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man : emacs-mime

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File: emacs-mime,  Node: Top,  Next: Decoding and Viewing,  Up: (dir)

Emacs MIME
**********

This manual documents the libraries used to compose and display MIME
messages.

   This manual is directed at users who want to modify the behavior of
the MIME encoding/decoding process or want a more detailed picture of
how the Emacs MIME library works, and people who want to write
functions and commands that manipulate MIME elements.

   MIME is short for "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions".  This
standard is documented in a number of RFCs; mainly RFC2045 (Format of
Internet Message Bodies), RFC2046 (Media Types), RFC2047 (Message
Header Extensions for Non-ASCII Text), RFC2048 (Registration
Procedures), RFC2049 (Conformance Criteria and Examples).  It is highly
recommended that anyone who intends writing MIME-compliant software
read at least RFC2045 and RFC2047.

* Menu:

* Decoding and Viewing::  A framework for decoding and viewing.
* Composing::             MML; a language for describing MIME parts.
* Interface Functions::   An abstraction over the basic functions.
* Basic Functions::       Utility and basic parsing functions.
* Standards::             A summary of RFCs and working documents used.
* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
* Index::                 Function and variable index.

File: emacs-mime,  Node: Decoding and Viewing,  Next: Composing,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Decoding and Viewing
**********************

This chapter deals with decoding and viewing MIME messages on a higher
level.

   The main idea is to first analyze a MIME article, and then allow
other programs to do things based on the list of "handles" that are
returned as a result of this analysis.

* Menu:

* Dissection::             Analyzing a MIME message.
* Non-MIME::               Analyzing a non-MIME message.
* Handles::                Handle manipulations.
* Display::                Displaying handles.
* Display Customization::  Variables that affect display.
* Files and Directories::  Saving and naming attachments.
* New Viewers::            How to write your own viewers.

File: emacs-mime,  Node: Dissection,  Next: Non-MIME,  Up: Decoding and Viewing

1.1 Dissection
==============

The `mm-dissect-buffer' is the function responsible for dissecting a
MIME article.  If given a multipart message, it will recursively
descend the message, following the structure, and return a tree of MIME
handles that describes the structure of the message.

File: emacs-mime,  Node: Non-MIME,  Next: Handles,  Prev: Dissection,  Up: Decoding and Viewing

1.2 Non-MIME
============

Gnus also understands some non-MIME attachments, such as postscript,
uuencode, binhex, yenc, shar, forward, gnatsweb, pgp, diff.  Each of
these features can be disabled by add an item into
`mm-uu-configure-list'.  For example,

     (require 'mm-uu)
     (add-to-list 'mm-uu-configure-list '(pgp-signed . disabled))

`postscript'
     PostScript file.

`uu'
     Uuencoded file.

`binhex'
     Binhex encoded file.

`yenc'
     Yenc encoded file.

`shar'
     Shar archive file.

`forward'
     Non-MIME forwarded message.

`gnatsweb'
     Gnatsweb attachment.

`pgp-signed'
     PGP signed clear text.

`pgp-encrypted'
     PGP encrypted clear text.

`pgp-key'
     PGP public keys.

`emacs-sources'
     Emacs source code.  This item works only in the groups matching
     `mm-uu-emacs-sources-regexp'.

`diff'
     Patches.  This is intended for groups where diffs of committed
     files are automatically sent to.  It only works in groups matching
     `mm-uu-diff-groups-regexp'.


File: emacs-mime,  Node: Handles,  Next: Display,  Prev: Non-MIME,  Up: Decoding and Viewing

1.3 Handles
===========

A MIME handle is a list that fully describes a MIME component.

   The following macros can be used to access elements in a handle:

`mm-handle-buffer'
     Return the buffer that holds the contents of the undecoded MIME
     part.

`mm-handle-type'
     Return the parsed `Content-Type' of the part.

`mm-handle-encoding'
     Return the `Content-Transfer-Encoding' of the part.

`mm-handle-undisplayer'
     Return the object that can be used to remove the displayed part
     (if it has been displayed).

`mm-handle-set-undisplayer'
     Set the undisplayer object.

`mm-handle-disposition'
     Return the parsed `Content-Disposition' of the part.

`mm-get-content-id'
     Returns the handle(s) referred to by `Content-ID'.


File: emacs-mime,  Node: Display,  Next: Display Customization,  Prev: Handles,  Up: Decoding and Viewing

1.4 Display
===========

Functions for displaying, removing and saving.

`mm-display-part'
     Display the part.

`mm-remove-part'
     Remove the part (if it has been displayed).

`mm-inlinable-p'
     Say whether a MIME type can be displayed inline.

`mm-automatic-display-p'
     Say whether a MIME type should be displayed automatically.

`mm-destroy-part'
     Free all resources occupied by a part.

`mm-save-part'
     Offer to save the part in a file.

`mm-pipe-part'
     Offer to pipe the part to some process.

`mm-interactively-view-part'
     Prompt for a mailcap method to use to view the part.


File: emacs-mime,  Node: Display Customization,  Next: Files and Directories,  Prev: Display,  Up: Decoding and Viewing

1.5 Display Customization
=========================

`mm-inline-media-tests'
     This is an alist where the key is a MIME type, the second element
     is a function to display the part "inline" (i.e., inside Emacs),
     and the third element is a form to be `eval'ed to say whether the
     part can be displayed inline.

     This variable specifies whether a part _can_ be displayed inline,
     and, if so, how to do it.  It does not say whether parts are
     _actually_ displayed inline.

`mm-inlined-types'
     This, on the other hand, says what types are to be displayed
     inline, if they satisfy the conditions set by the variable above.
     It's a list of MIME media types.

`mm-automatic-display'
     This is a list of types that are to be displayed "automatically",
     but only if the above variable allows it.  That is, only inlinable
     parts can be displayed automatically.

`mm-automatic-external-display'
     This is a list of types that will be displayed automatically in an
     external viewer.

`mm-keep-viewer-alive-types'
     This is a list of media types for which the external viewer will
     not be killed when selecting a different article.

`mm-attachment-override-types'
     Some MIME agents create parts that have a content-disposition of
     `attachment'.  This variable allows overriding that disposition and
     displaying the part inline.  (Note that the disposition is only
     overridden if we are able to, and want to, display the part
     inline.)

`mm-discouraged-alternatives'
     List of MIME types that are discouraged when viewing
     `multipart/alternative'.  Viewing agents are supposed to view the
     last possible part of a message, as that is supposed to be the
     richest.  However, users may prefer other types instead, and this
     list says what types are most unwanted.  If, for instance,
     `text/html' parts are very unwanted, and `text/richtext' parts are
     somewhat unwanted, you could say something like:

          (setq mm-discouraged-alternatives
                '("text/html" "text/richtext")
                mm-automatic-display
                (remove "text/html" mm-automatic-display))

     Adding `"image/.*"' might also be useful.  Spammers use images as
     the preferred part of `multipart/alternative' messages, so you
     might not notice there are other parts.  See also
     `gnus-buttonized-mime-types', *note MIME Commands: (gnus)MIME
     Commands.  After adding `"multipart/alternative"' to
     `gnus-buttonized-mime-types' you can choose manually which
     alternative you'd like to view.  For example, you can set those
     variables like:

          (setq gnus-buttonized-mime-types
                '("multipart/alternative" "multipart/signed")
                mm-discouraged-alternatives
                '("text/html" "image/.*"))

     In this case, Gnus will display radio buttons for such a kind of
     spam message as follows:

          1.  (*) multipart/alternative  ( ) image/gif

          2.  (*) text/plain          ( ) text/html

`mm-inline-large-images'
     When displaying inline images that are larger than the window,
     Emacs does not enable scrolling, which means that you cannot see
     the whole image.  To prevent this, the library tries to determine
     the image size before displaying it inline, and if it doesn't fit
     the window, the library will display it externally (e.g. with
     `ImageMagick' or `xv').  Setting this variable to `t' disables
     this check and makes the library display all inline images as
     inline, regardless of their size.

