro at the head of the ring
     (`kmacro-end-or-call-macro-repeat').

`C-x C-k C-n'
     Rotate the keyboard macro ring to the next macro (defined earlier)
     (`kmacro-cycle-ring-next').

`C-x C-k C-p'
     Rotate the keyboard macro ring to the previous macro (defined
     later) (`kmacro-cycle-ring-previous').

   All commands which operate on the keyboard macro ring use the same
`C-x C-k' prefix.  Most of these commands can be executed and repeated
immediately after each other without repeating the `C-x C-k' prefix.
For example,

     C-x C-k C-p C-p C-k C-k C-k C-n C-n C-k C-p C-k C-d

will rotate the keyboard macro ring to the "second previous" macro,
execute the resulting head macro three times, rotate back to the
original head macro, execute that once, rotate to the "previous" macro,
execute that, and finally delete it from the macro ring.

   The command `C-x C-k C-k' (`kmacro-end-or-call-macro-repeat')
executes the keyboard macro at the head of the macro ring.  You can
repeat the macro immediately by typing another `C-k', or you can rotate
the macro ring immediately by typing `C-n' or `C-p'.

   When a keyboard macro is being defined, `C-x C-k C-k' behaves like
`C-x )' except that, immediately afterward, you can use most key
bindings of this section without the `C-x C-k' prefix.  For instance,
another `C-k' will re-execute the macro.

   The commands `C-x C-k C-n' (`kmacro-cycle-ring-next') and `C-x C-k
C-p' (`kmacro-cycle-ring-previous') rotate the macro ring, bringing the
next or previous keyboard macro to the head of the macro ring.  The
definition of the new head macro is displayed in the echo area.  You
can continue to rotate the macro ring immediately by repeating just
`C-n' and `C-p' until the desired macro is at the head of the ring.  To
execute the new macro ring head immediately, just type `C-k'.

   Note that Emacs treats the head of the macro ring as the "last
defined keyboard macro."  For instance, `C-x e' will execute that
macro, and `C-x C-k n' will give it a name.

   The maximum number of macros stored in the keyboard macro ring is
determined by the customizable variable `kmacro-ring-max'.

File: emacs,  Node: Keyboard Macro Counter,  Next: Keyboard Macro Query,  Prev: Keyboard Macro Ring,  Up: Keyboard Macros

22.3 The Keyboard Macro Counter
===============================

`C-x C-k C-i'
     Insert the keyboard macro counter value in the buffer
     (`kmacro-insert-counter').

`C-x C-k C-c'
     Set the keyboard macro counter (`kmacro-set-counter').

`C-x C-k C-a'
     Add the prefix arg to the keyboard macro counter
     (`kmacro-add-counter').

`C-x C-k C-f'
     Specify the format for inserting the keyboard macro counter
     (`kmacro-set-format').

   Each keyboard macro has an associated counter.  Normally, the macro
counter is initialized to 0 when you start defining the macro, and
incremented by 1 after each insertion of the counter value; that is, if
you insert the macro counter twice while defining the macro, the
counter will increase by 2 on each repetition of the macro.

   The command `C-x C-k C-i' (`kmacro-insert-counter') inserts the
current value of the current keyboard macro's counter, and increments
the counter by 1.  You can use a numeric prefix argument to specify a
different increment.  If you just specify a `C-u' prefix, then the
increment is zero, so it repeats the last inserted counter value.  For
example, if you enter the following sequence while defining a macro

     C-x C-k C-i C-x C-k C-i C-u C-x C-k C-i C-x C-k C-i

it inserts `0112' in the buffer.  The next two iterations of the macro
will insert `3445' and `6778'.

   This command usually only makes sense while defining a keyboard
macro.  But its behavior when no keyboard macro is being defined or
executed is predictable: it inserts and increments the counter of the
macro at the head of the keyboard macro ring.

   The command `C-x C-k C-c' (`kmacro-set-counter') sets the current
macro counter to the value of the numeric argument.  If you use it
inside the macro, it operates on each repetition of the macro.  If you
specify just `C-u' as the prefix, while executing the macro, that
resets the counter to the value it had at the beginning of the current
repetition of the macro (undoing any increments so far in this
repetition).

   The command `C-x C-k C-a' (`kmacro-add-counter') adds the prefix
argument to the current macro counter.  With just `C-u' as argument, it
resets the counter to the last value inserted by any keyboard macro.
(Normally, when you use this, the last insertion will be in the same
macro and it will be the same counter.)

