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man : initdb(1)

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INITDB(1)                                        PostgreSQL 9.4.10 Documentation                                       INITDB(1)



NAME
       initdb - create a new PostgreSQL database cluster

SYNOPSIS
       initdb [option...] [--pgdata | -D] directory

DESCRIPTION
       initdb creates a new PostgreSQL database cluster. A database cluster is a collection of databases that are managed by a
       single server instance.

       Creating a database cluster consists of creating the directories in which the database data will live, generating the
       shared catalog tables (tables that belong to the whole cluster rather than to any particular database), and creating the
       template1 and postgres databases. When you later create a new database, everything in the template1 database is copied.
       (Therefore, anything installed in template1 is automatically copied into each database created later.) The postgres
       database is a default database meant for use by users, utilities and third party applications.

       Although initdb will attempt to create the specified data directory, it might not have permission if the parent directory
       of the desired data directory is root-owned. To initialize in such a setup, create an empty data directory as root, then
       use chown to assign ownership of that directory to the database user account, then su to become the database user to run
       initdb.

       initdb must be run as the user that will own the server process, because the server needs to have access to the files and
       directories that initdb creates. Since the server cannot be run as root, you must not run initdb as root either. (It will
       in fact refuse to do so.)

       initdb initializes the database cluster's default locale and character set encoding. The character set encoding,
       collation order (LC_COLLATE) and character set classes (LC_CTYPE, e.g. upper, lower, digit) can be set separately for a
       database when it is created.  initdb determines those settings for the template1 database, which will serve as the
       default for all other databases.

       To alter the default collation order or character set classes, use the --lc-collate and --lc-ctype options. Collation
       orders other than C or POSIX also have a performance penalty. For these reasons it is important to choose the right
       locale when running initdb.

       The remaining locale categories can be changed later when the server is started. You can also use --locale to set the
       default for all locale categories, including collation order and character set classes. All server locale values (lc_*)
       can be displayed via SHOW ALL. More details can be found in Section 22.1, "Locale Support", in the documentation.

       To alter the default encoding, use the --encoding. More details can be found in Section 22.3, "Character Set Support", in
       the documentation.

OPTIONS
       -A authmethod
       --auth=authmethod
           This option specifies the authentication method for local users used in pg_hba.conf (host and local lines). Do not
           use trust unless you trust all local users on your system.  trust is the default for ease of installation.

       --auth-host=authmethod
           This option specifies the authentication method for local users via TCP/IP connections used in pg_hba.conf (host
           lines).

       --auth-local=authmethod
           This option specifies the authentication method for local users via Unix-domain socket connections used in
           pg_hba.conf (local lines).

       -D directory
       --pgdata=directory
           This option specifies the directory where the database cluster should be stored. This is the only information
           required by initdb, but you can avoid writing it by setting the PGDATA environment variable, which can be convenient
           since the database server (postgres) can find the database directory later by the same variable.

       -E encoding
       --encoding=encoding
           Selects the encoding of the template database. This will also be the default encoding of any database you create
           later, unless you override it there. The default is derived from the locale, or SQL_ASCII if that does not work. The
           character sets supported by the PostgreSQL server are described in Section 22.3.1, "Supported Character Sets", in the
           documentation.

       -k
       --data-checksums
           Use checksums on data pages to help detect corruption by the I/O system that would otherwise be silent. Enabling
           checksums may incur a noticeable performance penalty. This option can only be set during initialization, and cannot
           be changed later. If set, checksums are calculated for all objects, in all databases.

       --locale=locale
           Sets the default locale for the database cluster. If this option is not specified, the locale is inherited from the
           environment that initdb runs in. Locale support is described in Section 22.1, "Locale Support", in the documentation.

       --lc-collate=locale
       --lc-ctype=locale
       --lc-messages=locale
       --lc-monetary=locale
       --lc-numeric=locale
       --lc-time=locale
           Like --locale, but only sets the locale in the specified category.

       --no-locale
           Equivalent to --locale=C.

       -N
       --nosync
           By default, initdb will wait for all files to be written safely to disk. This option causes initdb to return without
           waiting, which is faster, but means that a subsequent operating system crash can leave the data directory corrupt.
           Generally, this option is useful for testing, but should not be used when creating a production installation.

       --pwfile=filename
           Makes initdb read the database superuser's password from a file. The first line of the file is taken as the password.

       -S
       --sync-only
           Safely write all database files to disk and exit. This does not perform any of the normal initdb operations.

       -T CFG
       --text-search-config=CFG
           Sets the default text search configuration. See default_text_search_config for further information.

       -U username
       --username=username
           Selects the user name of the database superuser. This defaults to the name of the effective user running initdb. It
           is really not important what the superuser's name is, but one might choose to keep the customary name postgres, even
           if the operating system user's name is different.

       -W
       --pwprompt
           Makes initdb prompt for a password to give the database superuser. If you don't plan on using password
           authentication, this is not important. Otherwise you won't be able to use password authentication until you have a
           password set up.

       -X directory
       --xlogdir=directory
           This option specifies the directory where the transaction log should be stored.

       Other, less commonly used, options are also available:

       -d
       --debug
           Print debugging output from the bootstrap backend and a few other messages of lesser interest for the general public.
           The bootstrap backend is the program initdb uses to create the catalog tables. This option generates a tremendous
           amount of extremely boring output.

       -L directory
           Specifies where initdb should find its input files to initialize the database cluster. This is normally not
           necessary. You will be told if you need to specify their location explicitly.

       -n
       --noclean
           By default, when initdb determines that an error prevented it from completely creating the database cluster, it
           removes any files it might have created before discovering that it cannot finish the job. This option inhibits
           tidying-up and is thus useful for debugging.

       Other options:

       -V
       --version
           Print the initdb version and exit.

       -?
       --help
           Show help about initdb command line arguments, and exit.

ENVIRONMENT
       PGDATA
           Specifies the directory where the database cluster is to be stored; can be overridden using the -D option.

       TZ
           Specifies the default time zone of the created database cluster. The value should be a full time zone name (see
           Section 8.5.3, "Time Zones", in the documentation).

       This utility, like most other PostgreSQL utilities, also uses the environment variables supported by libpq (see Section
       31.14, "Environment Variables", in the documentation).

NOTES
       initdb can also be invoked via pg_ctl initdb.

SEE ALSO
       pg_ctl(1), postgres(1)



PostgreSQL 9.4.10                                             2016                                                     INITDB(1)


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