`mm-inline-override-types'
     `mm-inlined-types' may include regular expressions, for example to
     specify that all `text/.*' parts be displayed inline.  If a user
     prefers to have a type that matches such a regular expression be
     treated as an attachment, that can be accomplished by setting this
     variable to a list containing that type.  For example assuming
     `mm-inlined-types' includes `text/.*', then including `text/html'
     in this variable will cause `text/html' parts to be treated as
     attachments.

`mm-text-html-renderer'
     This selects the function used to render HTML.  The predefined
     renderers are selected by the symbols `w3', `w3m'(1), `links',
     `lynx', `w3m-standalone' or `html2text'.  If `nil' use an external
     viewer.  You can also specify a function, which will be called
     with a MIME handle as the argument.

`mm-inline-text-html-with-images'
     Some HTML mails might have the trick of spammers using `<img>'
     tags.  It is likely to be intended to verify whether you have read
     the mail.  You can prevent your personal informations from leaking
     by setting this option to `nil' (which is the default).  It is
     currently ignored by Emacs/w3.  For emacs-w3m, you may use the
     command `t' on the image anchor to show an image even if it is
     `nil'.(2)

`mm-w3m-safe-url-regexp'
     A regular expression that matches safe URL names, i.e. URLs that
     are unlikely to leak personal information when rendering HTML
     email (the default value is `\\`cid:').  If `nil' consider all
     URLs safe.

`mm-inline-text-html-with-w3m-keymap'
     You can use emacs-w3m command keys in the inlined text/html part by
     setting this option to non-`nil'.  The default value is `t'.

`mm-external-terminal-program'
     The program used to start an external terminal.

`mm-enable-external'
     Indicate whether external MIME handlers should be used.

     If `t', all defined external MIME handlers are used.  If `nil',
     files are saved to disk (`mailcap-save-binary-file').  If it is
     the symbol `ask', you are prompted before the external MIME
     handler is invoked.

     When you launch an attachment through mailcap (*note mailcap::) an
     attempt is made to use a safe viewer with the safest options--this
     isn't the case if you save it to disk and launch it in a different
     way (command line or double-clicking).  Anyhow, if you want to be
     sure not to launch any external programs, set this variable to
     `nil' or `ask'.


   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) See `http://emacs-w3m.namazu.org/' for more information about
emacs-w3m

   (2) The command `T' will load all images.  If you have set the
option `w3m-key-binding' to `info', use `i' or `I' instead.

File: emacs-mime,  Node: Files and Directories,  Next: New Viewers,  Prev: Display Customization,  Up: Decoding and Viewing

1.6 Files and Directories
=========================

`mm-default-directory'
     The default directory for saving attachments.  If `nil' use
     `default-directory'.

`mm-tmp-directory'
     Directory for storing temporary files.

`mm-file-name-rewrite-functions'
     A list of functions used for rewriting file names of MIME parts.
     Each function is applied successively to the file name.
     Ready-made functions include

    `mm-file-name-delete-control'
          Delete all control characters.

    `mm-file-name-delete-gotchas'
          Delete characters that could have unintended consequences
          when used with flawed shell scripts, i.e. `|', `>' and `<';
          and `-', `.' as the first character.

    `mm-file-name-delete-whitespace'
          Remove all whitespace.

    `mm-file-name-trim-whitespace'
          Remove leading and trailing whitespace.

    `mm-file-name-collapse-whitespace'
          Collapse multiple whitespace characters.

    `mm-file-name-replace-whitespace'
          Replace whitespace with underscores.  Set the variable
          `mm-file-name-replace-whitespace' to any other string if you
          do not like underscores.

     The standard Emacs functions `capitalize', `downcase', `upcase'
     and `upcase-initials' might also prove useful.

`mm-path-name-rewrite-functions'
     List of functions used for rewriting the full file names of MIME
     parts.  This is used when viewing parts externally, and is meant
     for transforming the absolute name so that non-compliant programs
     can find the file where it's saved.


File: emacs-mime,  Node: New Viewers,  Prev: Files and Directories,  Up: Decoding and Viewing

1.7 New Viewers
===============

Here's an example viewer for displaying `text/enriched' inline:

     (defun mm-display-enriched-inline (handle)
       (let (text)
         (with-temp-buffer
           (mm-insert-part handle)
           (save-window-excursion
             (enriched-decode (point-min) (point-max))
             (setq text (buffer-string))))
         (mm-insert-inline handle text)))

   We see that the function takes a MIME handle as its parameter.  It
then goes to a temporary buffer, inserts the text of the part, does some
work on the text, stores the result, goes back to the buffer it was
called from and inserts the result.

   The two important helper functions here are `mm-insert-part' and
`mm-insert-inline'.  The first function inserts the text of the handle
in the current buffer.  It handles charset and/or content transfer
decoding.  The second function just inserts whatever text you tell it
to insert, but it also sets things up so that the text can be
"undisplayed" in a convenient manner.

File: emacs-mime,  Node: Composing,  Next: Interface Functions,  Prev: Decoding and Viewing,  Up: Top

2 Composing
***********

Creating a MIME message is boring and non-trivial.  Therefore, a
library called `mml' has been defined that parses a language called MML
(MIME Meta Language) and generates MIME messages.

   The main interface function is `mml-generate-mime'.  It will examine
the contents of the current (narrowed-to) buffer and return a string
containing the MIME message.

* Menu:

* Simple MML Example::             An example MML document.
* MML Definition::                 All valid MML elements.
* Advanced MML Example::           Another example MML document.
* Encoding Customization::         Variables that affect encoding.
* Charset Translation::            How charsets are mapped from MULE to MIME.
* Conversion::                     Going from MIME to MML and vice versa.
* Flowed text::                    Soft and hard newlines.

File: emacs-mime,  Node: Simple MML Example,  Next: MML Definition,  Up: Composing

2.1 Simple MML Example
======================

Here's a simple `multipart/alternative':

     <#multipart type=alternative>
     This is a plain text part.
     <#part type=text/enriched>
     <center>This is a centered enriched part</center>
     <#/multipart>

   After running this through `mml-generate-mime', we get this:

     Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="=-=-="


     --=-=-=


     This is a plain text part.

     --=-=-=
     Content-Type: text/enriched


     <center>This is a centered enriched part</center>

     --=-=-=--

File: emacs-mime,  Node: MML Definition,  Next: Advanced MML Example,  Prev: Simple MML Example,  Up: Composing

2.2 MML Definition
==================

The MML language is very simple.  It looks a bit like an SGML
application, but it's not.

   The main concept of MML is the "part".  Each part can be of a
different type or use a different charset.  The way to delineate a part
is with a `<#part ...>' tag.  Multipart parts can be introduced with
the `<#multipart ...>' tag.  Parts are ended by the `<#/part>' or
`<#/multipart>' tags.  Parts started with the `<#part ...>' tags are
also closed by the next open tag.

   There's also the `<#external ...>' tag.  These introduce
`external/message-body' parts.

   Each tag can contain zero or more parameters on the form
`parameter=value'.  The values may be enclosed in quotation marks, but
that's not necessary unless the value contains white space.  So
`filename=/home/user/#hello$^yes' is perfectly valid.

   The following parameters have meaning in MML; parameters that have no
meaning are ignored.  The MML parameter names are the same as the MIME
parameter names; the things in the parentheses say which header it will
be used in.

`type'
     The MIME type of the part (`Content-Type').

`filename'
     Use the contents of the file in the body of the part
     (`Content-Disposition').