   The command `C-x C-k C-f' (`kmacro-set-format') prompts for the
format to use when inserting the macro counter.  The default format is
`%d', which means to insert the number in decimal without any padding.
You can exit with empty minibuffer to reset the format to this default.
You can specify any format string that the `format' function accepts
and that makes sense with a single integer extra argument (*note
Formatting Strings: (elisp)Formatting Strings.).  Do not put the format
string inside double quotes when you insert it in the minibuffer.

   If you use this command while no keyboard macro is being defined or
executed, the new format affects all subsequent macro definitions.
Existing macros continue to use the format in effect when they were
defined.  If you set the format while defining a keyboard macro, this
affects the macro being defined from that point on, but it does not
affect subsequent macros.  Execution of the macro will, at each step,
use the format in effect at that step during its definition.  Changes
to the macro format during execution of a macro, like the corresponding
changes during its definition, have no effect on subsequent macros.

   The format set by `C-x C-k C-f' does not affect insertion of numbers
stored in registers.

File: emacs,  Node: Keyboard Macro Query,  Next: Save Keyboard Macro,  Prev: Keyboard Macro Counter,  Up: Keyboard Macros

22.4 Executing Macros with Variations
=====================================

`C-x q'
     When this point is reached during macro execution, ask for
     confirmation (`kbd-macro-query').

   Using `C-x q' (`kbd-macro-query'), you can get an effect similar to
that of `query-replace', where the macro asks you each time around
whether to make a change.  While defining the macro, type `C-x q' at
the point where you want the query to occur.  During macro definition,
the `C-x q' does nothing, but when you run the macro later, `C-x q'
asks you interactively whether to continue.

   The valid responses when `C-x q' asks are <SPC> (or `y'), <DEL> (or
`n'), <RET> (or `q'), `C-l' and `C-r'.  The answers are the same as in
`query-replace', though not all of the `query-replace' options are
meaningful.

   These responses include <SPC> to continue, and <DEL> to skip the
remainder of this repetition of the macro and start right away with the
next repetition.  <RET> means to skip the remainder of this repetition
and cancel further repetitions.  `C-l' redraws the screen and asks you
again for a character to say what to do.

   `C-r' enters a recursive editing level, in which you can perform
editing which is not part of the macro.  When you exit the recursive
edit using `C-M-c', you are asked again how to continue with the
keyboard macro.  If you type a <SPC> at this time, the rest of the
macro definition is executed.  It is up to you to leave point and the
text in a state such that the rest of the macro will do what you want.

   `C-u C-x q', which is `C-x q' with a numeric argument, performs a
completely different function.  It enters a recursive edit reading
input from the keyboard, both when you type it during the definition of
the macro, and when it is executed from the macro.  During definition,
the editing you do inside the recursive edit does not become part of
the macro.  During macro execution, the recursive edit gives you a
chance to do some particularized editing on each repetition.  *Note
Recursive Edit::.

   Another way to vary the behavior of a keyboard macro is to use a
register as a counter, incrementing it on each repetition of the macro.
*Note RegNumbers::.

File: emacs,  Node: Save Keyboard Macro,  Next: Edit Keyboard Macro,  Prev: Keyboard Macro Query,  Up: Keyboard Macros

22.5 Naming and Saving Keyboard Macros
======================================

`C-x C-k n'
     Give a command name (for the duration of the Emacs session) to the
     most recently defined keyboard macro (`kmacro-name-last-macro').

`C-x C-k b'
     Bind the most recently defined keyboard macro to a key sequence
     (for the duration of the session) (`kmacro-bind-to-key').

`M-x insert-kbd-macro'
     Insert in the buffer a keyboard macro's definition, as Lisp code.

   If you wish to save a keyboard macro for later use, you can give it
a name using `C-x C-k n' (`kmacro-name-last-macro').  This reads a name
as an argument using the minibuffer and defines that name to execute
the last keyboard macro, in its current form.  (If you later add to the
definition of this macro, that does not alter the name's definition as
a macro.)  The macro name is a Lisp symbol, and defining it in this way
makes it a valid command name for calling with `M-x' or for binding a
key to with `global-set-key' (*note Keymaps::).  If you specify a name
that has a prior definition other than a keyboard macro, an error
message is shown and nothing is changed.

   You can also bind the last keyboard macro (in its current form) to a
key, using `C-x C-k b' (`kmacro-bind-to-key') followed by the key
sequence you want to bind.  You can bind to any key sequence in the
global keymap, but since most key sequences already have other
bindings, you should select the key sequence carefully.  If you try to
bind to a key sequence with an existing binding (in any keymap), this
command asks you for confirmation before replacing the existing binding.

