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man : pg_ctl(1)

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PG_CTL(1)                                         PostgreSQL 10.3 Documentation                                        PG_CTL(1)

       pg_ctl - initialize, start, stop, or control a PostgreSQL server

       pg_ctl init[db] [-D datadir] [-s] [-o initdb-options]

       pg_ctl start [-D datadir] [-l filename] [-W] [-t seconds] [-s] [-o options] [-p path] [-c]

       pg_ctl stop [-D datadir] [-m s[mart] | f[ast] | i[mmediate]] [-W] [-t seconds] [-s]

       pg_ctl restart [-D datadir] [-m s[mart] | f[ast] | i[mmediate]] [-W] [-t seconds] [-s] [-o options] [-c]

       pg_ctl reload [-D datadir] [-s]

       pg_ctl status [-D datadir]

       pg_ctl promote [-D datadir] [-W] [-t seconds] [-s]

       pg_ctl kill signal_name process_id

       On Microsoft Windows, also:

       pg_ctl register [-D datadir] [-N servicename] [-U username] [-P password] [-S a[uto] | d[emand]] [-e source] [-W]
              [-t seconds] [-s] [-o options]

       pg_ctl unregister [-N servicename]

       pg_ctl is a utility for initializing a PostgreSQL database cluster, starting, stopping, or restarting the PostgreSQL
       database server (postgres(1)), or displaying the status of a running server. Although the server can be started manually,
       pg_ctl encapsulates tasks such as redirecting log output and properly detaching from the terminal and process group. It
       also provides convenient options for controlled shutdown.

       The init or initdb mode creates a new PostgreSQL database cluster, that is, a collection of databases that will be
       managed by a single server instance. This mode invokes the initdb command. See initdb(1) for details.

       start mode launches a new server. The server is started in the background, and its standard input is attached to
       /dev/null (or nul on Windows). On Unix-like systems, by default, the server's standard output and standard error are sent
       to pg_ctl's standard output (not standard error). The standard output of pg_ctl should then be redirected to a file or
       piped to another process such as a log rotating program like rotatelogs; otherwise postgres will write its output to the
       controlling terminal (from the background) and will not leave the shell's process group. On Windows, by default the
       server's standard output and standard error are sent to the terminal. These default behaviors can be changed by using -l
       to append the server's output to a log file. Use of either -l or output redirection is recommended.

       stop mode shuts down the server that is running in the specified data directory. Three different shutdown methods can be
       selected with the -m option.  “Smart” mode waits for all active clients to disconnect and any online backup to finish. If
       the server is in hot standby, recovery and streaming replication will be terminated once all clients have disconnected.
       “Fast” mode (the default) does not wait for clients to disconnect and will terminate an online backup in progress. All
       active transactions are rolled back and clients are forcibly disconnected, then the server is shut down.  “Immediate”
       mode will abort all server processes immediately, without a clean shutdown. This choice will lead to a crash-recovery
       cycle during the next server start.

       restart mode effectively executes a stop followed by a start. This allows changing the postgres command-line options, or
       changing configuration-file options that cannot be changed without restarting the server. If relative paths were used on
       the command line during server start, restart might fail unless pg_ctl is executed in the same current directory as it
       was during server start.

       reload mode simply sends the postgres server process a SIGHUP signal, causing it to reread its configuration files
       (postgresql.conf, pg_hba.conf, etc.). This allows changing configuration-file options that do not require a full server
       restart to take effect.

       status mode checks whether a server is running in the specified data directory. If it is, the server's PID and the
       command line options that were used to invoke it are displayed. If the server is not running, pg_ctl returns an exit
       status of 3. If an accessible data directory is not specified, pg_ctl returns an exit status of 4.

       promote mode commands the standby server that is running in the specified data directory to end standby mode and begin
       read-write operations.

       kill mode sends a signal to a specified process. This is primarily valuable on Microsoft Windows which does not have a
       built-in kill command. Use --help to see a list of supported signal names.

       register mode registers the PostgreSQL server as a system service on Microsoft Windows. The -S option allows selection of
       service start type, either “auto” (start service automatically on system startup) or “demand” (start service on demand).

       unregister mode unregisters a system service on Microsoft Windows. This undoes the effects of the register command.

           Attempt to allow server crashes to produce core files, on platforms where this is possible, by lifting any soft
           resource limit placed on core files. This is useful in debugging or diagnosing problems by allowing a stack trace to
           be obtained from a failed server process.

       -D datadir
           Specifies the file system location of the database configuration files. If this option is omitted, the environment
           variable PGDATA is used.

       -l filename
           Append the server log output to filename. If the file does not exist, it is created. The umask is set to 077, so
           access to the log file is disallowed to other users by default.