`charset'
     The contents of the body of the part are to be encoded in the
     character set specified (`Content-Type'). *Note Charset
     Translation::.

`name'
     Might be used to suggest a file name if the part is to be saved to
     a file (`Content-Type').

`disposition'
     Valid values are `inline' and `attachment' (`Content-Disposition').

`encoding'
     Valid values are `7bit', `8bit', `quoted-printable' and `base64'
     (`Content-Transfer-Encoding'). *Note Charset Translation::.

`description'
     A description of the part (`Content-Description').

`creation-date'
     RFC822 date when the part was created (`Content-Disposition').

`modification-date'
     RFC822 date when the part was modified (`Content-Disposition').

`read-date'
     RFC822 date when the part was read (`Content-Disposition').

`recipients'
     Who to encrypt/sign the part to.  This field is used to override
     any auto-detection based on the To/CC headers.

`sender'
     Identity used to sign the part.  This field is used to override the
     default key used.

`size'
     The size (in octets) of the part (`Content-Disposition').

`sign'
     What technology to sign this MML part with (`smime', `pgp' or
     `pgpmime')

`encrypt'
     What technology to encrypt this MML part with (`smime', `pgp' or
     `pgpmime')


   Parameters for `text/plain':

`format'
     Formatting parameter for the text, valid values include `fixed'
     (the default) and `flowed'.  Normally you do not specify this
     manually, since it requires the textual body to be formatted in a
     special way described in RFC 2646.  *Note Flowed text::.

   Parameters for `application/octet-stream':

`type'
     Type of the part; informal--meant for human readers
     (`Content-Type').

   Parameters for `message/external-body':

`access-type'
     A word indicating the supported access mechanism by which the file
     may be obtained.  Values include `ftp', `anon-ftp', `tftp',
     `localfile', and `mailserver'.  (`Content-Type'.)

`expiration'
     The RFC822 date after which the file may no longer be fetched.
     (`Content-Type'.)

`size'
     The size (in octets) of the file.  (`Content-Type'.)

`permission'
     Valid values are `read' and `read-write' (`Content-Type').


   Parameters for `sign=smime':

`keyfile'
     File containing key and certificate for signer.


   Parameters for `encrypt=smime':

`certfile'
     File containing certificate for recipient.


File: emacs-mime,  Node: Advanced MML Example,  Next: Encoding Customization,  Prev: MML Definition,  Up: Composing

2.3 Advanced MML Example
========================

Here's a complex multipart message.  It's a `multipart/mixed' that
contains many parts, one of which is a `multipart/alternative'.

     <#multipart type=mixed>
     <#part type=image/jpeg filename=~/rms.jpg disposition=inline>
     <#multipart type=alternative>
     This is a plain text part.
     <#part type=text/enriched name=enriched.txt>
     <center>This is a centered enriched part</center>
     <#/multipart>
     This is a new plain text part.
     <#part disposition=attachment>
     This plain text part is an attachment.
     <#/multipart>

   And this is the resulting MIME message:

     Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="=-=-="


     --=-=-=



     --=-=-=
     Content-Type: image/jpeg;
      filename="~/rms.jpg"
     Content-Disposition: inline;
      filename="~/rms.jpg"
     Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64

     /9j/4AAQSkZJRgABAQAAAQABAAD/2wBDAAgGBgcGBQgHBwcJCQgKDBQNDAsLDBkSEw8UHRof
     Hh0aHBwgJC4nICIsIxwcKDcpLDAxNDQ0Hyc5PTgyPC4zNDL/wAALCAAwADABAREA/8QAHwAA
     AQUBAQEBAQEAAAAAAAAAAAECAwQFBgcICQoL/8QAtRAAAgEDAwIEAwUFBAQAAAF9AQIDAAQR
     BRIhMUEGE1FhByJxFDKBkaEII0KxwRVS0fAkM2JyggkKFhcYGRolJicoKSo0NTY3ODk6Q0RF
     RkdISUpTVFVWV1hZWmNkZWZnaGlqc3R1dnd4eXqDhIWGh4iJipKTlJWWl5iZmqKjpKWmp6ip
     qrKztLW2t7i5usLDxMXGx8jJytLT1NXW19jZ2uHi4+Tl5ufo6erx8vP09fb3+Pn6/9oACAEB
     AAA/AO/rifFHjldNuGsrDa0qcSSHkA+gHrXKw+LtWLrMb+RgTyhbr+HSug07xNqV9fQtZrNI
     AyiaE/NuBPOOOP0rvRNE880KOC8TbXXGCv1FPqjrF4LDR7u5L7SkTFT/ALWOP1xXgTuXfc7E
     sx6nua6rwp4IvvEM8chCxWxOdzn7wz6V9AaB4S07w9p5itow0rDLSY5Pt9K43xO66P4xs71m
     2QXiGCbA4yOVJ9+1aYORkdK434lyNH4ahCnG66VT9Nj15JFbPdX0MS43M4VQf5/yr2vSpLnw
     5ZW8dlCZ8KFXjOPX0/mK6rSPEGt3Angu44fNEReHYNvIH3TzXDeKNO8RX+kSX2ouZkicTIOc
     L+g7E810ulFjpVtv3bwgB3HJyK5L4quY/C9sVxk3ij/xx6850u7t1mtp/wDlpEw3An3Jr3Dw
     34gsbWza4nBlhC5LDsaW6+IFgupQyCF3iHH7gA7c9R9ay7zx6t7aX9jHC4smhfBkGCvHGfrm
     tLQ7hbnRrV1GPkAP1x1/Hr+Ncr8Vzjwrbf8AX6v/AKA9eQRyYlQk8Yx9K6XTNbkgia2ciSIn
     7p5Ga9Atte0LTLKO6it4i7dVRFJDcZ4PvXN+JvEMF9bILVGXJLSZ4zkjivRPDaeX4b08HOTC
     pOffmua+KkbS+GLVUGT9tT/0B68eeIpIFYjB70+OOVXyoOM9+M1eaWeCLzHPyHGO/NVWvJJm
     jQ8KGH1NfQWhXSXmh2c8eArRLwO3HSv/2Q==

     --=-=-=
     Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="==-=-="


     --==-=-=


     This is a plain text part.

     --==-=-=
     Content-Type: text/enriched;
      name="enriched.txt"


     <center>This is a centered enriched part</center>

     --==-=-=--

     --=-=-=

     This is a new plain text part.

     --=-=-=
     Content-Disposition: attachment


     This plain text part is an attachment.

     --=-=-=--

File: emacs-mime,  Node: Encoding Customization,  Next: Charset Translation,  Prev: Advanced MML Example,  Up: Composing

2.4 Encoding Customization
==========================

`mm-body-charset-encoding-alist'
     Mapping from MIME charset to encoding to use.  This variable is
     usually used except, e.g., when other requirements force a specific
     encoding (digitally signed messages require 7bit encodings).  The
     default is

          ((iso-2022-jp . 7bit)
           (iso-2022-jp-2 . 7bit)
           (utf-16 . base64)
           (utf-16be . base64)
           (utf-16le . base64))

     As an example, if you do not want to have ISO-8859-1 characters
     quoted-printable encoded, you may add `(iso-8859-1 . 8bit)' to
     this variable.  You can override this setting on a per-message
     basis by using the `encoding' MML tag (*note MML Definition::).

`mm-coding-system-priorities'
     Prioritize coding systems to use for outgoing messages.  The
     default is `nil', which means to use the defaults in Emacs, but is
     `(iso-8859-1 iso-2022-jp iso-2022-jp-2 shift_jis utf-8)' when
     running Emacs in the Japanese language environment.  It is a list
     of coding system symbols (aliases of coding systems are also
     allowed, use `M-x describe-coding-system' to make sure you are
     specifying correct coding system names).  For example, if you have
     configured Emacs to prefer UTF-8, but wish that outgoing messages
     should be sent in ISO-8859-1 if possible, you can set this
     variable to `(iso-8859-1)'.  You can override this setting on a
     per-message basis by using the `charset' MML tag (*note MML
     Definition::).