   To avoid problems caused by overriding existing bindings, the key
sequences `C-x C-k 0' through `C-x C-k 9' and `C-x C-k A' through `C-x
C-k Z' are reserved for your own keyboard macro bindings.  In fact, to
bind to one of these key sequences, you only need to type the digit or
letter rather than the whole key sequences.  For example,

     C-x C-k b 4

will bind the last keyboard macro to the key sequence `C-x C-k 4'.

   Once a macro has a command name, you can save its definition in a
file.  Then it can be used in another editing session.  First, visit
the file you want to save the definition in.  Then use this command:

     M-x insert-kbd-macro <RET> MACRONAME <RET>

This inserts some Lisp code that, when executed later, will define the
same macro with the same definition it has now.  (You need not
understand Lisp code to do this, because `insert-kbd-macro' writes the
Lisp code for you.)  Then save the file.  You can load the file later
with `load-file' (*note Lisp Libraries::).  If the file you save in is
your init file `~/.emacs' (*note Init File::) then the macro will be
defined each time you run Emacs.

   If you give `insert-kbd-macro' a numeric argument, it makes
additional Lisp code to record the keys (if any) that you have bound to
MACRONAME, so that the macro will be reassigned the same keys when you
load the file.

File: emacs,  Node: Edit Keyboard Macro,  Next: Keyboard Macro Step-Edit,  Prev: Save Keyboard Macro,  Up: Keyboard Macros

22.6 Editing a Keyboard Macro
=============================

`C-x C-k C-e'
     Edit the last defined keyboard macro (`kmacro-edit-macro').

`C-x C-k e NAME <RET>'
     Edit a previously defined keyboard macro NAME (`edit-kbd-macro').

`C-x C-k l'
     Edit the last 100 keystrokes as a keyboard macro
     (`kmacro-edit-lossage').

   You can edit the last keyboard macro by typing `C-x C-k C-e' or `C-x
C-k RET' (`kmacro-edit-macro').  This formats the macro definition in a
buffer and enters a specialized major mode for editing it.  Type `C-h
m' once in that buffer to display details of how to edit the macro.
When you are finished editing, type `C-c C-c'.

   You can edit a named keyboard macro or a macro bound to a key by
typing `C-x C-k e' (`edit-kbd-macro').  Follow that with the keyboard
input that you would use to invoke the macro--`C-x e' or `M-x NAME' or
some other key sequence.

   You can edit the last 100 keystrokes as a macro by typing `C-x C-k
l' (`kmacro-edit-lossage').

File: emacs,  Node: Keyboard Macro Step-Edit,  Prev: Edit Keyboard Macro,  Up: Keyboard Macros

22.7 Stepwise Editing a Keyboard Macro
======================================

You can interactively replay and edit the last keyboard macro, one
command at a time, by typing `C-x C-k SPC' (`kmacro-step-edit-macro').
Unless you quit the macro using `q' or `C-g', the edited macro replaces
the last macro on the macro ring.

   This macro editing feature shows the last macro in the minibuffer
together with the first (or next) command to be executed, and prompts
you for an action.  You can enter `?' to get a summary of your options.
These actions are available:

   * `SPC' and `y' execute the current command, and advance to the next
     command in the keyboard macro.

   * `n', `d', and `DEL' skip and delete the current command.

   * `f' skips the current command in this execution of the keyboard
     macro, but doesn't delete it from the macro.

   * `<TAB>' executes the current command, as well as all similar
     commands immediately following the current command; for example,
     <TAB> may be used to insert a sequence of characters
     (corresponding to a sequence of `self-insert-command' commands).

   * `c' continues execution (without further editing) until the end of
     the keyboard macro.  If execution terminates normally, the edited
     macro replaces the original keyboard macro.

   * `C-k' skips and deletes the rest of the keyboard macro, terminates
     step-editing, and replaces the original keyboard macro with the
     edited macro.

   * `q' and `C-g' cancels the step-editing of the keyboard macro;
     discarding any changes made to the keyboard macro.

   * `i KEY... C-j' reads and executes a series of key sequences (not
     including the final `C-j'), and inserts them before the current
     command in the keyboard macro, without advancing over the current
     command.

   * `I KEY...' reads one key sequence, executes it, and inserts it
     before the current command in the keyboard macro, without advancing
     over the current command.

   * `r KEY... C-j' reads and executes a series of key sequences (not
     including the final `C-j'), and replaces the current command in
     the keyboard macro with them, advancing over the inserted key
     sequences.

   * `R KEY...' reads one key sequence, executes it, and replaces the
     current command in the keyboard macro with that key sequence,
     advancing over the inserted key sequence.

   * `a KEY... C-j' executes the current command, then reads and
     executes a series of key sequences (not including the final
     `C-j'), and inserts them after the current command in the keyboard
     macro; it then advances over the current command and the inserted
     key sequences.

