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LOCALE(5)                               Linux User Manual                               LOCALE(5)



NAME
       locale - describes a locale definition file

DESCRIPTION
       The  locale  definition  file  contains  all the information that the localedef(1) command
       needs to convert it into the binary locale database.

       The definition files consist of sections which each describe a locale category in detail.

   Syntax
       The locale definition file starts with a header that may consist  of  the  following  key‐
       words:

       <escape_char>
              is followed by a character that should be used as the escape-character for the rest
              of the file to mark characters that should be interpreted in  a  special  way.   It
              defaults to the backslash (\).

       <comment_char>
              is  followed by a character that will be used as the comment-character for the rest
              of the file.  It defaults to the number sign (#).

       The locale definition has one part for each locale category.  Each part can be copied from
       another existing locale or can be defined from scratch.  If the category should be copied,
       the only valid keyword in the definition is copy followed by the name of the locale  which
       should be copied.

   Locale category sections
       The following category sections are defined by POSIX:

       *  LC_CTYPE

       *  LC_COLLATE

       *  LC_MESSAGES

       *  LC_MONETARY

       *  LC_NUMERIC

       *  LC_TIME

       In addition, since version 2.2, the GNU C library supports the following nonstandard cate‐
       gories:

       *  LC_ADDRESS

       *  LC_IDENTIFICATION

       *  LC_MEASUREMENT

       *  LC_NAME

       *  LC_PAPER

       *  LC_TELEPHONE

   LC_ADDRESS
       The definition starts with the string LC_ADDRESS in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       postal_fmt
              followed by a string containing field descriptors that define the format  used  for
              postal addresses in the locale.  The following field descriptors are recognized:

              %a     Care of person, or organization.

              %f     Firm name.

              %d     Department name.

              %b     Building name.

              %s     Street or block (e.g., Japanese) name.

              %h     House number or designation.

              %N     Insert  an  end-of-line  if the previous descriptor's value was not an empty
                     string; otherwise ignore.

              %t     Insert a space if the previous descriptor's value was not an  empty  string;
                     otherwise ignore.

              %r     Room number, door designation.

              %e     Floor number.

              %C     Country designation, from the <country_post> keyword.

              %z     Zip number, postal code.

              %T     Town, city.

              %S     State, province, or prefecture.

              %c     Country, as taken from data record.

              Each field descriptor may have an 'R' after the '%' to specify that the information
              is taken from a Romanized version string of the entity.


       country_name
              followed by the country name  in  the  language  of  the  current  document  (e.g.,
              "Deutschland" for the de_DE locale).

       country_post
              followed by the abbreviation of the country (see CERT_MAILCODES).

       country_ab2
              followed by the two-letter abbreviation of the country (ISO 3166).

       country_ab3
              followed by the three-letter abbreviation of the country (ISO 3166).

       country_num
              followed by the numeric country code (ISO 3166).

       country_car
              followed by the code for the country car number.

       country_isbn
              followed by the ISBN code (for books).

       lang_name
              followed by the language name in the language of the current document.

       lang_ab
              followed by the two-letter abbreviation of the language (ISO 639).

       lang_term
              followed by the three-letter abbreviation of the language (ISO 639-2/T).

       lang_lib
              followed  by  the  three-letter  abbreviation  of the language for library use (ISO
              639-2/B).  Applications should in general prefer lang_term over lang_lib.

       The LC_ADDRESS definition ends with the string END LC_ADDRESS.