`mm-content-transfer-encoding-defaults'
     Mapping from MIME types to encoding to use.  This variable is
     usually used except, e.g., when other requirements force a safer
     encoding (digitally signed messages require 7bit encoding).
     Besides the normal MIME encodings, `qp-or-base64' may be used to
     indicate that for each case the most efficient of quoted-printable
     and base64 should be used.

     `qp-or-base64' has another effect.  It will fold long lines so that
     MIME parts may not be broken by MTA.  So do `quoted-printable' and
     `base64'.

     Note that it affects body encoding only when a part is a raw
     forwarded message (which will be made by
     `gnus-summary-mail-forward' with the arg 2 for example) or is
     neither the `text/*' type nor the `message/*' type.  Even though
     in those cases, you can override this setting on a per-message
     basis by using the `encoding' MML tag (*note MML Definition::).

`mm-use-ultra-safe-encoding'
     When this is non-`nil', it means that textual parts are encoded as
     quoted-printable if they contain lines longer than 76 characters or
     starting with "From " in the body.  Non-7bit encodings (8bit,
     binary) are generally disallowed.  This reduce the probability
     that a non-8bit clean MTA or MDA changes the message.  This should
     never be set directly, but bound by other functions when necessary
     (e.g., when encoding messages that are to be digitally signed).


File: emacs-mime,  Node: Charset Translation,  Next: Conversion,  Prev: Encoding Customization,  Up: Composing

2.5 Charset Translation
=======================

During translation from MML to MIME, for each MIME part which has been
composed inside Emacs, an appropriate charset has to be chosen.

   If you are running a non-MULE Emacs, this process is simple: If the
part contains any non-ASCII (8-bit) characters, the MIME charset given
by `mail-parse-charset' (a symbol) is used.  (Never set this variable
directly, though.  If you want to change the default charset, please
consult the documentation of the package which you use to process MIME
messages.  *Note Various Message Variables: (message)Various Message
Variables, for example.)  If there are only ASCII characters, the MIME
charset US-ASCII is used, of course.

   Things are slightly more complicated when running Emacs with MULE
support.  In this case, a list of the MULE charsets used in the part is
obtained, and the MULE charsets are translated to MIME charsets by
consulting the table provided by Emacs itself or the variable
`mm-mime-mule-charset-alist' for XEmacs.  If this results in a single
MIME charset, this is used to encode the part.  But if the resulting
list of MIME charsets contains more than one element, two things can
happen: If it is possible to encode the part via UTF-8, this charset is
used.  (For this, Emacs must support the `utf-8' coding system, and the
part must consist entirely of characters which have Unicode
counterparts.)  If UTF-8 is not available for some reason, the part is
split into several ones, so that each one can be encoded with a single
MIME charset.  The part can only be split at line boundaries,
though--if more than one MIME charset is required to encode a single
line, it is not possible to encode the part.

   When running Emacs with MULE support, the preferences for which
coding system to use is inherited from Emacs itself.  This means that
if Emacs is set up to prefer UTF-8, it will be used when encoding
messages.  You can modify this by altering the
`mm-coding-system-priorities' variable though (*note Encoding
Customization::).

   The charset to be used can be overridden by setting the `charset'
MML tag (*note MML Definition::) when composing the message.

   The encoding of characters (quoted-printable, 8bit etc) is orthogonal
to the discussion here, and is controlled by the variables
`mm-body-charset-encoding-alist' and
`mm-content-transfer-encoding-defaults' (*note Encoding
Customization::).

File: emacs-mime,  Node: Conversion,  Next: Flowed text,  Prev: Charset Translation,  Up: Composing

2.6 Conversion
==============

A (multipart) MIME message can be converted to MML with the
`mime-to-mml' function.  It works on the message in the current buffer,
and substitutes MML markup for MIME boundaries.  Non-textual parts do
not have their contents in the buffer, but instead have the contents in
separate buffers that are referred to from the MML tags.

   An MML message can be converted back to MIME by the `mml-to-mime'
function.

   These functions are in certain senses "lossy"--you will not get back
an identical message if you run `mime-to-mml' and then `mml-to-mime'.
Not only will trivial things like the order of the headers differ, but
the contents of the headers may also be different.  For instance, the
original message may use base64 encoding on text, while `mml-to-mime'
may decide to use quoted-printable encoding, and so on.

   In essence, however, these two functions should be the inverse of
each other.  The resulting contents of the message should remain
equivalent, if not identical.

File: emacs-mime,  Node: Flowed text,  Prev: Conversion,  Up: Composing

2.7 Flowed text
===============

The Emacs MIME library will respect the `use-hard-newlines' variable
(*note Hard and Soft Newlines: (emacs)Hard and Soft Newlines.) when
encoding a message, and the "format=flowed" Content-Type parameter when
decoding a message.

   On encoding text, regardless of `use-hard-newlines', lines
terminated by soft newline characters are filled together and wrapped
after the column decided by `fill-flowed-encode-column'.  Quotation
marks (matching `^>* ?') are respected.  The variable controls how the
text will look in a client that does not support flowed text, the
default is to wrap after 66 characters.  If hard newline characters are
not present in the buffer, no flow encoding occurs.

   On decoding flowed text, lines with soft newline characters are
filled together and wrapped after the column decided by
`fill-flowed-display-column'.  The default is to wrap after
`fill-column'.

`mm-fill-flowed'
     If non-`nil' a format=flowed article will be displayed flowed.

File: emacs-mime,  Node: Interface Functions,  Next: Basic Functions,  Prev: Composing,  Up: Top

3 Interface Functions
*********************

The `mail-parse' library is an abstraction over the actual low-level
libraries that are described in the next chapter.

   Standards change, and so programs have to change to fit in the new
mold.  For instance, RFC2045 describes a syntax for the `Content-Type'
header that only allows ASCII characters in the parameter list.
RFC2231 expands on RFC2045 syntax to provide a scheme for continuation
headers and non-ASCII characters.

   The traditional way to deal with this is just to update the library
functions to parse the new syntax.  However, this is sometimes the wrong
thing to do.  In some instances it may be vital to be able to understand
both the old syntax as well as the new syntax, and if there is only one
library, one must choose between the old version of the library and the
new version of the library.

   The Emacs MIME library takes a different tack.  It defines a series
of low-level libraries (`rfc2047.el', `rfc2231.el' and so on) that
parses strictly according to the corresponding standard.  However,
normal programs would not use the functions provided by these libraries
directly, but instead use the functions provided by the `mail-parse'
library.  The functions in this library are just aliases to the
corresponding functions in the latest low-level libraries.  Using this
scheme, programs get a consistent interface they can use, and library
developers are free to create write code that handles new standards.

   The following functions are defined by this library:

`mail-header-parse-content-type'
     Parse a `Content-Type' header and return a list on the following
     format:

          ("type/subtype"
           (attribute1 . value1)
           (attribute2 . value2)
           ...)

     Here's an example:

          (mail-header-parse-content-type
           "image/gif; name=\"b980912.gif\"")
          => ("image/gif" (name . "b980912.gif"))

`mail-header-parse-content-disposition'
     Parse a `Content-Disposition' header and return a list on the same
     format as the function above.

`mail-content-type-get'
     Takes two parameters--a list on the format above, and an attribute.
     Returns the value of the attribute.