   * `A KEY... C-j' executes the rest of the commands in the keyboard
     macro, then reads and executes a series of key sequences (not
     including the final `C-j'), and appends them at the end of the
     keyboard macro; it then terminates the step-editing and replaces
     the original keyboard macro with the edited macro.

File: emacs,  Node: Files,  Next: Buffers,  Prev: Keyboard Macros,  Up: Top

23 File Handling
****************

The operating system stores data permanently in named "files", so most
of the text you edit with Emacs comes from a file and is ultimately
stored in a file.

   To edit a file, you must tell Emacs to read the file and prepare a
buffer containing a copy of the file's text.  This is called "visiting"
the file.  Editing commands apply directly to text in the buffer; that
is, to the copy inside Emacs.  Your changes appear in the file itself
only when you "save" the buffer back into the file.

   In addition to visiting and saving files, Emacs can delete, copy,
rename, and append to files, keep multiple versions of them, and operate
on file directories.

* Menu:

* File Names::          How to type and edit file-name arguments.
* Visiting::            Visiting a file prepares Emacs to edit the file.
* Saving::              Saving makes your changes permanent.
* Reverting::           Reverting cancels all the changes not saved.

* Autorevert::          Auto Reverting non-file buffers.
* Auto Save::           Auto Save periodically protects against loss of data.
* File Aliases::        Handling multiple names for one file.
* Version Control::     Version control systems (RCS, CVS and SCCS).
* Directories::         Creating, deleting, and listing file directories.
* Comparing Files::     Finding where two files differ.
* Diff Mode::           Mode for editing file differences.
* Misc File Ops::       Other things you can do on files.
* Compressed Files::    Accessing compressed files.
* File Archives::       Operating on tar, zip, jar etc. archive files.
* Remote Files::        Accessing files on other sites.
* Quoted File Names::   Quoting special characters in file names.
* File Name Cache::     Completion against a list of files you often use.
* File Conveniences::   Convenience Features for Finding Files.
* Filesets::            Handling sets of files.

File: emacs,  Node: File Names,  Next: Visiting,  Up: Files

23.1 File Names
===============

Most Emacs commands that operate on a file require you to specify the
file name.  (Saving and reverting are exceptions; the buffer knows which
file name to use for them.)  You enter the file name using the
minibuffer (*note Minibuffer::).  "Completion" is available (*note
Completion::) to make it easier to specify long file names.  When
completing file names, Emacs ignores those whose file-name extensions
appear in the variable `completion-ignored-extensions'; see *note
Completion Options::.

   For most operations, there is a "default file name" which is used if
you type just <RET> to enter an empty argument.  Normally the default
file name is the name of the file visited in the current buffer; this
makes it easy to operate on that file with any of the Emacs file
commands.

   Each buffer has a default directory which is normally the same as the
directory of the file visited in that buffer.  When you enter a file
name without a directory, the default directory is used.  If you specify
a directory in a relative fashion, with a name that does not start with
a slash, it is interpreted with respect to the default directory.  The
default directory is kept in the variable `default-directory', which
has a separate value in every buffer.

   The command `M-x pwd' displays the current buffer's default
directory, and the command `M-x cd' sets it (to a value read using the
minibuffer).  A buffer's default directory changes only when the `cd'
command is used.  A file-visiting buffer's default directory is
initialized to the directory of the file it visits.  If you create a
buffer with `C-x b', its default directory is copied from that of the
buffer that was current at the time.

   For example, if the default file name is `/u/rms/gnu/gnu.tasks' then
the default directory is normally `/u/rms/gnu/'.  If you type just
`foo', which does not specify a directory, it is short for
`/u/rms/gnu/foo'.  `../.login' would stand for `/u/rms/.login'.
`new/foo' would stand for the file name `/u/rms/gnu/new/foo'.

   The default directory actually appears in the minibuffer when the
minibuffer becomes active to read a file name.  This serves two
purposes: it _shows_ you what the default is, so that you can type a
relative file name and know with certainty what it will mean, and it
allows you to _edit_ the default to specify a different directory.
This insertion of the default directory is inhibited if the variable
`insert-default-directory' is set to `nil'.

   Note that it is legitimate to type an absolute file name after you
enter the minibuffer, ignoring the presence of the default directory
name as part of the text.  The final minibuffer contents may look
invalid, but that is not so.  For example, if the minibuffer starts out
with `/usr/tmp/' and you add `/x1/rms/foo', you get
`/usr/tmp//x1/rms/foo'; but Emacs ignores everything through the first
slash in the double slash; the result is `/x1/rms/foo'.  *Note
Minibuffer File::.