   LC_CTYPE
       The definition starts with the string LC_CTYPE in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       upper  followed by a list of uppercase letters.  The letters  A  through  Z  are  included
              automatically.   Characters also specified as cntrl, digit, punct, or space are not
              allowed.

       lower  followed by a list of lowercase letters.  The letters  a  through  z  are  included
              automatically.   Characters also specified as cntrl, digit, punct, or space are not
              allowed.

       alpha  followed by a list of letters.  All character specified as either  upper  or  lower
              are  automatically  included.  Characters also specified as cntrl, digit, punct, or
              space are not allowed.

       digit  followed by the characters classified as numeric digits.  Only the digits 0 through
              9 are allowed.  They are included by default in this class.

       space  followed  by  a  list  of characters defined as white-space characters.  Characters
              also specified as upper, lower, alpha, digit, graph, or  xdigit  are  not  allowed.
              The characters <space>, <form-feed>, <newline>, <carriage-return>, <tab>, and <ver‐
              tical-tab> are automatically included.

       cntrl  followed by a list of control characters.   Characters  also  specified  as  upper,
              lower, alpha, digit, punct, graph, print, or xdigit are not allowed.

       punct  followed  by a list of punctuation characters.  Characters also specified as upper,
              lower, alpha, digit, cntrl, xdigit, or the <space> character are not allowed.

       graph  followed by a list of printable characters, not including  the  <space>  character.
              The  characters  defined as upper, lower, alpha, digit, xdigit, and punct are auto‐
              matically included.  Characters also specified as cntrl are not allowed.

       print  followed by a list of printable characters, including the <space>  character.   The
              characters  defined  as  upper, lower, alpha, digit, xdigit, punct, and the <space>
              character are automatically included.  Characters also specified as cntrl  are  not
              allowed.

       xdigit followed  by  a  list  of characters classified as hexadecimal digits.  The decimal
              digits must be included followed by one or more set of six characters in  ascending
              order.  The following characters are included by default: 0 through 9, a through f,
              A through F.

       blank  followed by a list of characters classified as blank.  The characters  <space>  and
              <tab> are automatically included.

       toupper
              followed  by  a list of mappings from lowercase to uppercase letters.  Each mapping
              is a pair of a lowercase and an uppercase letter separated with a , and enclosed in
              parentheses.  The members of the list are separated with semicolons.

       tolower
              followed by a list of mappings from uppercase to lowercase letters.  If the keyword
              tolower is not present, the reverse of the toupper list is used.

       The LC_CTYPE definition ends with the string END LC_CTYPE.

   LC_COLLATE
       The LC_COLLATE category defines the rules for collating characters.  Due to limitations of
       libc not all POSIX-options are implemented.

       The definition starts with the string LC_COLLATE in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       collating-element
              followed  by the definition of a collating-element symbol representing a multichar‐
              acter collating element.

       collating-symbol
              followed by the definition of a collating symbol that  can  be  used  in  collation
              order statements.

       The order-definition starts with a line:

       order_start
              followed  by  a  list  of keywords chosen from forward, backward, or position.  The
              order definition consists of lines that describe the order and is  terminated  with
              the keyword order_end.

       The LC_COLLATE definition ends with the string END LC_COLLATE.

   LC_IDENTIFICATION
       This category contains meta-information about the locale definition.

       The definition starts with the string LC_IDENTIFICATION in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       title  followed  by the title of the locale document (e.g., "Maori language locale for New
              Zealand").

       source followed by the name of the organization that maintains this document.

       address
              followed by the address of the organization that maintains this document.

       contact
              followed by the name of the contact person at the organization that maintains  this
              document.

       email  followed  by  the  email  address of the person or organization that maintains this
              document.

       tel    followed by the telephone number (in international format) of the organization that
              maintains this document.

       fax    followed by the fax number (in international format) of the organization that main‐
              tains this document.

       language
              followed by the name of the language to which this document applies.

       territory
              followed by the name of  the  country/geographic  extent  to  which  this  document
              applies.

       audience
              followed by a description of the audience for which this document is intended.

       application
              followed  by  a  description  of any special application for which this document is
              intended.

       abbreviation
              followed by the short name for this document.

       revision
              followed by the revision number of this document.

       date   followed by the revision date of this document.

       In addition, for each of the categories defined by the document, there should  be  a  line
       starting with the keyword category, followed by:

       *  a string that identifies this locale category definition,

       *  a semicolon, and

       *  one of the LC_* identifiers.