          (mail-content-type-get
           '("image/gif" (name . "b980912.gif")) 'name)
          => "b980912.gif"

`mail-header-encode-parameter'
     Takes a parameter string and returns an encoded version of the
     string.  This is used for parameters in headers like
     `Content-Type' and `Content-Disposition'.

`mail-header-remove-comments'
     Return a comment-free version of a header.

          (mail-header-remove-comments
           "Gnus/5.070027 (Pterodactyl Gnus v0.27) (Finnish Landrace)")
          => "Gnus/5.070027  "

`mail-header-remove-whitespace'
     Remove linear white space from a header.  Space inside quoted
     strings and comments is preserved.

          (mail-header-remove-whitespace
           "image/gif; name=\"Name with spaces\"")
          => "image/gif;name=\"Name with spaces\""

`mail-header-get-comment'
     Return the last comment in a header.

          (mail-header-get-comment
           "Gnus/5.070027 (Pterodactyl Gnus v0.27) (Finnish Landrace)")
          => "Finnish Landrace"

`mail-header-parse-address'
     Parse an address and return a list containing the mailbox and the
     plaintext name.

          (mail-header-parse-address
           "Hrvoje Niksic <hniksicATsrce.hr>")
          => ("hniksicATsrce.hr" . "Hrvoje Niksic")

`mail-header-parse-addresses'
     Parse a string with list of addresses and return a list of
     elements like the one described above.

          (mail-header-parse-addresses
           "Hrvoje Niksic <hniksicATsrce.hr>, Steinar Bang <sbATmetis.no>")
          => (("hniksicATsrce.hr" . "Hrvoje Niksic")
               ("sbATmetis.no" . "Steinar Bang"))

`mail-header-parse-date'
     Parse a date string and return an Emacs time structure.

`mail-narrow-to-head'
     Narrow the buffer to the header section of the buffer.  Point is
     placed at the beginning of the narrowed buffer.

`mail-header-narrow-to-field'
     Narrow the buffer to the header under point.  Understands
     continuation headers.

`mail-header-fold-field'
     Fold the header under point.

`mail-header-unfold-field'
     Unfold the header under point.

`mail-header-field-value'
     Return the value of the field under point.

`mail-encode-encoded-word-region'
     Encode the non-ASCII words in the region.  For instance, `Na´ve'
     is encoded as `=?iso-8859-1?q?Na=EFve?='.

`mail-encode-encoded-word-buffer'
     Encode the non-ASCII words in the current buffer.  This function is
     meant to be called narrowed to the headers of a message.

`mail-encode-encoded-word-string'
     Encode the words that need encoding in a string, and return the
     result.

          (mail-encode-encoded-word-string
           "This is na´ve, baby")
          => "This is =?iso-8859-1?q?na=EFve,?= baby"

`mail-decode-encoded-word-region'
     Decode the encoded words in the region.

`mail-decode-encoded-word-string'
     Decode the encoded words in the string and return the result.

          (mail-decode-encoded-word-string
           "This is =?iso-8859-1?q?na=EFve,?= baby")
          => "This is na´ve, baby"


   Currently, `mail-parse' is an abstraction over `ietf-drums',
`rfc2047', `rfc2045' and `rfc2231'.  These are documented in the
subsequent sections.

File: emacs-mime,  Node: Basic Functions,  Next: Standards,  Prev: Interface Functions,  Up: Top

4 Basic Functions
*****************

This chapter describes the basic, ground-level functions for parsing and
handling.  Covered here is parsing `From' lines, removing comments from
header lines, decoding encoded words, parsing date headers and so on.
High-level functionality is dealt with in the first chapter (*note
Decoding and Viewing::).

* Menu:

* rfc2045::      Encoding `Content-Type' headers.
* rfc2231::      Parsing `Content-Type' headers.
* ietf-drums::   Handling mail headers defined by RFC822bis.
* rfc2047::      En/decoding encoded words in headers.
* time-date::    Functions for parsing dates and manipulating time.
* qp::           Quoted-Printable en/decoding.
* base64::       Base64 en/decoding.
* binhex::       Binhex decoding.
* uudecode::     Uuencode decoding.
* yenc::         Yenc decoding.
* rfc1843::      Decoding HZ-encoded text.
* mailcap::      How parts are displayed is specified by the `.mailcap' file

File: emacs-mime,  Node: rfc2045,  Next: rfc2231,  Up: Basic Functions

4.1 rfc2045
===========

RFC2045 is the "main" MIME document, and as such, one would imagine
that there would be a lot to implement.  But there isn't, since most of
the implementation details are delegated to the subsequent RFCs.

   So `rfc2045.el' has only a single function:

`rfc2045-encode-string'
     Takes a parameter and a value and returns a `PARAM=VALUE' string.
     VALUE will be quoted if there are non-safe characters in it.

File: emacs-mime,  Node: rfc2231,  Next: ietf-drums,  Prev: rfc2045,  Up: Basic Functions

4.2 rfc2231
===========

RFC2231 defines a syntax for the `Content-Type' and
`Content-Disposition' headers.  Its snappy name is "MIME Parameter
Value and Encoded Word Extensions: Character Sets, Languages, and
Continuations".

   In short, these headers look something like this:

     Content-Type: application/x-stuff;
      title*0*=us-ascii'en'This%20is%20even%20more%20;
      title*1*=%2A%2A%2Afun%2A%2A%2A%20;
      title*2="isn't it!"

   They usually aren't this bad, though.

   The following functions are defined by this library:

`rfc2231-parse-string'
     Parse a `Content-Type' header and return a list describing its
     elements.

          (rfc2231-parse-string
           "application/x-stuff;
           title*0*=us-ascii'en'This%20is%20even%20more%20;
           title*1*=%2A%2A%2Afun%2A%2A%2A%20;
           title*2=\"isn't it!\"")
          => ("application/x-stuff"
              (title . "This is even more ***fun*** isn't it!"))

`rfc2231-get-value'
     Takes one of the lists on the format above and returns the value
     of the specified attribute.

`rfc2231-encode-string'
     Encode a parameter in headers likes `Content-Type' and
     `Content-Disposition'.


File: emacs-mime,  Node: ietf-drums,  Next: rfc2047,  Prev: rfc2231,  Up: Basic Functions

4.3 ietf-drums
==============

"drums" is an IETF working group that is working on the replacement for
RFC822.

   The functions provided by this library include:

`ietf-drums-remove-comments'
     Remove the comments from the argument and return the results.

`ietf-drums-remove-whitespace'
     Remove linear white space from the string and return the results.
     Spaces inside quoted strings and comments are left untouched.

`ietf-drums-get-comment'
     Return the last most comment from the string.

`ietf-drums-parse-address'
     Parse an address string and return a list that contains the
     mailbox and the plain text name.

`ietf-drums-parse-addresses'
     Parse a string that contains any number of comma-separated
     addresses and return a list that contains mailbox/plain text pairs.

`ietf-drums-parse-date'
     Parse a date string and return an Emacs time structure.

`ietf-drums-narrow-to-header'
     Narrow the buffer to the header section of the current buffer.


File: emacs-mime,  Node: rfc2047,  Next: time-date,  Prev: ietf-drums,  Up: Basic Functions

4.4 rfc2047
===========

RFC2047 (Message Header Extensions for Non-ASCII Text) specifies how
non-ASCII text in headers are to be encoded.  This is actually rather
complicated, so a number of variables are necessary to tweak what this
library does.

   The following variables are tweakable:

`rfc2047-header-encoding-alist'
     This is an alist of header / encoding-type pairs.  Its main
     purpose is to prevent encoding of certain headers.

     The keys can either be header regexps, or `t'.

     The values can be `nil', in which case the header(s) in question
     won't be encoded, `mime', which means that they will be encoded, or
     `address-mime', which means the header(s) will be encoded carefully
     assuming they contain addresses.