   You can use `~/' in a file name to mean your home directory, or
`~USER-ID/' to mean the home directory of a user whose login name is
`user-id'(1).

   `$' in a file name is used to substitute an environment variable.
The environment variable name consists of all the alphanumeric
characters after the `$'; alternatively, it can be enclosed in braces
after the `$'.  For example, if you have used the shell command `export
FOO=rms/hacks' to set up an environment variable named `FOO', then you
can use `/u/$FOO/test.c' or `/u/${FOO}/test.c' as an abbreviation for
`/u/rms/hacks/test.c'.  If the environment variable is not defined, no
substitution occurs: `/u/$notdefined' stands for itself (assuming the
environment variable `notdefined' is not defined).

   Note that shell commands to set environment variables affect Emacs
only when done before Emacs is started.

   To access a file with `$' in its name, if the `$' causes expansion,
type `$$'.  This pair is converted to a single `$' at the same time as
variable substitution is performed for a single `$'.  Alternatively,
quote the whole file name with `/:' (*note Quoted File Names::).  File
names which begin with a literal `~' should also be quoted with `/:'.

   The Lisp function that performs the `$'-substitution is called
`substitute-in-file-name'.  The substitution is performed only on file
names read as such using the minibuffer.

   You can include non-ASCII characters in file names if you set the
variable `file-name-coding-system' to a non-`nil' value.  *Note File
Name Coding::.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) On MS-Windows and MS-DOS systems, where a user doesn't have a
home directory, Emacs replaces `~/' with the value of the environment
variable `HOME'; see *note General Variables::.  On these systems, the
`~USER-ID/' construct is supported only for the current user, i.e.,
only if USER-ID is the current user's login name.

File: emacs,  Node: Visiting,  Next: Saving,  Prev: File Names,  Up: Files

23.2 Visiting Files
===================

`C-x C-f'
     Visit a file (`find-file').

`C-x C-r'
     Visit a file for viewing, without allowing changes to it
     (`find-file-read-only').

`C-x C-v'
     Visit a different file instead of the one visited last
     (`find-alternate-file').

`C-x 4 f'
     Visit a file, in another window (`find-file-other-window').  Don't
     alter what is displayed in the selected window.

`C-x 5 f'
     Visit a file, in a new frame (`find-file-other-frame').  Don't
     alter what is displayed in the selected frame.

`M-x find-file-literally'
     Visit a file with no conversion of the contents.

   "Visiting" a file means reading its contents into an Emacs buffer so
you can edit them.  Emacs makes a new buffer for each file that you
visit.  We often say that this buffer "is visiting" that file, or that
the buffer's "visited file" is that file.  Emacs constructs the buffer
name from the file name by throwing away the directory, keeping just
the name proper.  For example, a file named `/usr/rms/emacs.tex' would
get a buffer named `emacs.tex'.  If there is already a buffer with that
name, Emacs constructs a unique name--the normal method is to append
`<2>', `<3>', and so on, but you can select other methods (*note
Uniquify::).

   Each window's mode line shows the name of the buffer that is being
displayed in that window, so you can always tell what buffer you are
editing.

   The changes you make with editing commands are made in the Emacs
buffer.  They do not take effect in the file that you visited, or any
permanent place, until you "save" the buffer.  Saving the buffer means
that Emacs writes the current contents of the buffer into its visited
file.  *Note Saving::.

   If a buffer contains changes that have not been saved, we say the
buffer is "modified".  This is important because it implies that some
changes will be lost if the buffer is not saved.  The mode line
displays two stars near the left margin to indicate that the buffer is
modified.

   To visit a file, use the command `C-x C-f' (`find-file').  Follow
the command with the name of the file you wish to visit, terminated by a
<RET>.

   The file name is read using the minibuffer (*note Minibuffer::), with
defaulting and completion in the standard manner (*note File Names::).
While in the minibuffer, you can abort `C-x C-f' by typing `C-g'.
File-name completion ignores certain file names; for more about this,
see *note Completion Options::.

   Your confirmation that `C-x C-f' has completed successfully is the
appearance of new text on the screen and a new buffer name in the mode
line.  If the specified file does not exist and you could not create
it, or exists but you can't read it, then you get an error, with an
error message displayed in the echo area.

   If you visit a file that is already in Emacs, `C-x C-f' does not make
another copy.  It selects the existing buffer containing that file.
However, before doing so, it checks whether the file itself has changed
since you visited or saved it last.  If the file has changed, Emacs
offers to reread it.