       -m mode
           Specifies the shutdown mode.  mode can be smart, fast, or immediate, or the first letter of one of these three. If
           this option is omitted, fast is the default.

       -o options
           Specifies options to be passed directly to the postgres command.  -o can be specified multiple times, with all the
           given options being passed through.

           The options should usually be surrounded by single or double quotes to ensure that they are passed through as a

       -o initdb-options
           Specifies options to be passed directly to the initdb command.  -o can be specified multiple times, with all the
           given options being passed through.

           The options should usually be surrounded by single or double quotes to ensure that they are passed through as a

       -p path
           Specifies the location of the postgres executable. By default the postgres executable is taken from the same
           directory as pg_ctl, or failing that, the hard-wired installation directory. It is not necessary to use this option
           unless you are doing something unusual and get errors that the postgres executable was not found.

           In init mode, this option analogously specifies the location of the initdb executable.

           Print only errors, no informational messages.

       -t seconds
           Specifies the maximum number of seconds to wait when waiting for an operation to complete (see option -w). Defaults
           to the value of the PGCTLTIMEOUT environment variable or, if not set, to 60 seconds.

           Print the pg_ctl version and exit.

           Wait for the operation to complete. This is supported for the modes start, stop, restart, promote, and register, and
           is the default for those modes.

           When waiting, pg_ctl repeatedly checks the server's PID file, sleeping for a short amount of time between checks.
           Startup is considered complete when the PID file indicates that the server is ready to accept connections. Shutdown
           is considered complete when the server removes the PID file.  pg_ctl returns an exit code based on the success of the
           startup or shutdown.

           If the operation does not complete within the timeout (see option -t), then pg_ctl exits with a nonzero exit status.
           But note that the operation might continue in the background and eventually succeed.

           Do not wait for the operation to complete. This is the opposite of the option -w.

           If waiting is disabled, the requested action is triggered, but there is no feedback about its success. In that case,
           the server log file or an external monitoring system would have to be used to check the progress and success of the

           In prior releases of PostgreSQL, this was the default except for the stop mode.

           Show help about pg_ctl command line arguments, and exit.

       If an option is specified that is valid, but not relevant to the selected operating mode, pg_ctl ignores it.

   Options for Windows
       -e source
           Name of the event source for pg_ctl to use for logging to the event log when running as a Windows service. The
           default is PostgreSQL. Note that this only controls messages sent from pg_ctl itself; once started, the server will
           use the event source specified by its event_source parameter. Should the server fail very early in startup, before
           that parameter has been set, it might also log using the default event source name PostgreSQL.

       -N servicename
           Name of the system service to register. This name will be used as both the service name and the display name. The
           default is PostgreSQL.

       -P password
           Password for the user to run the service as.

       -S start-type
           Start type of the system service.  start-type can be auto, or demand, or the first letter of one of these two. If
           this option is omitted, auto is the default.

       -U username
           User name for the user to run the service as. For domain users, use the format DOMAIN\username.

           Default limit on the number of seconds to wait when waiting for startup or shutdown to complete. If not set, the
           default is 60 seconds.

           Default data directory location.

       Most pg_ctl modes require knowing the data directory location; therefore, the -D option is required unless PGDATA is set.

       pg_ctl, like most other PostgreSQL utilities, also uses the environment variables supported by libpq (see Section 33.14).

       For additional variables that affect the server, see postgres(1).

           pg_ctl examines this file in the data directory to determine whether the server is currently running.

           If this file exists in the data directory, pg_ctl (in restart mode) will pass the contents of the file as options to
           postgres, unless overridden by the -o option. The contents of this file are also displayed in status mode.

   Starting the Server
       To start the server, waiting until the server is accepting connections:

           $ pg_ctl start

       To start the server using port 5433, and running without fsync, use:

           $ pg_ctl -o "-F -p 5433" start

   Stopping the Server
       To stop the server, use:

           $ pg_ctl stop

       The -m option allows control over how the server shuts down:

           $ pg_ctl stop -m smart

   Restarting the Server
       Restarting the server is almost equivalent to stopping the server and starting it again, except that by default, pg_ctl
       saves and reuses the command line options that were passed to the previously-running instance. To restart the server
       using the same options as before, use:

           $ pg_ctl restart

       But if -o is specified, that replaces any previous options. To restart using port 5433, disabling fsync upon restart:

           $ pg_ctl -o "-F -p 5433" restart

   Showing the Server Status
       Here is sample status output from pg_ctl:

           $ pg_ctl status
           pg_ctl: server is running (PID: 13718)
           /usr/local/pgsql/bin/postgres "-D" "/usr/local/pgsql/data" "-p" "5433" "-B" "128"

       The second line is the command that would be invoked in restart mode.

       initdb(1), postgres(1)

PostgreSQL 10.3                                               2018                                                     PG_CTL(1)

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