       The LC_IDENTIFICATION definition ends with the string END LC_IDENTIFICATION.

   LC_MESSAGES
       The definition starts with the string LC_MESSAGES in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       yesexpr
              followed by a regular expression that describes possible yes-responses.

       noexpr followed by a regular expression that describes possible no-responses.

       yesstr followed by the output string corresponding to "yes".

       nostr  followed by the output string corresponding to "no".

       The LC_MESSAGES definition ends with the string END LC_MESSAGES.

   LC_MEASUREMENT
       The definition starts with the string LC_MEASUREMENT in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       measurement
              followed  by  number  identifying the standard used for measurement.  The following
              values are recognized:

              1      Metric.

              2      US customary measurements.

       The LC_MEASUREMENT definition ends with the string END LC_MEASUREMENT.

   LC_MONETARY
       The definition starts with the string LC_MONETARY in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       int_curr_symbol
              followed by the international currency symbol.  This must be a  4-character  string
              containing  the  international  currency symbol as defined by the ISO 4217 standard
              (three characters) followed by a separator.

       currency_symbol
              followed by the local currency symbol.

       mon_decimal_point
              followed by the string that will be used as the decimal delimiter  when  formatting
              monetary quantities.

       mon_thousands_sep
              followed by the string that will be used as a group separator when formatting mone‐
              tary quantities.

       mon_grouping
              followed by a sequence of integers separated by semicolons that describe  the  for‐
              matting of monetary quantities.  See grouping below for details.

       positive_sign
              followed  by a string that is used to indicate a positive sign for monetary quanti‐
              ties.

       negative_sign
              followed by a string that is used to indicate a negative sign for monetary  quanti‐
              ties.

       int_frac_digits
              followed  by  the  number  of fractional digits that should be used when formatting
              with the int_curr_symbol.

       frac_digits
              followed by the number of fractional digits that should  be  used  when  formatting
              with the currency_symbol.

       p_cs_precedes
              followed  by  an integer that indicates the placement of currency_symbol for a non‐
              negative formatted monetary quantity:

              0      the symbol succeeds the value.

              1      the symbol precedes the value.

       n_cs_precedes
              followed by an integer that indicates the placement of currency_symbol for a  nega‐
              tive  formatted monetary quantity.  The same values are recognized as for p_cs_pre‐
              cedes.

       int_p_cs_precedes
              followed by an integer that indicates the placement of  int_currency_symbol  for  a
              nonnegative  internationally formatted monetary quantity.  The same values are rec‐
              ognized as for p_cs_precedes.

       int_n_cs_precedes
              followed by an integer that indicates the placement of  int_currency_symbol  for  a
              negative  internationally  formatted monetary quantity.  The same values are recog‐
              nized as for p_cs_precedes.

       p_sep_by_space
              followed by an integer that indicates the separation of currency_symbol,  the  sign
              string, and the value for a nonnegative formatted monetary quantity.  The following
              values are recognized:

              0      No space separates the currency symbol and the value.

              1      If the currency symbol and the sign string are adjacent, a  space  separates
                     them from the value; otherwise a space separates the currency symbol and the
                     value.

              2      If the currency symbol and the sign string are adjacent, a  space  separates
                     them  from  the  value;  otherwise a space separates the sign string and the
                     value.

       n_sep_by_space
              followed by an integer that indicates the separation of currency_symbol,  the  sign
              string,  and the value for a negative formatted monetary quantity.  The same values
              are recognized as for p_sep_by_space.

       int_p_sep_by_space
              followed by an integer that indicates the separation  of  int_currency_symbol,  the
              sign  string,  and  the  value for a nonnegative internationally formatted monetary
              quantity.  The same values are recognized as for p_sep_by_space.

       int_n_sep_by_space
              followed by an integer that indicates the separation  of  int_currency_symbol,  the
              sign  string, and the value for a negative internationally formatted monetary quan‐
              tity.  The same values are recognized as for p_sep_by_space.

       p_sign_posn
              followed by an integer that indicates where the positive_sign should be placed  for
              a nonnegative monetary quantity:

              0      Parentheses enclose the quantity and the currency_symbol or int_curr_symbol.

              1      The  sign  string  precedes  the  quantity  and  the  currency_symbol or the
                     int_curr_symbol.