   If you try to visit a file larger than
`large-file-warning-threshold' (the default is 10000000, which is about
10 megabytes), Emacs will ask you for confirmation first.  You can
answer `y' to proceed with visiting the file.  Note, however, that
Emacs cannot visit files that are larger than the maximum Emacs buffer
size, which is around 256 megabytes on 32-bit machines (*note
Buffers::).  If you try, Emacs will display an error message saying
that the maximum buffer size has been exceeded.

   On graphical displays there are two additional methods for visiting
files.  Firstly, when Emacs is built with a suitable GUI toolkit,
commands invoked with the mouse (by clicking on the menu bar or tool
bar) use the toolkit's standard File Selection dialog instead of
prompting for the file name in the minibuffer.  On Unix and GNU/Linux
platforms, Emacs does that when built with GTK, LessTif, and Motif
toolkits; on MS-Windows and Mac, the GUI version does that by default.
For information on how to customize this, see *note Dialog Boxes::.

   Secondly, Emacs supports "drag and drop"; dropping a file into an
ordinary Emacs window visits the file using that window.  However,
dropping a file into a window displaying a Dired buffer moves or copies
the file into the displayed directory.  For details, see *note Drag and
Drop::, and *note Misc Dired Features::.

   What if you want to create a new file?  Just visit it.  Emacs
displays `(New file)' in the echo area, but in other respects behaves
as if you had visited an existing empty file.  If you make any changes
and save them, the file is created.

   Emacs recognizes from the contents of a file which end-of-line
convention it uses to separate lines--newline (used on GNU/Linux and on
Unix), carriage-return linefeed (used on Microsoft systems), or just
carriage-return (used on the Macintosh)--and automatically converts the
contents to the normal Emacs convention, which is that the newline
character separates lines.  This is a part of the general feature of
coding system conversion (*note Coding Systems::), and makes it
possible to edit files imported from different operating systems with
equal convenience.  If you change the text and save the file, Emacs
performs the inverse conversion, changing newlines back into
carriage-return linefeed or just carriage-return if appropriate.

   If the file you specify is actually a directory, `C-x C-f' invokes
Dired, the Emacs directory browser, so that you can "edit" the contents
of the directory (*note Dired::).  Dired is a convenient way to view,
delete, or operate on the files in the directory.  However, if the
variable `find-file-run-dired' is `nil', then it is an error to try to
visit a directory.

   Files which are actually collections of other files, or "file
archives", are visited in special modes which invoke a Dired-like
environment to allow operations on archive members.  *Note File
Archives::, for more about these features.

   If the file name you specify contains shell-style wildcard
characters, Emacs visits all the files that match it.  (On
case-insensitive filesystems, Emacs matches the wildcards disregarding
the letter case.)  Wildcards include `?', `*', and `[...]' sequences.
To enter the wild card `?' in a file name in the minibuffer, you need
to type `C-q ?'.  *Note Quoted File Names::, for information on how to
visit a file whose name actually contains wildcard characters.  You can
disable the wildcard feature by customizing `find-file-wildcards'.

   If you visit a file that the operating system won't let you modify,
or that is marked read-only, Emacs makes the buffer read-only too, so
that you won't go ahead and make changes that you'll have trouble
saving afterward.  You can make the buffer writable with `C-x C-q'
(`toggle-read-only').  *Note Misc Buffer::.

   If you want to visit a file as read-only in order to protect
yourself from entering changes accidentally, visit it with the command
`C-x C-r' (`find-file-read-only') instead of `C-x C-f'.

   If you visit a nonexistent file unintentionally (because you typed
the wrong file name), use the `C-x C-v' command (`find-alternate-file')
to visit the file you really wanted.  `C-x C-v' is similar to `C-x
C-f', but it kills the current buffer (after first offering to save it
if it is modified).  When `C-x C-v' reads the file name to visit, it
inserts the entire default file name in the buffer, with point just
after the directory part; this is convenient if you made a slight error
in typing the name.

   `C-x 4 f' (`find-file-other-window') is like `C-x C-f' except that
the buffer containing the specified file is selected in another window.
The window that was selected before `C-x 4 f' continues to show the
same buffer it was already showing.  If this command is used when only
one window is being displayed, that window is split in two, with one
window showing the same buffer as before, and the other one showing the
newly requested file.  *Note Windows::.

   `C-x 5 f' (`find-file-other-frame') is similar, but opens a new
frame, or makes visible any existing frame showing the file you seek.
This feature is available only when you are using a window system.
*Note Frames::.