`rfc2047-charset-encoding-alist'
     RFC2047 specifies two forms of encoding--`Q' (a
     Quoted-Printable-like encoding) and `B' (base64).  This alist
     specifies which charset should use which encoding.

`rfc2047-encode-function-alist'
     This is an alist of encoding / function pairs.  The encodings are
     `Q', `B' and `nil'.

`rfc2047-encoded-word-regexp'
     When decoding words, this library looks for matches to this regexp.

`rfc2047-encode-encoded-words'
     The boolean variable specifies whether encoded words (e.g.
     `=?hello?=') should be encoded again.


   Those were the variables, and these are this functions:

`rfc2047-narrow-to-field'
     Narrow the buffer to the header on the current line.

`rfc2047-encode-message-header'
     Should be called narrowed to the header of a message.  Encodes
     according to `rfc2047-header-encoding-alist'.

`rfc2047-encode-region'
     Encodes all encodable words in the region specified.

`rfc2047-encode-string'
     Encode a string and return the results.

`rfc2047-decode-region'
     Decode the encoded words in the region.

`rfc2047-decode-string'
     Decode a string and return the results.

`rfc2047-encode-parameter'
     Encode a parameter in the RFC2047-like style.  This is a
     replacement for the `rfc2231-encode-string' function.  *Note
     rfc2231::.

     When attaching files as MIME parts, we should use the RFC2231
     encoding to specify the file names containing non-ASCII
     characters.  However, many mail softwares don't support it in
     practice and recipients won't be able to extract files with
     correct names.  Instead, the RFC2047-like encoding is acceptable
     generally.  This function provides the very RFC2047-like encoding,
     resigning to such a regrettable trend.  To use it, put the
     following line in your `~/.gnus.el' file:

          (defalias 'mail-header-encode-parameter 'rfc2047-encode-parameter)


File: emacs-mime,  Node: time-date,  Next: qp,  Prev: rfc2047,  Up: Basic Functions

4.5 time-date
=============

While not really a part of the MIME library, it is convenient to
document this library here.  It deals with parsing `Date' headers and
manipulating time.  (Not by using tesseracts, though, I'm sorry to say.)

   These functions convert between five formats: A date string, an Emacs
time structure, a decoded time list, a second number, and a day number.

   Here's a bunch of time/date/second/day examples:

     (parse-time-string "Sat Sep 12 12:21:54 1998 +0200")
     => (54 21 12 12 9 1998 6 nil 7200)

     (date-to-time "Sat Sep 12 12:21:54 1998 +0200")
     => (13818 19266)

     (time-to-seconds '(13818 19266))
     => 905595714.0

     (seconds-to-time 905595714.0)
     => (13818 19266 0)

     (time-to-days '(13818 19266))
     => 729644

     (days-to-time 729644)
     => (961933 65536)

     (time-since '(13818 19266))
     => (0 430)

     (time-less-p '(13818 19266) '(13818 19145))
     => nil

     (subtract-time '(13818 19266) '(13818 19145))
     => (0 121)

     (days-between "Sat Sep 12 12:21:54 1998 +0200"
                   "Sat Sep 07 12:21:54 1998 +0200")
     => 5

     (date-leap-year-p 2000)
     => t

     (time-to-day-in-year '(13818 19266))
     => 255

     (time-to-number-of-days
      (time-since
       (date-to-time "Mon, 01 Jan 2001 02:22:26 GMT")))
     => 4.146122685185185

   And finally, we have `safe-date-to-time', which does the same as
`date-to-time', but returns a zero time if the date is syntactically
malformed.

   The five data representations used are the following:

DATE
     An RFC822 (or similar) date string.  For instance: `"Sat Sep 12
     12:21:54 1998 +0200"'.

TIME
     An internal Emacs time.  For instance: `(13818 26466)'.

SECONDS
     A floating point representation of the internal Emacs time.  For
     instance: `905595714.0'.

DAYS
     An integer number representing the number of days since 00000101.
     For instance: `729644'.

DECODED TIME
     A list of decoded time.  For instance: `(54 21 12 12 9 1998 6 t
     7200)'.

   All the examples above represent the same moment.

   These are the functions available:

`date-to-time'
     Take a date and return a time.

`time-to-seconds'
     Take a time and return seconds.

`seconds-to-time'
     Take seconds and return a time.

`time-to-days'
     Take a time and return days.

`days-to-time'
     Take days and return a time.

`date-to-day'
     Take a date and return days.

`time-to-number-of-days'
     Take a time and return the number of days that represents.

`safe-date-to-time'
     Take a date and return a time.  If the date is not syntactically
     valid, return a "zero" time.

`time-less-p'
     Take two times and say whether the first time is less (i. e.,
     earlier) than the second time.

`time-since'
     Take a time and return a time saying how long it was since that
     time.

`subtract-time'
     Take two times and subtract the second from the first.  I. e.,
     return the time between the two times.

`days-between'
     Take two days and return the number of days between those two days.

`date-leap-year-p'
     Take a year number and say whether it's a leap year.

`time-to-day-in-year'
     Take a time and return the day number within the year that the
     time is in.


File: emacs-mime,  Node: qp,  Next: base64,  Prev: time-date,  Up: Basic Functions

4.6 qp
======

This library deals with decoding and encoding Quoted-Printable text.

   Very briefly explained, qp encoding means translating all 8-bit
characters (and lots of control characters) into things that look like
`=EF'; that is, an equal sign followed by the byte encoded as a hex
string.

   The following functions are defined by the library:

`quoted-printable-decode-region'
     QP-decode all the encoded text in the specified region.

`quoted-printable-decode-string'
     Decode the QP-encoded text in a string and return the results.

`quoted-printable-encode-region'
     QP-encode all the encodable characters in the specified region.
     The third optional parameter FOLD specifies whether to fold long
     lines.  (Long here means 72.)

`quoted-printable-encode-string'
     QP-encode all the encodable characters in a string and return the
     results.


File: emacs-mime,  Node: base64,  Next: binhex,  Prev: qp,  Up: Basic Functions

4.7 base64
==========

Base64 is an encoding that encodes three bytes into four characters,
thereby increasing the size by about 33%.  The alphabet used for
encoding is very resistant to mangling during transit.

   The following functions are defined by this library:

`base64-encode-region'
     base64 encode the selected region.  Return the length of the
     encoded text.  Optional third argument NO-LINE-BREAK means do not
     break long lines into shorter lines.

`base64-encode-string'
     base64 encode a string and return the result.

`base64-decode-region'
     base64 decode the selected region.  Return the length of the
     decoded text.  If the region can't be decoded, return `nil' and
     don't modify the buffer.

`base64-decode-string'
     base64 decode a string and return the result.  If the string can't
     be decoded, `nil' is returned.


File: emacs-mime,  Node: binhex,  Next: uudecode,  Prev: base64,  Up: Basic Functions

4.8 binhex
==========

`binhex' is an encoding that originated in Macintosh environments.  The
following function is supplied to deal with these:

`binhex-decode-region'
     Decode the encoded text in the region.  If given a third
     parameter, only decode the `binhex' header and return the filename.


File: emacs-mime,  Node: uudecode,  Next: yenc,  Prev: binhex,  Up: Basic Functions

4.9 uudecode
============

`uuencode' is probably still the most popular encoding of binaries used
on Usenet, although `base64' rules the mail world.

   The following function is supplied by this package:

`uudecode-decode-region'
     Decode the text in the region.

File: emacs-mime,  Node: yenc,  Next: rfc1843,  Prev: uudecode,  Up: Basic Functions

4.10 yenc
=========

`yenc' is used for encoding binaries on Usenet.  The following function
is supplied by this package:

`yenc-decode-region'
     Decode the encoded text in the region.