              2      The sign string  succeeds  the  quantity  and  the  currency_symbol  or  the
                     int_curr_symbol.

              3      The sign string precedes the currency_symbol or the int_curr_symbol.

              4      The sign string succeeds the currency_symbol or the int_curr_symbol.

       n_sign_posn
              followed  by an integer that indicates where the negative_sign should be placed for
              a negative monetary quantity.  The same values are recognized as for p_sign_posn.

       int_p_sign_posn
              followed by an integer that indicates where the negative_sign should be placed  for
              a  nonnegative  internationally  formatted  monetary quantity.  The same values are
              recognized as for p_sign_posn.

       int_n_sign_posn
              followed by an integer that indicates where the negative_sign should be placed  for
              a negative internationally formatted monetary quantity.  The same values are recog‐
              nized as for p_sign_posn.

       The LC_MONETARY definition ends with the string END LC_MONETARY.

   LC_NAME
       The definition starts with the string LC_NAME in the first column.

       Various keywords are allowed, but only name_fmt is mandatory.  Other keywords  are  needed
       only  if  there  is  common convention to use the corresponding salutation in this locale.
       The allowed keywords are as follows:

       name_fmt
              followed by a string containing field descriptors that define the format  used  for
              names in the locale.  The following field descriptors are recognized:

              %f     Family name(s).

              %F     Family names in uppercase.

              %g     First given name.

              %G     First given initial.

              %l     First given name with Latin letters.

              %o     Other shorter name.

              %m     Additional given name(s).

              %M     Initials for additional given name(s).

              %p     Profession.

              %s     Salutation, such as "Doctor".

              %S     Abbreviated salutation, such as "Mr." or "Dr.".

              %d     Salutation, using the FDCC-sets conventions.

              %t     If  the  preceding  field  descriptor  resulted in an empty string, then the
                     empty string, otherwise a space character.

       name_gen
              followed by the general salutation for any gender.

       name_mr
              followed by the salutation for men.

       name_mrs
              followed by the salutation for married women.

       name_miss
              followed by the salutation for unmarried women.

       name_ms
              followed by the salutation valid for all women.

       The LC_NAME definition ends with the string END LC_NAME.

   LC_NUMERIC
       The definition starts with the string LC_NUMERIC in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       decimal_point
              followed by the string that will be used as the decimal delimiter  when  formatting
              numeric quantities.

       thousands_sep
              followed  by  the  string  that  will  be used as a group separator when formatting
              numeric quantities.

       grouping
              followed by a sequence of integers separated by semicolons that describe  the  for‐
              matting of numeric quantities.

              Each  integer specifies the number of digits in a group.  The first integer defines
              the size of the group immediately to the left of the decimal delimiter.  Subsequent
              integers  define  succeeding groups to the left of the previous group.  If the last
              integer is not -1, then the size of the previous group (if any) is repeatedly  used
              for the remainder of the digits.  If the last integer is -1, then no further group‐
              ing is performed.

       The LC_NUMERIC definition ends with the string END LC_NUMERIC.

   LC_PAPER
       The definition starts with the string LC_PAPER in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       height followed by the height, in millimeters, of the standard paper format.

       width  followed by the width, in millimeters, of the standard paper format.

       The LC_PAPER definition ends with the string END LC_PAPER.

   LC_TELEPHONE
       The definition starts with the string LC_TELEPHONE in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       tel_int_fmt
              followed by a string that contains field descriptors that identify the format  used
              to dial international numbers.  The following field descriptors are recognized:

              %a     Area code without nationwide prefix (the prefix is often "00").