   If you wish to edit a file as a sequence of ASCII characters with no
special encoding or conversion, use the `M-x find-file-literally'
command.  It visits a file, like `C-x C-f', but does not do format
conversion (*note Formatted Text::), character code conversion (*note
Coding Systems::), or automatic uncompression (*note Compressed
Files::), and does not add a final newline because of
`require-final-newline'.  If you already have visited the same file in
the usual (non-literal) manner, this command asks you whether to visit
it literally instead.

   Two special hook variables allow extensions to modify the operation
of visiting files.  Visiting a file that does not exist runs the
functions in the list `find-file-not-found-functions'; this variable
holds a list of functions, and the functions are called one by one
(with no arguments) until one of them returns non-`nil'.  This is not a
normal hook, and the name ends in `-functions' rather than `-hook' to
indicate that fact.

   Successful visiting of any file, whether existing or not, calls the
functions in the list `find-file-hook', with no arguments.  This
variable is a normal hook.  In the case of a nonexistent file, the
`find-file-not-found-functions' are run first.  *Note Hooks::.

   There are several ways to specify automatically the major mode for
editing the file (*note Choosing Modes::), and to specify local
variables defined for that file (*note File Variables::).

File: emacs,  Node: Saving,  Next: Reverting,  Prev: Visiting,  Up: Files

23.3 Saving Files
=================

"Saving" a buffer in Emacs means writing its contents back into the file
that was visited in the buffer.

* Menu:

* Save Commands::       Commands for saving files.
* Backup::              How Emacs saves the old version of your file.
* Customize Save::      Customizing the saving of files.
* Interlocking::        How Emacs protects against simultaneous editing
                          of one file by two users.
* Shadowing: File Shadowing.  Copying files to "shadows" automatically.
* Time Stamps::         Emacs can update time stamps on saved files.

File: emacs,  Node: Save Commands,  Next: Backup,  Up: Saving

23.3.1 Commands for Saving Files
--------------------------------

These are the commands that relate to saving and writing files.

`C-x C-s'
     Save the current buffer in its visited file on disk
     (`save-buffer').

`C-x s'
     Save any or all buffers in their visited files
     (`save-some-buffers').

`M-~'
     Forget that the current buffer has been changed (`not-modified').
     With prefix argument (`C-u'), mark the current buffer as changed.

`C-x C-w'
     Save the current buffer with a specified file name (`write-file').

`M-x set-visited-file-name'
     Change the file name under which the current buffer will be saved.

   When you wish to save the file and make your changes permanent, type
`C-x C-s' (`save-buffer').  After saving is finished, `C-x C-s'
displays a message like this:

     Wrote /u/rms/gnu/gnu.tasks

If the selected buffer is not modified (no changes have been made in it
since the buffer was created or last saved), saving is not really done,
because it would have no effect.  Instead, `C-x C-s' displays a message
like this in the echo area:

     (No changes need to be saved)

   The command `C-x s' (`save-some-buffers') offers to save any or all
modified buffers.  It asks you what to do with each buffer.  The
possible responses are analogous to those of `query-replace':

`y'
     Save this buffer and ask about the rest of the buffers.

`n'
     Don't save this buffer, but ask about the rest of the buffers.

`!'
     Save this buffer and all the rest with no more questions.

`<RET>'
     Terminate `save-some-buffers' without any more saving.

`.'
     Save this buffer, then exit `save-some-buffers' without even asking
     about other buffers.

`C-r'
     View the buffer that you are currently being asked about.  When
     you exit View mode, you get back to `save-some-buffers', which
     asks the question again.

`d'
     Diff the buffer against its corresponding file, so you can see
     what changes you would be saving.

`C-h'
     Display a help message about these options.

   `C-x C-c', the key sequence to exit Emacs, invokes
`save-some-buffers' and therefore asks the same questions.

   If you have changed a buffer but you do not want to save the changes,
you should take some action to prevent it.  Otherwise, each time you use
`C-x s' or `C-x C-c', you are liable to save this buffer by mistake.
One thing you can do is type `M-~' (`not-modified'), which clears out
the indication that the buffer is modified.  If you do this, none of
the save commands will believe that the buffer needs to be saved.  (`~'
is often used as a mathematical symbol for `not'; thus `M-~' is `not',
metafied.)  You could also use `set-visited-file-name' (see below) to
mark the buffer as visiting a different file name, one which is not in
use for anything important.  Alternatively, you can cancel all the
changes made since the file was visited or saved, by reading the text
from the file again.  This is called "reverting".  *Note Reverting::.
(You could also undo all the changes by repeating the undo command `C-x
u' until you have undone all the changes; but reverting is easier.)
You can also kill the buffer.