File: emacs-mime,  Node: rfc1843,  Next: mailcap,  Prev: yenc,  Up: Basic Functions

4.11 rfc1843
============

RFC1843 deals with mixing Chinese and ASCII characters in messages.  In
essence, RFC1843 switches between ASCII and Chinese by doing this:

     This sentence is in ASCII.
     The next sentence is in GB.~{<:Ky2;S{#,NpJ)l6HK!#~}Bye.

   Simple enough, and widely used in China.

   The following functions are available to handle this encoding:

`rfc1843-decode-region'
     Decode HZ-encoded text in the region.

`rfc1843-decode-string'
     Decode a HZ-encoded string and return the result.


File: emacs-mime,  Node: mailcap,  Prev: rfc1843,  Up: Basic Functions

4.12 mailcap
============

The `~/.mailcap' file is parsed by most MIME-aware message handlers and
describes how elements are supposed to be displayed.  Here's an example
file:

     image/*; gimp -8 %s
     audio/wav; wavplayer %s
     application/msword; catdoc %s ; copiousoutput ; nametemplate=%s.doc

   This says that all image files should be displayed with `gimp', that
WAVE audio files should be played by `wavplayer', and that MS-WORD
files should be inlined by `catdoc'.

   The `mailcap' library parses this file, and provides functions for
matching types.

`mailcap-mime-data'
     This variable is an alist of alists containing backup viewing
     rules.


   Interface functions:

`mailcap-parse-mailcaps'
     Parse the `~/.mailcap' file.

`mailcap-mime-info'
     Takes a MIME type as its argument and returns the matching viewer.


File: emacs-mime,  Node: Standards,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Basic Functions,  Up: Top

5 Standards
***********

The Emacs MIME library implements handling of various elements
according to a (somewhat) large number of RFCs, drafts and standards
documents.  This chapter lists the relevant ones.  They can all be
fetched from `http://quimby.gnus.org/notes/'.

"RFC822"
"STD11"
     Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet Text Messages.

"RFC1036"
     Standard for Interchange of USENET Messages

"RFC2045"
     Format of Internet Message Bodies

"RFC2046"
     Media Types

"RFC2047"
     Message Header Extensions for Non-ASCII Text

"RFC2048"
     Registration Procedures

"RFC2049"
     Conformance Criteria and Examples

"RFC2231"
     MIME Parameter Value and Encoded Word Extensions: Character Sets,
     Languages, and Continuations

"RFC1843"
     HZ - A Data Format for Exchanging Files of Arbitrarily Mixed
     Chinese and ASCII characters

"draft-ietf-drums-msg-fmt-05.txt"
     Draft for the successor of RFC822

"RFC2112"
     The MIME Multipart/Related Content-type

"RFC1892"
     The Multipart/Report Content Type for the Reporting of Mail System
     Administrative Messages

"RFC2183"
     Communicating Presentation Information in Internet Messages: The
     Content-Disposition Header Field

"RFC2646"
     Documentation of the text/plain format parameter for flowed text.


File: emacs-mime,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Next: Index,  Prev: Standards,  Up: Top

6 GNU Free Documentation License
********************************

                      Version 1.2, November 2002

     Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft," which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.


  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it
     can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document," below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you."  You
     accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a
     way requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter
     section of the Document that deals exclusively with the
     relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the
     Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains
     nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject.
     (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a
     Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.)  The
     relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the
     subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial,
     philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in
     the notice that says that the Document is released under this
     License.  If a section does not fit the above definition of
     Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.
     The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document
     does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
     general public, that is suitable for revising the document
     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images
     composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some
     widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to
     text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of
     formats suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an
     otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of
     markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent
     modification by readers is not Transparent.  An image format is
     not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text.  A
     copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque."

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
     standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for
     human modification.  Examples of transparent image formats include
     PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats include proprietary formats that
     can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML
     or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally
     available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF
     produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
     whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
     stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
     "Acknowledgements," "Dedications," "Endorsements," or "History.")
     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow
     the conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the
     title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material
     on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the
     covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
     satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in
     other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a
     machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
     state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from
     which the general network-using public has access to download
     using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent
     copy of the Document, free of added material.  If you use the
     latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
     begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that
     this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
     location until at least one year after the last time you
     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
     retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of
     copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
     version of the Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

     A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
     distinct    from that of the Document, and from those of previous
     versions    (which should, if there were any, be listed in the
     History section    of the Document).  You may use the same title
     as a previous version    if the original publisher of that version
     gives permission.
     B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
     entities    responsible for authorship of the modifications in the
     Modified    Version, together with at least five of the principal
     authors of the    Document (all of its principal authors, if it
     has fewer than five),    unless they release you from this
     requirement.
     C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
     Modified Version, as the publisher.
     D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
     E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
     adjacent to the other copyright notices.
     F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
     notice    giving the public permission to use the Modified Version
     under the    terms of this License, in the form shown in the
     Addendum below.
     G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
     Sections    and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
     license notice.
     H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
     I. Preserve the section Entitled "History," Preserve its Title,
     and add    to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
     authors, and    publisher of the Modified Version as given on the
     Title Page.  If    there is no section Entitled "History" in the
     Document, create one    stating the title, year, authors, and
     publisher of the Document as    given on its Title Page, then add
     an item describing the Modified    Version as stated in the
     previous sentence.
     J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
       public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
       the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
       it was based on.  These may be placed in the "History" section.
       You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
       least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
      publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
     K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications,"
     Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
       the substance and tone of each of the contributor
     acknowledgements    and/or dedications given therein.
     L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
     unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
     or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
     M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements."  Such a section
     may not be included in the Modified Version.
     N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
     "Endorsements"    or to conflict in title with any Invariant
     Section.
     O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements," provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties-for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
     been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition
     of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements," and any sections Entitled "Dedications."  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
     prevail.

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements,"
     "Dedications," or "History," the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.

  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other
     attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is
     void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
     License.  However, parties who have received copies, or rights,
     from you under this License will not have their licenses
     terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
     http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.


ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

     Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
     under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
     or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
     with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
     A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
     Free Documentation License.''

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

     with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
     Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being
     LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.

File: emacs-mime,  Node: Index,  Prev: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Top

7 Index
*******

[index]
* Menu:

* Apple:                                 binhex.              (line   6)
* base64:                                base64.              (line   6)
* base64-decode-region:                  base64.              (line  21)
* base64-decode-string:                  base64.              (line  26)
* base64-encode-region:                  base64.              (line  13)
* base64-encode-string:                  base64.              (line  18)
* binhex <1>:                            binhex.              (line   6)
* binhex:                                Non-MIME.            (line  21)
* binhex-decode-region:                  binhex.              (line  10)
* charsets:                              Charset Translation. (line   6)
* Chinese:                               rfc1843.             (line   6)
* Composing:                             Composing.           (line   6)
* diff:                                  Non-MIME.            (line  49)
* emacs-sources:                         Non-MIME.            (line  45)
* format=flowed:                         Flowed text.         (line   6)
* forward:                               Non-MIME.            (line  30)
* gnatsweb:                              Non-MIME.            (line  33)
* HZ:                                    rfc1843.             (line   6)
* ietf-drums-get-comment:                ietf-drums.          (line  19)
* ietf-drums-narrow-to-header:           ietf-drums.          (line  33)
* ietf-drums-parse-address:              ietf-drums.          (line  22)
* ietf-drums-parse-addresses:            ietf-drums.          (line  26)
* ietf-drums-parse-date:                 ietf-drums.          (line  30)
* ietf-drums-remove-comments:            ietf-drums.          (line  12)
* ietf-drums-remove-whitespace:          ietf-drums.          (line  15)
* interface functions:                   Interface Functions. (line   6)
* Macintosh:                             binhex.              (line   6)
* mail-content-type-get:                 Interface Functions. (line  54)
* mail-decode-encoded-word-region:       Interface Functions. (line 142)
* mail-decode-encoded-word-string:       Interface Functions. (line 145)
* mail-encode-encoded-word-buffer:       Interface Functions. (line 130)
* mail-encode-encoded-word-region:       Interface Functions. (line 126)
* mail-encode-encoded-word-string:       Interface Functions. (line 134)
* mail-header-encode-parameter:          Interface Functions. (line  62)
* mail-header-field-value:               Interface Functions. (line 123)
* mail-header-fold-field:                Interface Functions. (line 117)
* mail-header-get-comment:               Interface Functions. (line  82)
* mail-header-narrow-to-field:           Interface Functions. (line 113)
* mail-header-parse-address:             Interface Functions. (line  89)
* mail-header-parse-addresses:           Interface Functions. (line  97)
* mail-header-parse-content-disposition: Interface Functions. (line  50)
* mail-header-parse-content-type:        Interface Functions. (line  35)
* mail-header-parse-date:                Interface Functions. (line 106)
* mail-header-remove-comments:           Interface Functions. (line  67)
* mail-header-remove-whitespace:         Interface Functions. (line  74)
* mail-header-unfold-field:              Interface Functions. (line 120)
* mail-narrow-to-head:                   Interface Functions. (line 109)
* mail-parse:                            Interface Functions. (line   6)
* mail-parse-charset:                    Charset Translation. (line   9)
* mailcap-mime-data:                     mailcap.             (line  22)
* mailcap-parse-mailcaps:                mailcap.             (line  29)
* MIME Composing:                        Composing.           (line   6)
* MIME Meta Language:                    Composing.           (line   6)
* mime-to-mml:                           Conversion.          (line   6)
* mm-attachment-override-types:          Display Customization.
                                                              (line  35)
* mm-automatic-display:                  Display Customization.
                                                              (line  22)
* mm-automatic-display-p:                Display.             (line  18)
* mm-automatic-external-display:         Display Customization.
                                                              (line  27)
* mm-body-charset-encoding-alist:        Encoding Customization.
                                                              (line   7)
* mm-coding-system-priorities:           Encoding Customization.
                                                              (line  24)
* mm-content-transfer-encoding-defaults: Encoding Customization.
                                                              (line  38)
* mm-default-directory:                  Files and Directories.
                                                              (line   7)
* mm-destroy-part:                       Display.             (line  21)
* mm-discouraged-alternatives:           Display Customization.
                                                              (line  42)
* mm-display-part:                       Display.             (line   9)
* mm-enable-external:                    Display Customization.
                                                              (line 126)
* mm-external-terminal-program:          Display Customization.
                                                              (line 123)
* mm-file-name-collapse-whitespace:      Files and Directories.
                                                              (line  33)
* mm-file-name-delete-control:           Files and Directories.
                                                              (line  19)
* mm-file-name-delete-gotchas:           Files and Directories.
                                                              (line  22)
* mm-file-name-delete-whitespace:        Files and Directories.
                                                              (line  27)
* mm-file-name-replace-whitespace:       Files and Directories.
                                                              (line  36)
* mm-file-name-rewrite-functions:        Files and Directories.
                                                              (line  14)
* mm-file-name-trim-whitespace:          Files and Directories.
                                                              (line  30)
* mm-fill-flowed:                        Flowed text.         (line  25)
* mm-handle-buffer:                      Handles.             (line  11)
* mm-handle-disposition:                 Handles.             (line  28)
* mm-handle-encoding:                    Handles.             (line  18)
* mm-handle-set-undisplayer:             Handles.             (line  25)
* mm-handle-type:                        Handles.             (line  15)
* mm-handle-undisplayer:                 Handles.             (line  21)
* mm-inlinable-p:                        Display.             (line  15)
* mm-inline-large-images:                Display Customization.
                                                              (line  77)
* mm-inline-media-tests:                 Display Customization.
                                                              (line   7)
* mm-inline-override-types:              Display Customization.
                                                              (line  87)
* mm-inline-text-html-with-images:       Display Customization.
                                                              (line 104)
* mm-inline-text-html-with-w3m-keymap:   Display Customization.
                                                              (line 119)
* mm-inlined-types:                      Display Customization.
                                                              (line  17)
* mm-interactively-view-part:            Display.             (line  30)
* mm-keep-viewer-alive-types:            Display Customization.
                                                              (line  31)
* mm-mime-mule-charset-alist:            Charset Translation. (line  18)
* mm-path-name-rewrite-functions:        Files and Directories.
                                                              (line  44)
* mm-pipe-part:                          Display.             (line  27)
* mm-remove-part:                        Display.             (line  12)
* mm-save-part:                          Display.             (line  24)
* mm-text-html-renderer:                 Display Customization.
                                                              (line  97)
* mm-tmp-directory:                      Files and Directories.
                                                              (line  11)
* mm-use-ultra-safe-encoding:            Encoding Customization.
                                                              (line  57)
* mm-uu-configure-list:                  Non-MIME.            (line   6)
* mm-uu-diff-groups-regexp:              Non-MIME.            (line  49)
* mm-uu-emacs-sources-regexp:            Non-MIME.            (line  45)
* mm-w3m-safe-url-regexp:                Display Customization.
                                                              (line 113)
* MML:                                   Composing.           (line   6)
* mml-generate-mime:                     Composing.           (line  10)
* mml-to-mime:                           Conversion.          (line  12)
* MULE:                                  Charset Translation. (line  18)
* pgp-encrypted:                         Non-MIME.            (line  39)
* pgp-key:                               Non-MIME.            (line  42)
* pgp-signed:                            Non-MIME.            (line  36)
* postscript:                            Non-MIME.            (line  15)
* quoted-printable-decode-region:        qp.                  (line  16)
* quoted-printable-decode-string:        qp.                  (line  19)
* quoted-printable-encode-region:        qp.                  (line  22)
* quoted-printable-encode-string:        qp.                  (line  27)
* rfc1843:                               rfc1843.             (line   6)
* rfc2045-encode-string:                 rfc2045.             (line  13)
* rfc2047-charset-encoding-alist:        rfc2047.             (line  25)
* rfc2047-decode-region:                 rfc2047.             (line  57)
* rfc2047-decode-string:                 rfc2047.             (line  60)
* rfc2047-encode-encoded-words:          rfc2047.             (line  37)
* rfc2047-encode-function-alist:         rfc2047.             (line  30)
* rfc2047-encode-message-header:         rfc2047.             (line  47)
* rfc2047-encode-parameter:              rfc2047.             (line  63)
* rfc2047-encode-region:                 rfc2047.             (line  51)
* rfc2047-encode-string:                 rfc2047.             (line  54)
* rfc2047-encoded-word-regexp:           rfc2047.             (line  34)
* rfc2047-header-encoding-alist:         rfc2047.             (line  14)
* rfc2047-narrow-to-field:               rfc2047.             (line  44)
* rfc2231-encode-string:                 rfc2231.             (line  39)
* rfc2231-get-value:                     rfc2231.             (line  35)
* rfc2231-parse-string:                  rfc2231.             (line  23)
* shar:                                  Non-MIME.            (line  27)
* Unicode:                               Charset Translation. (line  18)
* UTF-8:                                 Charset Translation. (line  18)
* uu:                                    Non-MIME.            (line  18)
* uudecode:                              uudecode.            (line   6)
* uudecode-decode-region:                uudecode.            (line  12)
* uuencode:                              uudecode.            (line   6)
* yenc <1>:                              yenc.                (line   6)
* yenc:                                  Non-MIME.            (line  24)
* yenc-decode-region:                    yenc.                (line  10)




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