              %A     Area code including nationwide prefix.

              %l     Local number (within area code).

              %e     Extension (to local number).

              %c     Country code.

              %C     Alternate carrier service code used for dialing abroad.

              %t     If  the  preceding  field  descriptor  resulted in an empty string, then the
                     empty string, otherwise a space character.

       tel_dom_fmt
              followed by a string that contains field descriptors that identify the format  used
              to  dial  domestic  numbers.   The recognized field descriptors are the same as for
              tel_int_fmt.

       int_select
              followed by the prefix used to call international phone numbers.

       int_prefix
              followed by the prefix used from other countries to dial this country.

       The LC_TELEPHONE definition ends with the string END LC_TELEPHONE.

   LC_TIME
       The definition starts with the string LC_TIME in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       abday  followed by a list of abbreviated names of the days of the week.  The  list  starts
              with  the  first  day  of  the  week as specified by week (Sunday by default).  See
              NOTES.

       day    followed by a list of names of the days of the week.   The  list  starts  with  the
              first day of the week as specified by week (Sunday by default).  See NOTES.

       abmon  followed by a list of abbreviated month names.

       mon    followed by a list of month names.

       am_pm  followed  by  the appropriate representation of the am and pm strings.  This should
              be left empty for locales not using AM/PM convention.

       d_t_fmt
              followed by the appropriate date and time format.

       d_fmt  followed by the appropriate date format.

       t_fmt  followed by the appropriate time format.

       t_fmt_ampm
              followed by the appropriate time format when using 12h clock format.   This  should
              be left empty for locales not using AM/PM convention.

       week   followed  by a list of three values: The number of days in a week (by default 7), a
              date of beginning of the week (by default corresponds to Sunday), and  the  minimal
              length  of the first week in year (by default 4).  Regarding the start of the week,
              19971130 shall be used for Sunday and 19971201  shall  be  used  for  Monday.   See
              NOTES.

       first_weekday (since glibc 2.2)
              followed  by  the number of the first day from the day list to be shown in calendar
              applications.  The default value of  1  corresponds  to  either  Sunday  or  Monday
              depending on the value of the second week list item.  See NOTES.

       first_workday (since glibc 2.2)
              followed  by  the  number  of the first working day from the day list.  The default
              value is 2.  See NOTES.

       cal_direction
              followed by a value that indicates the direction for the display of calendar dates,
              as follows:

              1      Left-right from top.

              2      Top-down from left.

              3      Right-left from top.

       date_fmt
              followed by the appropriate date representation for date(1).

       The LC_TIME definition ends with the string END LC_TIME.

FILES
       /usr/lib/locale/locale-archive
              Usual default locale archive location.

       /usr/share/i18n/locales
              Usual default path for locale definition files.

CONFORMING TO
       POSIX.2, ISO/IEC TR 14652.

NOTES
       The  collective  GNU C library community wisdom regarding abday, day, week, first_weekday,
       and first_workday states at https://sourceware.org/glibc/wiki/Locales the following:

       *  The value of the second week list item specifies the base of the abday and day lists.

       *  first_weekday specifies the offset of the first day-of-week in the abday and day lists.

       *  For compatibility reasons, all glibc locales should set the value of  the  second  week
          list  item to 19971130 (Sunday) and base the abday and day lists appropriately, and set
          first_weekday to 1 or 2, depending on whether the week actually  starts  on  Sunday  or
          Monday for the locale.

BUGS
       This manual page isn't complete.

SEE ALSO
       locale(1),   localedef(1),   localeconv(3),   newlocale(3),   setlocale(3),  uselocale(3),
       charmap(5), charsets(7), locale(7), unicode(7), utf-8(7)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.74 of the Linux man-pages project.  A  description  of  the
       project,  information  about  reporting  bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be
       found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.



Linux                                       2014-06-13                                  LOCALE(5)


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