   `M-x set-visited-file-name' alters the name of the file that the
current buffer is visiting.  It reads the new file name using the
minibuffer.  Then it marks the buffer as visiting that file name, and
changes the buffer name correspondingly.  `set-visited-file-name' does
not save the buffer in the newly visited file; it just alters the
records inside Emacs in case you do save later.  It also marks the
buffer as "modified" so that `C-x C-s' in that buffer _will_ save.

   If you wish to mark the buffer as visiting a different file and save
it right away, use `C-x C-w' (`write-file').  It is equivalent to
`set-visited-file-name' followed by `C-x C-s' (except that `C-x C-w'
asks for confirmation if the file exists).  `C-x C-s' used on a buffer
that is not visiting a file has the same effect as `C-x C-w'; that is,
it reads a file name, marks the buffer as visiting that file, and saves
it there.  The default file name in a buffer that is not visiting a
file is made by combining the buffer name with the buffer's default
directory (*note File Names::).

   If the new file name implies a major mode, then `C-x C-w' switches
to that major mode, in most cases.  The command `set-visited-file-name'
also does this.  *Note Choosing Modes::.

   If Emacs is about to save a file and sees that the date of the latest
version on disk does not match what Emacs last read or wrote, Emacs
notifies you of this fact, because it probably indicates a problem
caused by simultaneous editing and requires your immediate attention.
*Note Simultaneous Editing: Interlocking.

File: emacs,  Node: Backup,  Next: Customize Save,  Prev: Save Commands,  Up: Saving

23.3.2 Backup Files
-------------------

On most operating systems, rewriting a file automatically destroys all
record of what the file used to contain.  Thus, saving a file from Emacs
throws away the old contents of the file--or it would, except that
Emacs carefully copies the old contents to another file, called the
"backup" file, before actually saving.

   For most files, the variable `make-backup-files' determines whether
to make backup files.  On most operating systems, its default value is
`t', so that Emacs does write backup files.

   For files managed by a version control system (*note Version
Control::), the variable `vc-make-backup-files' determines whether to
make backup files.  By default it is `nil', since backup files are
redundant when you store all the previous versions in a version control
system.  *Note General VC Options::.

   At your option, Emacs can keep either a single backup for each file,
or make a series of numbered backup files for each file that you edit.

   The default value of the `backup-enable-predicate' variable prevents
backup files being written for files in the directories used for
temporary files, specified by `temporary-file-directory' or
`small-temporary-file-directory'.

   Emacs makes a backup for a file only the first time the file is saved
from one buffer.  No matter how many times you save a file, its backup
file continues to contain the contents from before the file was visited.
Normally this means that the backup file contains the contents from
before the current editing session; however, if you kill the buffer and
then visit the file again, a new backup file will be made by the next
save.

   You can also explicitly request making another backup file from a
buffer even though it has already been saved at least once.  If you save
the buffer with `C-u C-x C-s', the version thus saved will be made into
a backup file if you save the buffer again.  `C-u C-u C-x C-s' saves
the buffer, but first makes the previous file contents into a new
backup file.  `C-u C-u C-u C-x C-s' does both things: it makes a backup
from the previous contents, and arranges to make another from the newly
saved contents if you save again.

* Menu:

* One or Many: Numbered Backups. Whether to make one backup file or many.
* Names: Backup Names.		How backup files are named.
* Deletion: Backup Deletion.	Emacs deletes excess numbered backups.
* Copying: Backup Copying.	Backups can be made by copying or renaming.

File: emacs,  Node: Numbered Backups,  Next: Backup Names,  Up: Backup

23.3.2.1 Numbered Backups
.........................

The choice of single backup file or multiple numbered backup files is
controlled by the variable `version-control'.  Its possible values are:

`t'
     Make numbered backups.

`nil'
     Make numbered backups for files that have numbered backups already.
     Otherwise, make single backups.

`never'
     Never make numbered backups; always make single backups.

The usual way to set this variable is globally, through your `.emacs'
file or the customization buffer.  However, you can set
`version-control' locally in an individual buffer to control the making
of backups for that buffer's file.  For example, Rmail mode locally
sets `version-control' to `never' to make sure that there is only one
backup for an Rmail file.  *Note Locals::.

   If you set the environment variable `VERSION_CONTROL', to tell
various GNU utilities what to do with backup files, Emacs also obeys the
environment variable by setting the Lisp variable `version-control'
accordingly at startup.  If the environment variable's value is `t' or
`numbered', then `version-control' becomes `t'; if the value is `nil'
or `existing', then `version-control' becomes `nil'; if it is `never'
or `simple', then `version-control' becomes `never'.

File: emacs,  Node: Backup Names,  Next: Backup Deletion,  Prev: Numbered Backups,  Up: Backup

23.3.2.2 Single or Numbered Backups
............